Cafius bistriatus (Erichson)

Yoo, In-Seong, Frank, J. H., Jung, Jong-Kuen & Ahn, Kee-Jeong, 2022, Integrative taxonomy of coastal Cafius bistriatus (Erichson) species complex (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), ZooKeys 1100, pp. 57-70 : 57

publication ID

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Cafius bistriatus (Erichson)


Cafius bistriatus (Erichson)

Figs 1A View Figure 1 , 2A, D View Figure 2 , 3A, D View Figure 3 , 4 View Figure 4 , 5 View Figure 5

Philonthus bistriatus Erichson, 1840: 502. [Type locality: Americae septentrionalis Insula Longa (Long-Island); 1 syntype in MFNB].

Philonthus bilineatus Erichson, 1840: 503. [Type locality: Americae meridionalis Insula Antiguae, St. Johannis (St. John’s, the capital of Antigua); 1 syntype in MFNB].

Cafius bistriatus fulgens Frank, 1986: 153 [in Frank et al. 1986] ( Cafius ; subspecies of Cafius bistriatus bistriatus ). [Type locality: Mexico: Baja California Sur: Mulege]. new synonym. See Herman (2001) for the detailed synonymy.

Type specimens examined.

1 syntype, "6155 || Cafius bilineatus | Typus | Er. f. 503. || Antigua | Moritz 5.5 || Philonthus | Philonthus bilineatus || = Cafius bistriatus Er." (MFNB); 1 syntype, "6152 || Cafius bistriatus | Typus | Er. f. 502 || Long. 75(2. | Zimmerman | 5.5. || = Cafius bilineatus Er. | sec. Fauvel || Cafius bistriatus | Er." (MFNB).

Other specimens examined.

Canada: 6 exx., Nova Scotia, Cape Breton H. N. P. Presqu’île, 3 m, PG562728 View Materials , 13.IX.1984 \ J. M. Campbell & A. Davies, sifting beach wrack ; 1 ex., Nova Scotia, Cape Breton H. N. P. Ingonish N. Bay, PG984711 View Materials \ 29.VI.1983, L. LeSage, LL54 TP18, seashore wrack; 2 exx., Nova Scotia, Cape Breton H. N. P. Pleasant Bay \ 27.V.1984, L. Masner, seabeach kelp; 2 exx., Nova Scotia, Cape Breton H. N. P. Pleasant Bay , seashore kelp\ 29.VII.1983, D.E., J.E. Bright pans; 4 exx., N. S. Cape Breton Highl. N. P. 25 km SE Cap Rouge, 14.VI.84, A. Smetana ; 1 ex., C. I.\Schwarz; 1 ex., New Brunswick, Passamaquoddy Bay, Pottery Bch. , 29.VII.1976, M.J. Dadswell ; 1 ex., New Brunswick, Passamaquoddy Bay, Pottery Bch. , 29.VII.1976, M.J. Dadswell ; 1 ex., QUE: St. Adelaide 0.5 mi. W. Sandy Beach Stn. , 21.VIII.1953, E.L.Bousfield; 3 exx., QUE., 4 mi. S. Riviėre-à-Claude, VII-18-1972, 200', J.M. Campbell; 5 exx., N. S. Point Aconi, VIII-13-1972, J.M. & BA Campbell; 5 exx., N. S. Big Bras d’Or, VII-25-1972, J.M. Campbell ; 1 ex., Kouchibouguac N. P., N. B., 1.VI.1977, S.J. Miller, Code-5195U\ Cafius bistriatus Er. Det. J.M. Campbell 1978 ; 1 ex., Kouchibouguac N. P., N. B., 13.IX.1977, J.M. Campbell, Code-5953Y. Jamaica: 2 exx., JA., Clarendon P., Jackson’s Bay, 12.XII.1972, J. Peck \Sifting algae on beach; 8 exx., JA., St. Ann Runaway Bay, 22.VIII.1974, S. Peck, beach drift; 10 exx., JA. St. Catherine , 7mi. SE. Sp. town , Hellshire Beach, 27.VII.1974, S. Peck, beach drift ; 1 ex., JA., Trelawny Parish, Duncans, VIII.21.1966, Howden & Becker . Mexico: 6 exx., Mulege SEAWEED Baja Cal. Sur, Mex., J. Klink Coll., X. 3.66\ERIC; Scheerpeltz ; 48 exx., Sonora, NR. PT. Cirio , 29.50-112.40, 28 VIII 1974 V. Roth Coll; 163 exx., Sonora, EI Desemboque, 29.30-112.34, 23 V 1974, Brown & Speich ex flying on beach ; 2♂ 2♀, Sonora, EI Desembogue May 23 1974 Brown & Speich ; 1 ex., Veracruz Prov. 8km S Veracruz, Hwy 150, 10 July 1990 J. Ashe, K-J. Ahn, R. Leschen ex: under seaweed on beach ; 1 ex., Bahia Magdelena , 1 June 1968 W. G. Evans ex; under turtle carapace\SM0038043 KUNHM-ENT . USA: 1 ex., 698., A30 S. Thomas, Cafius bistriatus Er. S. Thomas, coll. L.W. Schaufuß ; 1 ex., Marion, Mass. Bowditch. , Cafius bistriatus Er., Coll. Schubert ; 7♂ 6♀ (2♂ 1♀ dissected, 5♂ 5♀ in 100% EtOH, AC220), Puerto Rico, Municipio Fajardo, Seven Seas Beach , 18°22.227'N, 65°38.359'W, 6 VI 2009, Park 09-021, JS Park, ex under seaweeds GoogleMaps ; 4♂ 10♀ (1♂ dissected, 2♂ 9♀ in 100% EtOH, AC250), Florida, Pinellas Co., Anclote Gulf Park , 25 X 2008, KJ Ahn, JH Ahn, under seagrasses ; 1♂ 5♀ (1♂ dissected, 5♀ in 100% EtOH), Florida, Brevard Co., Port Canaveral Jetty Park , 14 II 2009, KJ Ahn, under stones with empty barnacles; 2 exx., Florida Tampa, Clearwater Beach, 10 VI 1995, K.-J. Ahn., ex under seaweed; 14 exx. (2♂ dissected, 8 in 100% EtOH), Florida, Cedar Key, 28 XII 2015, KJ Ahn ; 1 ex., FLA., Flamingo , Everglades Nat. Pk., 4.I.1971, L. Masner ; 1 ex., CONN, Fairfield Co. Norwalk, 9 Aug 78 Calf Pasture Beach \ R.E.Orth family\ Wrack-debris on sandy beach; 2 exx., CONN, Fairfield Co. Westport, 11 Aug 78 Sherwood Is. St. Pk \ R.E.Orth family\ Wrack-debris on sandy beach\M3 ; 1 ex., CONN, Fairfield Co. Fairfield, 10 Aug 78 Jennings Beach \ R.E.Orth family\ Wrack-debris on sandy beach; 34 exx. (1♂ dissected, 33 in 100% EtOH), North Carolina, Dare Co. , Oregon Inlet , 6 IV 2009, KJ Ahn, JH Ahn, under seaweeds; 2 exx., Cape Cod, Massachusetts, VII.3.1975, E. J. Kiteley, under clumps seaweed Beach ; 1 ex., South Shore S. I., N. Y.\C. L. Pollard, Apr. 11-111, No.; 1 ex., Portland Maine, July 23 1966, E. J. Kiteley, dry full carcass ; 1 ex., C. I.\145\Schwarz; 1 ex., Md.; 1 ex., Pt. Isabel, Texas, VI-26-30\JOMartin Collector; 2 exx., Lynn , Mass. Essex Co. V -12; 2 exx., Lynn, Mass. Essex Co .; 1 ex., N.Y. Rockaway L.I., 15.V.1941 W. Spector \ C.N. H.M. 1960 Boris Malkin Coleoptera Colln.; 2 exx., Barnegat Bay NJ JW Green VIII.4.28 \ C.N. H.M. 1960 Boris Malkin Coleoptera Colln .; 1 ex., Rocwy Bcb. L. L .; 1 ex., Peekskill 4/8.80 NY\ Sherman ; 1♀ \ Marion Mass. Bowditch. \ Cafius bistriatus Er. \ex coll. Scheerpeltz \ Cafius bistriatus Er.; 1 ex., TEXAS: Wilacy Co. Port Mansfield 30 September 1990 J. S. Ashe ex., beach wrack .


Body medium sized, length 5.5-7.7 mm, forebody length (from clypeus to end of elytron) 3.1-3.7 mm. Body brown to dark brown; head black; metaventrite dark brown to black; anterior part of epipleura usually brighter than elytra. Male. Head (Figs 3A View Figure 3 , 4A View Figure 4 ). Dull, subquadrate with rounded hind angles, as long as wide (Length/Width = 1.00). Microsculpture reticulate on median, intermediate, and dorso-lateral region; partly coalescent on ventral region; granulate on submentum and gular region. Short longitudinal linelike depression absent on interocular region. Punctures on dorsal surface large and pit-like, median longitudinal impunctate region moderate in size and longitudinal. Seta absent on median region; more or less evenly distributed on intermediate, lateral, and ventral region. Frontoclypeal setiferous puncture, preocular setiferous puncture, lateral ocular setiferous puncture, four occipital setiferous punctures, genal setiferous puncture, and infraorbital setiferous puncture present; interocular setiferous punctures absent; postocular setiferous puncture closer to posterior margin of head than posterior margin of eye. Mentum with two pairs of long setae. Gular sutures completely converged. Dorsal basal carina and nuchal carina present on neck. Antenna (Fig. 4B View Figure 4 ) filiform, not short, exceeding posterior margin of head; antennomeres 1-3 very elongate, 4-8 elongate, 9-10 slightly elongate; approximate length ratio of each antennomere 60: 30: 29: 23: 25: 25: 26: 24: 23: 22: 26. Compound eye large, longer than half length of temple (Eye length/Temple length = 0.81-0.86); interfacetal setae very short. Mouthparts. Labrum with each lobe moderately transverse, U-shaped; transparent apical membranous part less broad than sclerotized part. Mandibles asymmetrical; blade present, not making small tooth on blade; left and right one both with two internal teeth; 6-7 gland serial pores present. Maxillary palpomere 4 more or less fusiform, narrower than penultimate one. Labial palpomere 3 more or less fusiform; ligula slightly emarginate, seta absent. Thorax. Pronotum (Fig. 3D View Figure 3 ) glossy on median region, dull on lateral region; rectangular, longer than wide (Length/Width = 1.18-1.19); lateral margin slightly sinuate. Microsculpture indistinctly reticulate on median region; transverse on intermediate region; granulate on lateral region. Disc with homogeneous punctures similar to those of head in size; seta absent on median and intermediate region; densely distributed on lateral region; median impunctate region not clearly defined and not elevated, but depressed series of dorsal setiferous punctures present on midline forming 2 longitudinal rows, each with about 20 punctures, not separated distinctly from ground punctures; largest setiferous lateral puncture separated from lateral carina by at least 3 times width of the puncture. Prosternum (Fig. 4C View Figure 4 ) with 2 long macrosetae on central region; sternacostal carina making angle posteriorly. Hypomeron with distinct microsculpture but seta absent. Elytra (Fig. 4F View Figure 4 ) long (Length/Width = 2.25-2.42), longer than pronotum at midline (Elytron length/Pronotum length = 1.42-1.50), wider than pronotum in maximum width (Elytra width/Pronotum width = 1.41-1.53); one subhumeral seta present but lateral seta absent; punctation simple and dense. Mesoventrite (Fig. 4G View Figure 4 ) with transverse carina connected to lateral margins of mesoventral process; mesoventral process more or less pointed; mesocoxal cavities narrowly separated, posterior margin completely developed. Front tibia (Fig. 4D View Figure 4 ) with several spines; front tarsomeres 1-4 (Fig. 4E View Figure 4 ) strongly dilated laterally, tarsomere 5 broadened apically, pale setae slightly spatulate; hind tarsomere 1 longer than 5. Abdomen. Microsculpture reticulate on tergites (Fig. 4H View Figure 4 ); punctures more or less coalescent; pubescence on each tergite more or less longitudinally directed. Posterior margin of segments III-VI straight. Posterior transverse basal carina complete on tergites III-VI, absent on tergite VII. Pubescence of segment VIII much sparser than segment VII. Tergite VIII (Fig. 5A View Figure 5 ) with 2 long macrosetae present on each side of midline, apical margin arcuate. Laterotergal sclerite (Fig. 5D View Figure 5 ) long and slender, with 5 long macrosetae and 2 long macrosetae on tip. Posterior margin of tergite X emarginate apically, apical portion pigmented. Apical setae of tergite X present. Basal carina on sternite III rounded. Sternite VIII (Fig. 5B View Figure 5 ) with 3 long macrosetae on each side of midline, apical margin deeply emarginate. Basal part of sternite IX (Fig. 5C View Figure 5 ) well developed, asymmetrical; posterior margin of sternite IX emarginate. Aedeagus (Fig. 5H, I View Figure 5 ) Apical process of median lobe abruptly narrowed on ventral aspect, not constricted in apical third. Paramere longer than half length of median lobe; apical region rounded on ventral aspect; about 7 acorn-shaped pegs present on apico-medial region, forming more or less 2 rows; 4 apical and 2 pairs of lateral setae present on margin, apical setae separated from lateral setae, all setae similar in length. Female. Apical margin of abdominal sternite VIII (Fig. 5E View Figure 5 ) entire, rounded; gonocoxite II narrowly tubular (Fig. 5F View Figure 5 ); gonostyle with 1 long macroseta on tip, separated from gonocoxite II and sclerotized. Tergite X as in Fig. 5G View Figure 5 .


Canada, USA (Pacific and Atlantic coasts), Mexico, West Indies, Venezuela.


Members of the Cafius bistriatus species complex ( C. bistriatus , C. rufifrons , and C. sulcicollis ) are very similar in external form and internal structure and so they could be treated as cryptic species. A comparison table of morphological characters among C. bistriatus , C. rufifrons , and C. sulcicollis is presented in Table 3 View Table 3 .














Cafius bistriatus (Erichson)

Yoo, In-Seong, Frank, J. H., Jung, Jong-Kuen & Ahn, Kee-Jeong 2022

Philonthus bistriatus

Erichson 1840

Philonthus bilineatus

Erichson 1840


Stephens 1829