Odontophrynus monachus, Caramaschi, Ulisses & Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras, 2012
Caramaschi, Ulisses & Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras, 2012, Taxonomic revision of the Odontophrynus cultripes species group, with description of a new related species (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Zootaxa 3155, pp. 1-20: 13-17
treatment provided by
Odontophrynus monachus sp. nov.
Odontophrynus cf. carvalhoi — Haddad, Andrade and Cardoso, 1988.
Holotype: ZUEC 4440 (fig. 8), adult male, collected at Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (20 o 10 'S, 46 o 30 'W, ca. 1350 m a.s.l.), headwaters of the São Francisco River, Municipality of São Roque de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, on 13 October 1981, by A.J. Cardoso, G.V. Andrade and C.F.B. Haddad.
Paratypes. MZUSP 132973–132974, males, MZUSP 132972, female, collected at the type locality in December 2004, by C. Nogueira.
Diagnosis. A species belonging to the Odontophrynus cultripes group by having a single, greatly developed, smooth, parotoid gland, no enlarged glands on back and sides, except by well-developed postorbital and temporal glands, and presence of a glandular fold on the posterior surface of forearm; it is characterized by the following combination of traits: (1) size small (SVL 40.6–54.1 mm in males, 55.5 mm in female); (2) snout obtuse in profile; (3) parotoid glands globose, pearl-shaped; (4) glands on forearms and tibiae absent; (5) dorsum granulose, without scattered glands; (6) elongated gland on the ventrolateral surface of forearm poorly developed; (7) elongated gland along the external border of the tarsus/metatarsus poorly developed; (8) webbing formula, I 1–2 II 1–2 III 1–3 + IV 3 – 1 V.
Comparisons with other species. Odontophrynus monachus sp. nov. is distinguished from O. carvalhoi and O. cultripes by the larger head (HL 33 % of SVL, HW 44.3% of SVL in O. monachus sp. nov.; HL 31 % of SVL, HW 42 % of SVL in O. carvalhoi ; HL 30 % of SVL, HW 40.5% of SVL in O. cultripes ), snout profile obtuse (vertical in O. carvalhoi and O. cultripes ), and foot webbing more extensive (webbing formula, I 1–2 II 1–2 III 1– 3 + IV 3 – 1 V in O. monachus sp. nov.; I 1 ½– 2 + II 1 ½– 3 + III 2 ⅔– 3 IV vestigial V in O. carvalhoi ; I 1 ½– 2 + II 1 ½– 3 + III 2 ⅔– 3 IV vestigial V in O. cultripes ). Additionally, O. monachus sp. nov. is separated from O. carvalhoi by the globose, pearl –shaped parotoid glands (elongated to elliptical in O. carvalhoi ), and by the absence of scattered glands on dorsum (present in O. carvalhoi ); from O. cultripes , the new species is distinguished by the absence of developed glands on forearms and tibiae, and by the poorly developed elongated glands on the ventrolateral surface of forearm and along the external border of the tarsus/metatarsus (conspicuous in O. cultripes ).
Description of holotype. Body stout (fig. 8); head wider than long, HL 74.4% of HW, HL 33 % of SVL, HW 44.3% of SVL. Snout short, semi-circular viewed from above (fig. 9 A), obtuse in profile (fig. 9 B); canthus rostralis distinct, canthal crest present; loreal region oblique, slightly concave. Nostrils approximately at the same distance from tip of snout as from eyes; internarial distance slightly larger than eye to nostril distance and much smaller than eye diameter. Eyes large, prominent, lateral, slightly directed ahead; eye to nostril distance much smaller than eye diameter and upper eyelid width, and slightly larger than interorbital distance. Upper eyelid width larger than interorbital distance. Tympanum concealed. Upper eyelid, head, dorsal skin, and dorsal surface of thighs rugose, with small tubercles uniformly distributed. Postorbital gland large, approximately pearl-shaped; temporal gland large, slightly smaller than postorbital; parotoid gland large, globose, pearl-shaped; forearm and tibial glands absent. Flanks and ventral skin barely rugose; lateral skin adhered to the middle of the arm; belly disk fold indistinct; a granular seat patch under thighs. Vocal sac developed, subgular. Vocal slits present, amply opened along the sides of tongue; vomerine teeth in two small transverse series, almost contacting medially, laying between the relatively large choanae; tongue large, approximately circular, notched behind. Hand (fig. 9 C) with fingers slender, not webbed nor ridged, tips rounded, not expanded; fingers lengths IV <II <I <III, first finger longer than second; subarticular tubercles large, rounded, the proximals more developed than distals; several rounded supernumerary tubercles present; outer metacarpal tubercle large, longitudinally divided, the outer part about three times the inner part; inner metacarpal tubercle large, rounded, slightly smaller than outer; nuptial pads on thumbs and prepollex absent; a weak, elongated gland on the ventrolateral surface of the forearm; skin on forearm, hands, and fingers smooth. Legs short, tibia length smaller than thigh length; sum of tibia and thigh lengths 73.2% of SVL. Foot large (fig. 9 D), foot length larger than tibia and thigh lengths, 59.6% of SVL. Toes slender, fringed; toes lengths I <II <V <III <IV; toe tips rounded; webbing formula, I 1–2 II 1–2 III 1–3 + IV 3 – 1 V; subarticular tubercles large, rounded; sole of foot with distinct, approximately aligned, small supernumerary tubercles; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; inner metatarsal tubercle very large, shovel-like, with the free external border keratinized; inner tarsal fold distinct, approximately the length of the tarsus; a weak, elongated gland along the external border of the tarsus/metatarsus; skin on feet and toes smooth.
Measurements of holotype. See Table 3.
Color in preservative. Dorsum of head, body, and limbs brown or olive-brown; a cream interorbital bar; sides of head light brown with two dark brown blotches, one below and the other in front of the eye; two distinct cream stripes on the body sides, running obliquely downward from the tympanic area nearly to groin; a short mid-dorsal whitish-cream line on the sacrum; arms and legs with irregular light and dark brown crossbars, becoming less distinct proximally; glands and enlarged warts brown with some black edging. Undersurfaces uniformly clear-cream; throat of males grey to dark brown.
Variation. Examined specimens not vary from the above descriptions. Sexual dimorphism is indicated by the presence of vocal sac in males and slightly larger size in females. Measurements of paratypes are in Table 3.
Advertisement call. The following description is based on 54 advertisement calls of the holotype from the Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, Municipality of São Roque de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The call (fig. 10 A –D) is composed by 1 (14 calls, 25.9%), 2 (38 calls, 70.4%), or 3 (2 calls, 3.7%) multi-pulsed notes. Three main energetic bandwidths (sidebands) are distinguishable in the audiospectrogram (fig. 10 A, D), due to the pulsatile nature of the call. Pulses with the highest energy peaks occur at the end of the note (fig. 10 B, C). Modest frequency modulation occurs at the end of notes, rising to higher frequencies. Detailed descriptive statistics are given in Table 1.
The advertisement calls of O. carvalhoi and O. cultripes are readily diagnosed from those of O. monachus by having a single note (1–3 notes in the latter, but each call often contains 1–2 notes). Inter-note duration in the call of O. monachus is very short (0.06– 0.18 s), much longer in O. carvalhoi (0.75– 4.51 s) and O. cultripes (0.28– 0.61 s). The note pulse rate in O. cultripes (62.2–71.7 pulses/s) is less than that of O. carvalhoi and O. monachus (combined note pulse rate 73.3–115.3 pulses/s). In addition, the waveform structure of a note of O. monachus clearly differs from O. carvalhoi and O. cultripes by presenting pulses with the highest energy peaks at the end of the note, while in the other two species the highest energy peaks are around the middle of the note.
Etymology. The specific epithet, “ monachus ”, is a Latin masculine substantive used in apposition, meaning “monk”, in allusion to the followers of Saint Francis of Assis, the Franciscan monks. Saint Francis was born on 26 September 1181 in Assis, Italy, and died on 0 3 October 1226, also in Assis. He was canonized in 1228 and currently Saint Francis of Assis is known as patron of the animals and of the environment. The name is given for the type locality, in the headwaters of the São Francisco River.
Geographic distribution and ecological remarks. Known only from the type locality (fig. 3), in the Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, southwestern State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.
According to IBAMA (1997), the Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra was established on 0 3 April 1972, comprising areas of the municipalities of São Roque de Minas, Sacramento, and Delfinópolis, in southwestern State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The regional climate is classified as tropical, humid heat, with four or five dry months (normally May to September). The annual average temperature ranges between 18–20 o C, with absolute maximum of 34–36 o C and absolute minimum of - 4 –0o C. The annual rainfall is between 1500 and 1750 mm a year. In the predominantly rolling relief of the National Park are the main headwaters of two important rivers, the São Francisco and the Araguari Rivers.
FIGURE 10. (A) audiospectrogram, (B) oscillogram, (C) oscillogram of the first note of the second call, and (D) power spectrum of the advertisement call of Odontophrynus monachus sp. nov., holotype, ZUEC 4440, from the Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, Municipality of São Roque de Minas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Air temperature 18 o C; water temperature 19 o C. Interval between calls is abbreviated in the figure.
Haddad et al. (1988) stated that the specimen ZUEC 4440, here the holotype of O. monachus sp. nov., was collected in the area around the two main riverheads of the São Francisco River, above the landmark of these riverheads, at approximately 1350 m a.s.l. The area had many swamps covered by grasses on dark, clayish soil, with small, slow rivulets and pools formed in its beds. Specimens of O. monachus sp. nov. were observed near shallow temporary pools or on the border of pools formed in the rain drainage beds. In these sites, males start calling at dusk. In the same area a putative also new species was collected and treated as “ Odontophrynus sp. ( aff. moratoi Jim & Caramaschi, 1980 )”. Other anuran species obtained in the same area were Bufo rufus Garman [currently Rhinella rubescens (A. Lutz) ], Hyla albopunctata Spix (= Hypsiboas albopunctatus ), H. canastrensis Cardoso & Haddad (= Scinax canastrensis ), H. cipoensis B. Lutz (= Hypsiboas cipoensis ), H. ibitiguara Cardoso (= Bokermannohyla ibitiguara ), H. machadoi Bokermann & Sazima (= Scinax machadoi ), H. maracaya Cardoso & Sazima (= Scinax maracaya ), H. minuta Peters (= Dendropsophus minutus ), and H. squalirostris A. Lutz (= Scinax squalirostris ), Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken) , Leptodactylus cunicularius Sazima & Bokermann , L. furnarius Sazima & Bokermann , L. jolyi Sazima & Bokermann (currently L. sertanejo Giaretta & Costa), L. labyrinthicus (Spix) , Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger , and Pseudopaludicola saltica (Cope) .
Remarks. The distinctiveness of Odontophrynus monachus sp. nov. was first observed by Haddad et al. (1988), by indicating that the collected specimen (the holotype) showed characters that ally it to O. carvalhoi , but pronounced differences were also noted, mainly relating to total length and dorsal glands distribution. However, they refrained to from further taxonomic action pending the acquisition of additional data on different populations of O. carvalhoi .
|ZUEC 4440 Holotype||MZUSP 132974 MZUSP 132973 Paratype Paratype|
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