Odontophrynus cultripes Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862, Reinhardt and Lutken, 1862
Caramaschi, Ulisses & Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras, 2012, Taxonomic revision of the Odontophrynus cultripes species group, with description of a new related species (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Zootaxa 3155, pp. 1-20: 3-6
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|Odontophrynus cultripes Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862|
Figure 1 View FIGURE 1
Ceratophrys cultripes — Boulenger, 1882
Syntypes. Zoologisk Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark ( ZMUC) and [on exchange from ZMUC] Naturhistorische Museum, Wien, Austria ( NHMW 16522), according to Häupl and Tiedemann (1978) and Frost (2011).
Type locality. “Reinhardt har taget de 2 foreliggende Exemplarer ved Tamburil, en Landeiendom ikke langt fra Lagoa Santa, og ved Taboleiro Grande, en lille Flaekke beliggende en 12 Mill N. V. for nysnaevnte By” ( Reinhardt & Lütken 1862) [“Reinhardt has taken the 2 available specimens at Tamburil, a ranch not far from Lagoa Santa, and at Taboleiro Grande, a small township lying about 12 miles north west of the same city.”; translated by A. Schmidt-Nielsen]. Both localities referred by Reinhardt and Lütken (1862), Tamburil and Taboleiro Grande (currently Derrubadas, according to Bokermann 1966), are located in the Municipality of Lagoa Santa (19 o 38 ’S, 43 o 54 ’W, ca. 740 m a.s.l.), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Diagnosis. A species belonging to the Odontophrynus cultripes group and associated with the Cerrado environments of Central and Southeastern Brazil, is characterized by the following combination of traits: (1) size large (SVL 50–60 mm in males, 45–70 mm in females); (2) snout vertical in profile; (3) parotoid glands large, ovoid; (4) glands on forearms and tibiae present; (5) dorsum without or with few scattered glands; (6) elongated gland on the ventrolateral surface of forearm present; (7) elongated gland along the external border of the tarsus/metatarsus present; (8) foot webbing formula I 1 ½– 2 + II 1 ½– 3 + III 2 ⅔– 3 IV vestigial V.
Comparisons with other species. Odontophrynus cultripes is distinguished from O. carvalhoi and O. monachus sp. nov. by the ovoid parotoid glands (elongated to elliptical in O. carvalhoi ; globose, pearl-shaped in O. monachus sp. nov.), presence of a differentiated, large gland on the forearm (absent in O. carvalhoi and O. monachus sp. nov.), presence of a conspicuous, globose gland on the tibiae (poorly developed in O. carvalhoi and O. monachus sp. nov.), and presence of an elongated gland along the external border of the tarsus/metatarsus (poorly developed in O. carvalhoi and O. monachus sp. nov.) Additionally, O. cultripes is separated from O. carvalhoi by the total absence or presence of few scattered glands on dorsum (presence of shallow glands scattered on dorsum of O. carvalhoi ), and from O. monachus sp. nov. by the vertical snout in profile (obtuse in O. monachus sp. nov.), and foot webbing less developed (foot webbing formula in O. cultripes , I 1 ½– 2 + II 1 ½– 3 + III 2 ½– 3 IV vestigial V; in O. monachus sp. nov., I 1–2 II 1–2 III 1–3 + IV 3 – 1 V).
Description. The species was well characterized by Cochran (1955), Savage and Cei (1965), and Cei (1980), which makes unnecessary a redescription.
Color in life. The following description was based on color photographs of an adult male from Araponga, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil ( MZUFV 6669), and another from Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (not collected). Dorsal ground color grayish green. A weak thin dorsal black to blackish brown Y-shaped mark is discernible from each upper eyelid to near the posterior edges of parotoid glands, bordered and defined on outside by broad reddish cream bands of similar width and extension. A reddish cream mid - dorsal pin stripe is visible over the sacrum. Parotoid, temporal, and postorbital glands reddish brown, each one delimited by a black edge; other minor glands and enlarged warts orange to greenish brown with or without black edgings. Flank marked by a broad reddish cream dorsolateral stripe from the parotoid gland to near the groin. Head highlighted by the anterior border of the dorsal Y-shaped mark, which outlines a V-shaped interocular reddish cream bar with dark brown edges. Snout marked by the presence of two blackish brown stripes from upper lip to nostrils, and posteriorly until reaching the anterior corner of eyes, delimiting a cross-shaped mask filled with dorsal background color. Three to four other blackish brown perpendicular stripes were present on the upper lip, a pale one placed in the midpoint between nostril and anterior corner of eye, and the remaining three from anterior to posterior corners of eye, on a cream to somewhat orange background. Arms and legs with irregular light to dark brown crossbars, which become less distinct proximally. Tibial gland reddish brown. Forearms with a well developed orange longitudinal glandular stripe. Belly grayish white; throat greenish brown. Sole of foot and tarsus dark gray, with light gray tubercles. Superior and inferior surfaces of iris white, marbled with thin black reticulations; anterior and posterior surfaces black; a thin vertical black stripe divides the eye, the lower half larger than the upper half, which may be absent.
Color in preservative. Dorsum of head, body, and limbs brownish or olive-brown; a cream interorbital bar; sides of head light brown with two dark brown blotches, one below and the other in front of the eye; two distinct cream stripes on the body sides, running obliquely downward from the tympanic area nearly to groin; a short middorsal whitish-cream line on the sacrum; arms and legs with irregular light and dark brown crossbars, becoming less distinct proximally; glands and enlarged warts brown with some black edging. Undersurfaces uniformly cream; throat of males grey to dark brown.
Advertisement call. The following description is based on the advertisement calls of two males from the Municipality of São Tomé das Letras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The call (fig. 2 A –D) is composed by one multi-pulsed note. Four main energetic bandwidths (sidebands) are distinguishable in the audiospectrogram (fig. 2 A, D), due to the pulsatile nature of the call. Pulses with the highest energy peaks arise in the first half of note (fig. 2 C, D). Detailed descriptive statistics are given in Table 1. For comparisons with other species of the O. cultripes group, see the O. monachus sp. nov. advertisement call description below.
FIGURE 2. (A) audiospectrogram, (B) oscillogram, (C) oscillogram of the first note, and (D) power spectrum of the advertisement call of Odontophrynus cultripes from the Municipality of São Tomé das Letras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Air temperature 14 o C.
Tadpole. The tadpole was described and figured by Savage and Cei (1965) and Cei (1980).
Karyotype. The karyotype was described and figured by Beçak et al. (1967, 1971), Beçak and Beçak (1974), Ruiz and Beçak (1976), and Ruiz et al. (1981).
Geographic distribution and ecological remarks. The geographical distribution of O. cultripes is mapped in fig. 3. Odontophrynus cultripes mainly inhabits environments of altitudes higher than 800 m a.s.l. (800–999 m: 61.4% of the total number of localities, n = 67;> 1000 m: 19.3%; 600–799 m: 15.8%; 500–599 m: 3.5%). The southern limit of the species distribution is defined by the southern sector of the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range; the eastern limit is defined by the Serra do Espinhaço mountain range, except by three samples located in the northern sector of the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range. From its southernmost to northernmost distribution limits (Central Brazilian Plateau), O. cultripes is distributed through a series of plateaus and mountain chains in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás (Serra da Canastra, Planalto Central Brasileiro, Planalto Centro Sul de Minas, and Patamares and Serras do Rio São Francisco; see Alvarenga et al. 1997 for definition of Brazilian relief units). Most known populations of O. cultripes are under a Cwa type of Köppen’s climate classification (humid and sub-humid mesothermic climate) and less frequently under a Cwb or Cfa types. The north-westernmost known population samples of the species are located in the Cerrado biome (see Rizzini 1979 for definition of “Cerrado”), whereas southernmost samples are in the Tropical Atlantic Forest biome, inhabiting seasonal semi-deciduous forests (known as interior forests; see Silva & Casteleti 2005 for distribution and characterization of the Tropical Atlantic Forest sub-regions). We do not have ecological data from all geographic samples, but O. cultripes may be associated with semideciduous or deciduous forest borders within the Cerrado biome, as occurs to O. carvalhoi within the Caatinga biome (see below).
da Serra da Canastra, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil). Values are: mean ± standard deviation (range; sample size). n, number of
specimens analyzed. Temporal parameters of the call in seconds. Frequencies in kilohertz (kHz). Values in bold indicate main
differences among species.
Remarks. The specimens referred by Cochran (1955) as Odontophrynus cultripes to “Rio de Janeiro: Alto Itatiaia, AMNH 17060 ” and “São Paulo: Butantan, USNM 121326 and IB 3.”, not examined by us, are probably Odontophrynus americanus , or the localities are in error; the specimens referred to “Rio Grande do Sul: Passo Fundo, IB 87 – 8 and USNM 121327 ”, not examined by us, are probably Odontophrynus maisuma , or the locality is in error.
|Maracás (n = 1)|
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