Costa, Wilson J. E. M., Feltrin, Caio R. M. & Katz, Axel M., 2021, Filling distribution gaps: Two new species of the catfish genus Cambeva from southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae), Zoosystematics and Evolution 97 (1), pp. 147-159: 147
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UFRJ 10000, 67.6 mm SL; Brazil: Santa Catarina state: Águas Mornas municipality: Rio Cubatão do Sul basin, 27°39'51"S, 48°51'26"W, about 130 m asl; A.M. Katz, F.R. Pereira & M.A. Barbosa, 31 May 2013.
All from Brazil: Santa Catarina state. Rio Cubatão do Sul: UFRJ 9503, 10, 44.1-71.6 mm SL; UFRJ 9848, 5, 34.1-41.7 mm SL (C&S); collected with holotype. Rio Maruim basin: - UFRJ 9505, 13.3-73.1 mm SL; 27°40'39"S, 48°50'53"W, about 90 m asl; same collectors and date as holotype. - UFRJ 12629, 6, 38.7-62.0 mm SL; stream tributary to Rio Forquilhas, Colônia Santana, São José municipality, 27°32'44"S, 48°42'21"W, about 40 m asl; C.R.M. Feltrin, 15 Nov. 2019. - UFRJ 6924, 10, 31.9-57.6 mm SL; small stream tributary to upper Rio Forquilhas, village of Alto Forquilhas, São José municipality, 27°32'44"S, 48°42'21"W, about 40 m asl; C.R.M. Feltrin, 17 Jun. 2020. Rio Cubatão do Sul basin: UFRJ 6925, 25, 24.8-62.1 mm SL; unnamed stream, Águas Mornas municipality, 27°43'16"S, 48°53'23"W, about 190 m asl; C.R.M. Feltrin, 13 Jun. 2020. Rio Biguaçu basin, Biguaçu municipality: UFRJ 11717, 11, 31.6-67.9 mm SL; UFRJ 6921, 3 (C&S), 51.1-58.9 mm SL; Cachoeira Graciosa, 27°26'37"S, 48°40'59"W, about 60 m asl; C.R.M. Feltrin, Aug. 2017. - UFRJ 11872, 2, 54.1-54.9 mm SL; same locality and collector as UFRJ 11717, 27 Nov. 2018. - CICCAA 02617, 2, 53.5-62.3 mm SL; Riacho Canudos, 27°24'30"S, 48°45'17"W, about 70 m asl; C.R.M. Feltrin, 4 Dec. 2017.
(non-types). Rio Biguacu basin, Biguaçu municipality: UFRJ 12383, 4; UFRJ 12385, 11; Riacho Canudos, 27°25'20"S, 48°45'13"W, about 30 m asl; B. Mesquita & P.F. Amorim, 16 Aug. 2019GoogleMaps . Florianópolis municipality: UFRJ 10603, 10; UFRJ 10669, 2 (C&S); Córrego Grande, Ilha de Santa Catarina, 27°36'10"S, 48°30'12"W, about 15 m asl; A.M. Katz, F. Pereira & P.F. Amorim, 11 Jun. 2015GoogleMaps .
Cambeva barbosae differs from all congeners, except C. castroi (de Pinna , 1992), C. concolor (Costa, 1992), C. crassicaudata (Wosiacki & de Pinna 2008), C. diabola (Bockmann, Casatti & de Pinna , 2004), C. guaraquessaba (Wosiacki, 2005), C. igobi (Wosiacki & de Pinna , 2008), C. iheringi (Eigenmann, 1917), C. tupinamba (Wosiacki & Oyakawa, 2005), C. variegata (Costa, 1992), C. ytororo Terán, Ferrer, Benitez, Alonso, Aguilera & Mirande, 2017, and C. zonata (Eigenmann, 1918) by having eight pectoral-fin rays (vs. five to seven in all other species). Cambeva barbosae differs from all these species by the following combination of diagnostic features: nine principal dorsal-fin rays (vs. 12-13 in C. concolor , C. iheringi and C. variegata ); 19-23 dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays (vs. 15-16 in C. guarequessaba and C. tupinamba ; 24-29 in C. crassicaudata and C. igobi ; and 31-35 in C. ytororo ); 8-12 ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays (vs. 17-19 in C. crassicaudata ); 36-38 vertebrae (vs. 34-35 in C. concolor , C. iheringi and C. variegata ); all jaw teeth incisiform (vs. conical in C. castroi and C. diabola , anterior teeth sub-incisiform, posterior teeth conical in C. zonata ); and absence of a dark grey to black bar on the posterior portion of the caudal fin, contrasting with a white to pale yellow zone on the anterior portion of the fin (vs. presence in C. castroi and C. diabola ). Also distinguished from C. concolor , C. crassicaudata , C. igobi , and C. variegata by having a distinctive process on the dorsal margin of the quadrate, just posterior to the cartilage block joining quadrate and metapterygoid (Fig. 4BView Figure 4; vs. absence), and from C. castroi , C. concolor , C. crassicaudata , C. diabola , C. igobi , C. variegata (Costa, 1992), and C. zonata by the presence of a distinctive, anteriorly directed process on the lateral margin of the lateral ethmoid (Fig. 4AView Figure 4; vs. absence) and a deep notch between the lateral shell on the opercular articular facet for the hyomandibula and the opercular articular facet for the preopercle in larger specimens (above about 50 mm SL, Fig. 4BView Figure 4; vs. absence).
Morphometric data appear in Table 1. Body moderately slender, subcylindrical and slightly depressed anteriorly, compressed posteriorly. Greatest body depth in area just anterior to pelvic-fin base. Dorsal profile of head and trunk slightly convex, approximately straight on caudal peduncle; ventral profile straight to slightly convex between lower jaw and end of anal-fin base, straight on caudal peduncle. Skin papillae minute. Anus and urogenital papilla in vertical through anterior portion of dorsal-fin base. Head trapezoidal in dorsal view. Anterior profile of snout convex in dorsal view. Eye small, dorsally positioned in head. Posterior nostril located nearer anterior nostril than orbital rim. Tip of maxillary and rictal barbels reaching posterior half of interopercular patch of odontodes; tip of nasal barbel surpassing posterior margin of orbit, reaching transverse line through middle of interopercular patch of odontodes. Mouth subterminal. Jaw teeth incisiform and slightly curved, 40-52 in premaxilla, 42-45 in dentary, arranged in three or four irregular rows. Branchial membrane attached to isthmus only at its anterior point. Branchiostegal rays 8 or 9.
Dorsal and anal fins subtriangular; total dorsal-fin rays 11 (ii + II + 7), total anal-fin rays 9 (ii + II + 5); anal-fin origin in vertical through posterior portion of dorsal-fin base, approximately at base of 5th branched dorsal-fin ray. Dorsal-fin origin in vertical between centrum of 19th and 20th vertebrae; anal-fin origin in vertical between centrum of 23rd and 24th vertebra. Pectoral fin subtriangular in dorsal view, posterior margin slightly convex, tip of first pectoral-fin ray not forming filament; total pectoral-fin rays 8 (I + 7). Pelvic fin subtruncate, its extremity in vertical through anterior portion of dorsal-fin base; pelvic-fin bases medially in close proximity; total pelvic-fin rays 5 (I + 4). Caudal fin truncate, postero-dorsal and postero-ventral extremities rounded; total principal caudal-fin rays 13 (I + 11 + I), total dorsal procurrent rays 19-23 (xviii-xxii + I), total ventral procurrent rays 10-12 (ix-xi + I). Vertebrae 36-38. Ribs 12-13. Two dorsal hypural plates, corresponding to hypurals 4 + 5 and 3, respectively; single ventral hypural plate corresponding to hypurals 1 and 2 and parhypural.
Laterosensory system (Fig. 2A-BView Figure 2). Supraorbital sensory canal continuous, connected to posterior section of infraorbital canal posteriorly. Supraorbital sensory canal with 3 pores: s1, adjacent to medial margin of anterior nostril; s3, adjacent and just posterior to medial margin of posterior nostril; and s6, in transverse line through posterior half of orbit; pore s6 nearer orbit than its paired homologous pore. Anterior segment of infraorbital sensory canal absent; posterior segment with two pores, pore i10, adjacent to ventral margin of orbit, and pore i11, posterior to orbit. Postorbital canal with 2 pores: po1, in vertical line above posterior portion of interopercular patch of odontodes, and po2, in vertical line above posterior portion of opercular patch of odontodes. Lateral line of body short, with 2 pores, posterior-most pore in vertical just posterior to pectoral-fin base.
Mesethmoidal region (Fig. 4AView Figure 4). Mesethmoid robust, its anterior margin slightly concave; mesethmoid cornu narrow, extremity rounded. Lateral ethmoid connected to autopalatine by weak articular facet, which in specimens larger than about 50 mm SL is latero-posteriorly edged by deep notch posteriorly followed by prominent anteriorly directed process. Antorbital thin, drop-shaped; sesamoid supraorbital slender, without processes, its length about three times antorbital length. Premaxilla sub-rectangular in dorsal view, laterally narrowing, moderate in length, slightly longer than maxilla. Maxilla boomerang-shaped, slender, slightly curved. Autopalatine sub-rectangular in dorsal view, medial margin sinuous, lateral margin slightly concave; autopalatine posterolateral process well-developed, narrow, its length about two thirds autopalatine length excluding posterolateral.
Cheek region (Fig. 4BView Figure 4). Metapterygoid thin, subtriangular, large, its largest length about equal horizontal length of quadrate excluding dorsal process. Quadrate slender, dorsal process with constricted base, dorsoposterior margin separated from hyomandibula outgrowth by small interspace; small process on dorsal margin, just posterior to cartilage block joining quadrate and metapterygoid, laterally overlapping ventral part of metapterygoid. Hyomandibula long, with well-developed anterior outgrowth; middle portion of dorsal margin of hyomandibula outgrowth with shallow concavity. Opercle relatively robust, opercular odontode patch depth about four fifths of dorsal hyomandibula articular facet, with 15-18 odontodes; odontodes pointed, slightly curved, arranged in irregular transverse rows; dorsal process of opercle short and pointed; opercular articular face for hyomandibula with prominent trapezoidal lateral flap, separated from small articular facet for preopercle by deep gap. Interopercle moderate, about two thirds hyomandibula length, with 30-36 odontodes; odontodes pointed, arranged in irregular longitudinal rows. Preopercle compact, with short ventral flap.
Hyoid region (Fig. 4CView Figure 4). Parurohyal robust, lateral process triangular, straight, laterally directed, tip pointed; parurohyal head well-developed, with indistinct anterolateral paired process; middle foramen small and elliptical; posterior process short, about two thirds distance between anterior margin of parurohyal and anterior insertion of lateral process. Ceratohyals slender.
Colouration in alcohol (Fig. 1View Figure 1). Flank, dorsum and head side light brown. Dorsum, flank and head with pale dark brown spots, variable in size and shape, often inconspicuous in specimens from Rio Biguaçu basin. Venter yellowish grey. Darker pigment concentrated between anterior and posterior nostrils, around opercular patch of odontodes and posterior portion of caudal peduncle; nasal and maxillary barbels dark brown, rictal barbel pale brown with dark brown base. Ventral surface of head yellowish white. Unpaired fins dark yellowish grey, dark brown spots on basal portion of dorsal and caudal fins. Paired fins pale yellow, basal portion of pectoral fin dark yellowish grey.
Colouration in life (Figs 2A-EView Figure 2). Similar to colouration in alcohol, but yellow pigmentation more intense on trunk and fins orangish yellow in unspotted specimens from Rio Biguaçu basin.
Distribution and habitat.
Cambeva barbosae occurs in fast-flowing low-altitude streams (about 15-190 m asl), of coastal river basins, between the Biguaçu and the Cubatão do Sul river basins, as well as in smaller drainages in the Santa Catarina island (Fig. 5View Figure 5).
Cambeva barbosae is named in honour of the Brazilian ichthyologist Maria Anaïs Barbosa, for her efforts to collect and study trichomycterines from Santa Catarina.
The species collected in the Santa Catarina island and identified as Trichomycterus sp. by Bertaco (2009), probably is Cambeva barbosae , since both were collected at the same locality in Córrego Grande.
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