Polauchenia paraprotentor, Gil-Santana & Ferreira, 2017,

Gil-Santana, Hélcio R. & Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes, 2017, A new species of Dohrnemesa and a new species of Polauchenia from Brazil (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae), Zootaxa 4338 (2), pp. 201-240: 230-238

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Polauchenia paraprotentor


PoLauchenia ParaProtentor  sp. nov.

( Figs. 88–117View FIGURES 88 – 90View FIGURES 91 – 98View FIGURES 99 – 105View FIGURES 106 – 111View FIGURES 112 – 117)

Diagnosis. (male). Total length: 14.0 mm. Similar to P. protentor  but differs from this species as well as other species of Polauchenia  by the petiole of petiole being 1.5 times as long as fore lobe.

Description. Male. Measurements (mm): total length: to tip of abdomen 13.5; to tip of forewings 14.0; head (excluding collum): length 1.4; length of anteocular portion 0.5; length of postocular portion 0.5; width across eyes 1.0; interocular distance between eyes 0.45; width of right eye 0.3; lengths of antennal segments: I: 6.9; II: 6.6; III: 0.9; IV: 1.7; lengths of labial segments: II [first visible]: 0.4; III: 0.5; IV: 0.8. Thorax: pronotum: length of fore lobe 1.0; length of the petiole 1.5; length of hind lobe 1.2; width at posterior margin 1.2; length of forewing 9.0; length of hind wing 6.6. Fore legs: length of coxa 2.0; length of femur 4.7; length of tibia 4.1; length of tarsus 0.4; middle legs: length of femur 9.4; length of tibia 12.6; length of tarsus 0.3; hind legs: length of femur 13.4; length of tibia 19.0; length of tarsus 0.35. Abdomen: length 7.0; maximum width 1.6.

Coloration: brownish to light brown, with yellowish to pale yellow markings or portions ( Figs. 88–90View FIGURES 88 – 90, 102View FIGURES 99 – 105). Head brownish; clypeus, labrum, midline posteriorly to tubercles of the postocular region, apices of segments II and III and base of segment IV of labium pale white to pale yellow; area just behind clypeus darkened ( Figs. 89–90View FIGURES 88 – 90). Antenna brownish; basal and apical extremities of all segments pale; segment I with four pale narrow annuli along the segment; segment II with three pale annuli, two at basal half and one at distal half; mid portions of basal and distal half of segment IV somewhat paler, but without forming clear annuli. Thorax: dark brownish, anterior collar and prothoracic supracoxal lobes pale; petiole paler on dorsal surface ( Figs. 89–90View FIGURES 88 – 90). Pronotum with a dorsal median longitudinal pale line; thinner on proximal half of fore lobe and on hind lobe and wider on distal half of fore lobe and on petiole ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 88 – 90). On fore lobe a curved thin pale stripe running from lateral margin anteriorly and meeting the median longitudinal pale stripe at distal half of fore lobe. Hind lobe with a pair of pale submedian, subparallel longitudinal stripes that do not reach posterior margin, ending approximately at the level of humeral tubercles ( Figs. 90View FIGURES 88 – 90, 102View FIGURES 99 – 105). Median portion of posterior margin of hind lobe somewhat paler ( Figs. 90View FIGURES 88 – 90, 102View FIGURES 99 – 105). Lower margin of hind lobe of pronotum pale at approximately its anterior two-thirds. Humeral tubercles pale on central portion, dorsally ( Figs. 90View FIGURES 88 – 90, 102View FIGURES 99 – 105). Spines of scutellum and metanotum brownish ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 88 – 90). Disc of scutellum, below its spine, pale. Legs: fore coxa light brownish with basal and apical extremities pale and two pale annuli, somewhat wider at submedian basal portion and narrower at approximately midportion of distal half of the segment ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90). Fore trochanter with approximately basal half pale and distal half brownish. Mid and hind coxa and trochanters brownish, the basal extremities of the latter somewhat paler. General coloration of femora brownish. Fore femora with basal extremity, four annuli and apex pale ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90). Mid ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90) and hind femora with five annuli and the apex pale; the most basal pale annulus inconspicuous. These pale markings on femora become progressively larger from fore femora towards hind femora ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90). Fore tibia brownish with base, and submedian basal annulus pale; between these, two pale lateral spots, which together form an incomplete pale subbasal annulus. Mid ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90) and hind tibiae pale with three brownish annuli at basal half, the most distal of which, fainter; apex brownish. Tarsi brownish; base of segment II of fore tarsi pale. Forewing brownish with basal extremity and most veins, pale or whitish; some oblique small pale stripes on basal half, between veins; diffuse texture formed by small irregular whitish spots or lines inside discal cell and on distal portion of the forewing; thin, longitudinal, submedian, oblique, somewhat irregular line along discal cell, except at its basal portion, and two larger oblique whitish stripes near tip of wing, which because of their continuation with veins enclosing apex of discal cell, a whitish figure somewhat similar to an “X” at the distal third is formed ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 99 – 105). Hind wings hyaline, somewhat more pigmented on distal third above R+M vein, on areas adjoining distal veins and on anal lobe ( Figs. 104–105View FIGURES 99 – 105). Abdomen light brownish; connexivum with small basolateral whitish spots; sternites with thin, interrupted and illdefined whitish lines and scattered pale irregular spots; apical portion of the short prolongation of last tergite paler.

Vestiture: head, first antennal segment, thorax, coxae, trochanters, femora and tibiae covered with very numerous and long thin setae, and with a short and very dense pubescence formed by thin, curved setae. The setae are pale, yellowish to golden-yellowish to pale-brownish and in general they are paler or darker, similar to the coloration of the integument in which they are inserted. In some exceptions mentioned below, groupings of whitish adpressed setae form whitish markings on areas with brownish integument. Head: mostly covered by a pubescence formed by adpressed short thin setae, which are formed by somewhat longer setae on postocular region and gula. The setae covering the pair of short postocular tubercles are whitish, contrasting with their integument, which is brownish; on midline of posterior half of postocular region, the setae are somewhat more numerous and paler. Glabrous areas on head: transverse sulcus, a declivous area immediately anterior to it and a pair of submedian slightly divergent very thin stripes running from midportion of transverse sulcus to a point somewhat at midpoint between transverse sulcus and medial margin of antenniferous tubercles. Antenna: segment I covered with short adpressed curved thin setae and long thin scattered somewhat curved setae ( Figs. 92–94View FIGURES 91 – 98); basal portion of antennal segment II with setae of intermediate length between the adpressed setae of the pubescence and the longer setae that are present on segment I ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 91 – 98); segments II –IV covered with short, adpressed, straight or somewhat curved, thin setae ( Figs. 95–98View FIGURES 91 – 98); a few (five) very much thinner isolated elements (interpreted as trichobothria) on segment II, four of them in its basal portion and one in its middle third. Labium: segment II (first visible) with scattered moderately short adpressed setae; segment III and IV almost glabrous with scattered straight erect and some adpressed short setae, somewhat more numerous on dorsal region. Thorax: besides the short dense pubescence and long thin setae, there are several even longer setae on distal half of pronotum, meso and metasternum ( Figs. 89–90View FIGURES 88 – 90). A glabrous shining curved stripe running just below the curved pale stripe on fore lobe, but beginning somewhat far from lateral margin. Meso and metapleura with a midlateral somewhat large stripe formed by whitish pubescence, which does not reach anterior margin of either of them. Mesosternum with a midlongitudinal somewhat large stripe formed by whitish pubescence, which reaches the basal portion of metasternum. Laterally, on distal half of mesosternum and between coxa on metasternum, somewhat large stripes formed by whitish pubescence. Spines of scutellum and metanotum with numerous moderately short, thin setae. Forewing with a few scattered short thin setae at basal portion and a few scattered somewhat longer ones along costal vein. Hind wings glabrous. Legs generally covered by dense short adpressed pubescence and several long thin setae. Mid and hind coxae with a pair of glabrous linear areas, which do not reach apex ventrally; hind coxae with an additional and somewhat larger glabrous area laterally. Fore femur: posteroventral series beginning at the base of the article and ending far from apex ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 99 – 105), composed of about thirteen large and medium-sized spiniferous processes, the most basal of which with its apex slightly inclined toward apex of article ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 99 – 105); among these large processes, approximately eighty small spiniferous processes; towards apical portion of fore femur, the large and then the small processes become somewhat smaller and absent at approximately distal fifth. Lengths of larger processes combined with apical spines about or somewhat more than four-fifths of diameter of segment. Anteroventral series beginning somewhat apically of posteroventral series ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 99 – 105), not interrupted at base, composed of nine spiniferous tubercles, on which around sixty sharp small spines are present. A sparse series of very long and strong setae accompanies the posteroventral series ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 99 – 105); these setae reach the apex of the femur, where they are somewhat shorter. Fore tibiae with numerous stiff setae on subapical dorsal depression ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 99 – 105); ventral surface with numerous small spines, among which, with exception of the basal fifth of the article, about twenty larger spiniferous processes, subequal in size, most of which with lighter base and darkened spiny distal portion; at both sides of ventral surface, beside these processes, series of long and strong setae ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 99 – 105); on apical extremity, a cluster of stiff somewhat curved golden setae ventrally ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 99 – 105). Tarsi covered with moderately long setae ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 99 – 105). Abdomen: covered with dense adpressed pubescence and more scattered thin long setae, which are more curved too.

Structure. Integument moderately shiny. Head elongated; anteocular portion as long as postocular ( Figs. 89– 91View FIGURES 88 – 90View FIGURES 91 – 98). Transversal (interocular) sulcus deep, situated somewhat posteriorly to middle of eyes; just anterior to it, on midline, a very small oval fossa ( Figs. 89– 91View FIGURES 88 – 90View FIGURES 91 – 98). Eyes globose, reaching dorsal outline of head at interocular sulcus and reaching but not surpassing ventral outline of head ventrally; a pair of very short tubercles just behind interocular sulcus ( Figs. 89– 91View FIGURES 88 – 90View FIGURES 91 – 98). Dorsal interocular distance about 1.5 times the width of each eye. Antenna inserted somewhat closer to apex of head than to the eyes ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 91 – 98); antennal segments progressively thinner, very slender; segments I –III straight; segment IV somewhat curved, with apex triangular ( Figs. 92– 98View FIGURES 91 – 98). First two visible labial segments thicker than the distal segment; apex of segment III approximately at level of midportion of eye; segment IV ending at level of anterior portion of stridulitrum ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 91 – 98). Thorax: pronotum pedunculate; petiole 1.5 times as long as fore lobe, the latter semioval; anterior projections of collar rounded; hind lobe bell-shaped in dorsal view, hind border emarginated at median portion; humeral angle with an elevated rounded tubercle ( Figs. 88– 90View FIGURES 88 – 90). Lateral margins of stridulitrum conspicuous. Spine of scutellum somewhat elongated, obliquely directed backwards; spine of metanotum somewhat larger than the spine of scutellum, apex obtuse, obliquely directed upwards ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 88 – 90). Fore legs slender; fore coxae elongated ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90), twice as long as fore lobe of pronotum and approximately 1.3 times longer than petiole; fore tibiae slightly shorter than fore femora, somewhat curved ( Fig. 88View FIGURES 88 – 90); slightly depressed in dorsal portion subapically ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 99 – 105); thickened at apex, where the inner surface is somewhat flattened and has a very small subdistal pecten ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 99 – 105). Mid and hind legs very long and slender, with tibiae somewhat thinner and longer than femora and slightly curved. Tarsi short, three-segmented, slender ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 99 – 105). Forewings slender, surpassing apex of abdomen by approximately 0.5 mm; basal cell triangular, with a single directed vein emitted from its base and with Pcu meeting it at level of its apical portion; pterostigma ending somewhat far of apex of the wing ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 99 – 105). Hind wings reaching the last tergite at level of its basal third; venation as in Fig. 103View FIGURES 99 – 105; R+M not bifurcate ( Figs. 103–104View FIGURES 99 – 105); anal lobe with region between 2A and hind border not sclerotized, just somewhat pigmented ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 99 – 105). Abdomen: slender, slightly enlarged toward posterior half. Last tergite strongly narrowed towards apex, with a short tongue-shaped prolongation posteriorly, approaching tip of pygophore ( Fig. 106–107View FIGURES 106 – 111). Eight sternite covering approximately half of the pygophore, ventrally ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 106 – 111). Male genitalia: pygophore subrectangular in dorsal and ventral views ( Fig. 109View FIGURES 106 – 111); anterior dorsal sclerotization narrow; basal margin curved backwards on midportion ventrally ( Fig. 109View FIGURES 106 – 111); posterior process somewhat large, apex truncate ( Fig. 108View FIGURES 106 – 111). Parameres symmetrical, curved and with moderately long, thin and non-numerous setae in distal half; apex rounded ( Fig. 110View FIGURES 106 – 111). Phallus symmetrical ( Figs. 111–112View FIGURES 106 – 111View FIGURES 112 – 117). Articulatory apparatus (art app) with basal plates fused at insertion of phallobase and at middle ( Figs. 113–114View FIGURES 112 – 117); basal arms (ba) very short ( Figs. 111View FIGURES 106 – 111, 113–114View FIGURES 112 – 117). Struts (str) long, elongated, and almost entirely fused, divided only at extreme base; apical margin rounded ( Figs. 111–112, 115–116View FIGURES 106 – 111View FIGURES 112 – 117). Phallosoma largely membranous; its dorsal wall weakly sclerotized apically (asd) ( Figs. 111–112, 115–116View FIGURES 106 – 111View FIGURES 112 – 117), a pair of ventral moderately short sclerotizations (vsc) also present (Figs. 111,114). Endosoma wall smooth, forming three irregular lobes apically (ale) ( Figs. 111–112View FIGURES 106 – 111View FIGURES 112 – 117). Between the struts and ventral wall, a large median process of endosoma (mpe) ( Fig. 111View FIGURES 106 – 111), which in dorsal view is U-shaped, with strongly sclerotized and regular borders; in its interior, a pair of irregular sclerotizations, which seem connected to the very sclerotized base and towards apex with the apical lobes of endosoma wall ( Fig. 117View FIGURES 112 – 117).

Distribution. Brazil, state of Pará.

Etymology. The name of the new species was given in reference to its general similarity to P. protentor  . Noun in apposition, ending not to be changed.

Specimen examined. MALE HOLOTYPE: BRAZIL, Pará, Parauapebas, Cave GEM, 1722, (06º08'05"S 50º08'04"W), 11.iv.2011, R.L. Ferreira leg. ( MNRJ).

Habitat and natural history. The single specimen of P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. was found in a small cave of horizontal extent 14.5 m that is associated with the “canga” formation (ferruginous superficial breccia). It is located in a forested area (mainly composed by metallophilic savanna). The cave comprises a shelter with low environmental stability and no aphotic areas. The cave is generally dry and has no active drip points during the dry season, although it becomes quite drenched in the wet season, with several drip points and percolation areas. The single specimen was found in the cave ceiling, near the entrance. This was probably an accidental finding, since no other specimens were found in any of the almost 100 caves that were inventoried in the area (these were sampled twice, in both dry and the rainy season). Accordingly, this species is probably distributed in the forest, and specimens may possibly enter caves, accidentally or maybe while searching for prey near the entrances.

Comments. Most of the features of P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. are in accordance with the definition of Polauchenia  ( McAtee & Malloch 1925, Wygodzinsky 1966), therefore the placement of P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. in this genus is justified.

Nevertheless, at least three characteristics of Polauchenia  as described by Wygodzinsky (1966) were not recorded in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. Firstly, while that author mentioned that both series of processes of fore femora are often accompanied by strong elongated setae, in the new species these setae were only shown to be present beside to posteroventral series ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 99 – 105). However, judging by Wygodzinsky’s (1966: fig. 90I) illustration of the base of the fore femur of the male of P. protentor  , this species only presents elongated strong setae accompanying the posteroventral setae. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presence of elongated strong setae near the processes of the anteroventral series is a variable characteristic among the species of Polauchenia  .

Secondly, the bifurcation of R+M near the wing border of the hind wing is absent in the new species described here ( Figs. 103–104View FIGURES 99 – 105). Thirdly, the region between 2A and the hind border of the anal lobe in the hind wing is not sclerotized ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 99 – 105), although it has been recorded as conspicuously sclerotized in Polauchenia ( Wygodzinsky 1966)  .

Nevertheless, it seems that before to the present study, among the species of Polauchenia  , the hind wing had only been examined in P. protentor  . With the exception of Wygodzinsky’s (1966: fig. 90D) illustration of a portion of the wing of this species, there is no other description or figure of the hind wing in any other species of this genus ( McAtee & Malloch 1925, Wygodzinsky 1950, 1966; Maldonado 1968). Thus, it is necessary to examine the hind wing in other species of Polauchenia  to record these characteristics among them, in order to ascertain whether they are of generic or specific significance.

Most of the features of the male genitalia of P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. are also very similar to those of the other species of Polauchenia  , as summarized by Wygodzinsky (1966), with the exception of the large process of endosoma described here in the new species ( Figs. 111View FIGURES 106 – 111, 117View FIGURES 112 – 117). Wygodzinsky (1966) did not describe any process of endosoma in Polauchenia  spp. He only mentioned that the endosoma was of somewhat complex structure and that it had not been examined in a fully evaginated state. It is possible that any process in the endosoma in the specimens that he examined had remained unnoticed or unrecorded by him. Therefore, only future examination of additional specimens will allow better conclusions or comparisons regarding the processes of endosoma among species of Polauchenia  .

Among the other species of Polauchenia  , the species that most closely resembles P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. seems to be P. protentor  .

The latter species was described based on a female from Panama ( McAtee & Malloch 1925). Wygodzinsky (1966) examined a male identified by these authors, also from Panama, and provided some illustrations of it. Forero (2006) recorded the species from Colombia.

Several differences were recorded between P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. and P. protentor  , as follows.

Firstly, while the postocular tubercles of the head and humeri are clearly spined in P. protentor  (McAtte & Malloch 1925: fig. 63, Wygodzinsky 1966: fig. 90C), in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. both of them are rounded, not spined ( Figs. 90–91View FIGURES 88 – 90View FIGURES 91 – 98, 102View FIGURES 99 – 105).

Secondly, the petiole of the pronotum is at least twice as long as the fore lobe of the pronotum in P. protentor  and respectively only 1.5 times longer in the new species.

Thirdly, the spine of the scutellum is directed upwards in P. protentor  ( McAtee & Malloch 1925: fig. 63, Wygodzinsky 1966: fig. 90C) and obliquely directed backwards in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 88 – 90).

Fourthly, there are the two differences in the hind wing already commented on above, i. e. the bifurcation of R+M near the wing border and the sclerotized region between 2A and the hind border of the anal lobe present in P. protentor ( Wygodzinsky 1966)  , which were absent in the new species.

Fifthly, in the male genitalia, while the apical portion of the struts in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. is rounded and entire ( Figs. 112, 115–116View FIGURES 112 – 117), it is clearly largely bifurcated in P. protentor  ( Wygodzinsky 1966: fig. 90R).

The first three characteristics were confirmed from photos on specimens of P. protentor  from Colombia provided by Dr D. Forero. The specimens formed the basis of his record of this species from the country ( Forero 2006).

Regarding coloration, the main differences between P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. and P. protentor  are the following: 1—antennal segment II with three pale annuli in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. and four in P. protentor  ; 2— spine of scutellum and metanotum brownish in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 88 – 90) and pale in P. protentor  ; 3—fore coxae with a single median pale annulus in P. protentor  and two pale annuli in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov.; 4—mid and hind femora and tibiae with one more and two fewer annuli, respectively, in P. paraprotentor  sp. nov. in comparison with P. protentor  ; 5—apex of forewing more extensively marked with white in P. protentor  .

With the new species described here, six species are now included in Polauchenia  , three of them recorded only from Brazil.


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