Mycale (Carmia) rhaphidotoxa Hentschel, 1912

Van, Rob W. M., Aryasari, Ratih & De, Nicole J., 2021, Mycale species of the tropical Indo-West Pacific (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida), Zootaxa 4912 (1), pp. 1-212 : 72-73

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4912.1.1

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Mycale (Carmia) rhaphidotoxa Hentschel, 1912


Mycale (Carmia) rhaphidotoxa Hentschel, 1912 View in CoL

Figs 47 View FIGURE 47 a–h

Mycale rhaphidotoxa Hentschel, 1912: 340 View in CoL , pl. XIX fig. 16.

Mycale (Carmia) raphidotoxa ; Carballo & Hajdu 2001: 214.

Material examined. ZMA Por. 08838, Indonesia, Nusa Tenggara, Komodo   GoogleMaps , north cape, 8.4833°S 119.5683°E, depth 10–17 m, SCUBA, coll. R. W.M. van Soest, Indonesia-Dutch Snellius II Expedition stat. 096, field nr. 096/ IV/33 , 19 September 1984 (dark brown); ZMA Por. 08937, Indonesia, Sulawesi, SE Sulawesi, SW Salayar, reef N of Pulau Bahuluang, 6.45°S 120.43°E, depth 10–15 m, SCUBA, coll. R. W.M. van Soest, Indonesian-Dutch Snellius II Expedition stat. 169, field nr. 169/ IV/05 , 30 September 1984 (blackish brown).

Description ( Fig. 47a View FIGURE 47 ). Thin veneer covering coralline algae on dead coral, one specimen also on a keratose sponge ( Fascaplysinopsis reticulata ). Size 2–3 cm in lateral expansion, thickness a few mm. Colors in life reported as dark brown or blackish brown, beige in preservation. Surface in life showing striking venal pattern, but this is retracted in preservation. Consistency soft.

Skeleton ( Fig. 47b View FIGURE 47 ). Delicate and paucispicular. Thin, wispy megasclere tracts (up to 30 µm diameter, 5–7 spicules in cross section) are separately running from the substratum to the surface, where they fan out in brushes of individual spicules. No cross-connecting tracts. Tissue grainy. Microscleres occur throughout the choanosome, but are more common near the surface. Bundles of raphidotoxas are not common, most are scattered individually.A few rosettes of anisochelae I were noted, but likewise most anisochelae are scattered individually.

Spicules ( Figs 47 View FIGURE 47 c–h). Mycalostyles, three categories of anisochelae, one category of sigmas, raphidotoxas.

Mycalostyles ( Fig. 47c, c View FIGURE 47 1 View FIGURE 1 ), thin, with barely developed elongate heads, 199– 209.6 –224 x 1.5– 2.6 – 3 µm.

Anisochelae I ( Fig. 47d View FIGURE 47 ), well-developed, free part of the shaft 35–40% of spicule length, with slightly outcurving upper median alae, 31– 36.7 – 40 µm

Anisochelae II ( Figs 47e,e View FIGURE 47 1 View FIGURE 1 ), generally similar to anisochelae I but with upper median alae parallel to shaft, with distinct lip on median lower alae, 17– 21.2 – 29 µm

Anisochelae III ( Fig. 47f View FIGURE 47 ), rather reduced but with median upper and lower alae well-developed, 12– 14.1 – 15 µm.

Sigma I ( Fig. 47g View FIGURE 47 ), robust, narrow-shaped, 76– 92.6 –104 x 3– 4.4 – 5 µm.

Raphidotoxas ( Figs 47h View FIGURE 47 ), thin, curved irregularly but occasionally symmetrically toxiform, 124– 188.0 –241 x 0.5 µm.

Distribution and ecology. Indonesia, reef slope, 10– 17 m.

Remarks. There are two differences between our specimens and Hentschel’s description (which was confirmed in Carballo & Hajdu 2001): the mycalostyles of the type apparently were longer and thicker (304–392 x 5–6 µm) and its chelae were only distinguished in two size categories (39–45 µm and 17–20 µm). The latter difference may be explained by the similarity in shape of the smaller chelae categories, which may have caused Hentschel to consider them a single variable category. The difference in mycalostyle size is here explained as intraspecific variation, but it might indicate interspecific diversity. See also below for further indication of the latter possibility.


Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile














Mycale (Carmia) rhaphidotoxa Hentschel, 1912

Van, Rob W. M., Aryasari, Ratih & De, Nicole J. 2021

Mycale rhaphidotoxa

Hentschel, E. 1912: 340
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