Phymanthus crucifer ( Le Sueur, 1817 ), Le Sueur, 1817

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes, 2012, First Inventory of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the Mexican Caribbean, Zootaxa 3556, pp. 1-38: 22-24

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203987

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8B77DBA6-C74C-49DF-BC5F-1907FB374B90

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/35648787-DB1E-FFB3-88E5-FA72FAC6FBA3

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phymanthus crucifer ( Le Sueur, 1817 )
status

 

Phymanthus crucifer ( Le Sueur, 1817)  

( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 , Table 2)

Actinia crucifera Le Sueur, 1817: 174   –175.

Cereus crucifer Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864: 31   , pl. VI, fig. 13.

Cereus Crucifer   [sic] Duchassaing, 1870: 20.

Phymanthus cruciferus Andres, 1883: 501   .

Ragactis cruciata Andres, 1883: 471   .

Phymanthus crucifer McMurrich, 1889 a: 51   –55.

Epicystis crucifera Verrill, 1898: 496   .

Epicystis osculifera Verrill, 1900: 556   .

Phymantes crucifer Cutress & Cutress, 1976: 310   .

Phimanthus crucifer Zamponi, 1981: 165   .

Epicystis crucifer Cairns   , den Hartog, & Arneson, 1986: 177, 179, pl. 51.

Material examined.— Puerto Morelos (20 ° 51 ’ 48.66 ” N, 86 ° 51 ’ 33.32 ” W; 7 specimens); GoogleMaps   Punta Cancún (21 ° 9 ’ 10.5 ” N, 86 ° 44 ’ 41.2 ” W; 1 specimen). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis.—Fully expanded tentacles and oral disc 40–100 mm in diameter. Oral disc 32–55 mm in diameter, rough, variable in color, often white with dark brown, olive-green with white, or grey with green and brown ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 A, B). Marginal and discal tentacles ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 A, B). Marginal tentacles short, about 350–360, tapering distally, with annular thickenings ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 A) or smooth, olive green or light brown with longitudinal colored stripes ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 B). Discal tentacles reduced, small, vesicle-like, arranged in radial rows on oral disc. Column margin with one row of small vesicles without holotrichs ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 C). Column cylindrical, smooth, 27–45 mm in diameter and 15–35 mm in height, plate-like, with rough surface, pinkish proximally and fading into whitish distally, with flamelike staining pattern. Column with longitudinal rows of adherent pink verrucae distally, 5–6 verrucae per row ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 C, D, F). Pedal disc well developed, 12–35 mm in diameter, bright pink or orange ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 D). Mesenteries hexamerously arranged in four cycles (48 pairs in specimens examined): first two cycles and some mesenteries of third cycle perfect and fertile, others imperfect and sterile; gonochoric (?), only oocytes in examined specimens. Two pairs of directives each attached to a well-developed siphonoglyph. Retractor muscles strong, restricted; parietobasilar muscles well developed with long free mesogleal pennon ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 E). Basilar muscles well developed. Marginal sphincter muscle absent. Zooxanthellae present. Cnidom: basitrichs, microbasic pmastigophores and spirocysts ( Figure 7 View FIGURE 7 G –M; see Table 2).

Natural history.— Phymanthus crucifer   lives attached strongly to coral rocks and dead coral rubble, between 1–7 m depth, in the lagoon and fore-reef zones; the column is usually burrowed in sandy patches with only the oral disc visible above substratum.

Distribution.— Phymanthus crucifer   is found along the Caribbean Sea, from Bermuda to Barbados (see Table 1); however, our specimens represent the first record for the Mexican Caribbean (Puerto Morelos and Punta Cancún reefs).

Remarks.— Phymanthus crucifer   is the only species of the twelve valid species of the genus reported in the Caribbean Sea ( Fautin 2011). Carlgren (1949) used the presence or absence of thickenings in the marginal tentacles to differentiate Phymanthus   and Heteranthus Klunzinger, 1877   , the genera within Phymanthidae   . However, P. crucifer   includes morphs with and without thickenings in their marginal tentacles. According to Duerden (1900), all forms are different stages of development of these organisms. Although a detailed morphological study is still needed to determine the value of thickenings in the marginal tentacles as a generic or species level character, preliminary results indicate that there are no differences in other morphological characters or cnidae within Phymanthus crucifer   .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Actiniaria

Family

Phymanthidae

Genus

Phymanthus

Loc

Phymanthus crucifer ( Le Sueur, 1817 )

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes 2012
2012
Loc

Epicystis crucifer

Hartog 1986: 177
1986
Loc

Phymantes crucifer

Zamponi 1981: 165
Cutress 1976: 310
1976
Loc

Epicystis osculifera

Verrill 1900: 556
1900
Loc

Phymanthus crucifer

Verrill 1898: 496
McMurrich 1889: 51
1889
Loc

Phymanthus cruciferus

Andres 1883: 501
1883
Loc

Ragactis cruciata

Andres 1883: 471
1883
Loc

Cereus crucifer

Duchassaing 1870: 20
Duchassaing 1864: 31
1864
Loc

Actinia crucifera

Le 1817: 174
1817