Bartholomea annulata ( Le Sueur, 1817 ), Le Sueur, 1817

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes, 2012, First Inventory of Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the Mexican Caribbean, Zootaxa 3556, pp. 1-38: 28-30

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203987

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8B77DBA6-C74C-49DF-BC5F-1907FB374B90

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/35648787-DB10-FFB9-88E5-FD4CFE1FFC97

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bartholomea annulata ( Le Sueur, 1817 )
status

 

Bartholomea annulata ( Le Sueur, 1817)  

( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 , Table 2)

Actinia annulata Le Sueur, 1817: 172   –173.

Actinia solifera Le Sueur, 1817: 173   .

Paractis solifera Milne-Edwards, 1857: 249   –250.

Dysactis annulata Milne-Edwards, 1857: 262   .

Bartholomea solifera Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864: 39   , pl. VI, fig. 14.

Bartholomea Solifera   [sic] Duchassaing, 1870: 21.

Aiptasia solifera Andres, 1883: 386   .

Aiptasia annulata Andres, 1883: 392   .

Aiptasia annulata solifera Verrill, 1907: 251   .

Bartholomea annulata Stephenson, 1920: 532   .

Carlgreniella robusta Watzl, 1922: 60   , 66, 67 –70, 73, 75, pl. I, fig. 6.

Aiptasia arrulata Atoda, 1954: 123   .

Batholomea annulata Chen, Soong & Chen, 2008: 37   .

Material examined.— Puerto Morelos (20 ° 52 ’ 0.39 ” N, 86 ° 51 ’ 41.67 ” W; 5 specimens), GoogleMaps   Majahual (18 ° 42 ’ 28.18 ” N, 87 ° 42 ’ 36.92 ” W; 1 specimen); GoogleMaps   Punta Cancún (21 ° 9 ’ 10.5 ” N, 86 ° 44 ’ 41.2 ” W; 1 specimen); GoogleMaps   Isla Mujeres (21 ° 11 ’ 55.06 ” N, 86 ° 43 ’ 35.88 ” W; 2 specimens), GoogleMaps   Akumal (20 ° 23 ’ 39.68 ” N, 87 ° 18 ’ 47.39 ” W; 1 specimen); GoogleMaps   Xcalak (18 ° 15 ’ 53.55 ” N, 87 ° 49 ’ 43.20 ” W; 1 specimen); GoogleMaps   Isla Contoy (21 ° 28 ’ 16.98 ” N, 86 ° 47 ’ 27.87 ” W; 1 specimen). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis.—Fully expanded tentacles and oral disc 100–150 mm in diameter. Oral disc 35–46 mm in diameter, smooth, flat, brownish, semi-transparent, with small white, yellow and green dots; sometimes base of first cycle of tentacles with triangular spots ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 B). Tentacles with distinct white spiral bands, more concentrated distally; epidermis in spiral bands thickened ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 A –C, F). Tentacles 48–96, hexamerously arranged in four to six cycles, inner ones longer than outer ones, long, slender, brown, semi-transparent ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 B –D). Column elongated, 12–45 mm in height, 15–38 mm in diameter, divided into capitulum and scapus ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 C). Capitulum smooth, light to dark brown, with white and yellow spots. Scapus smooth but corrugate in appearance when contracted. One or two rows of cinclides in mid-scapus. Pedal disc well developed, 8–24 mm in diameter ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 D). Pedal disc and scapus light brown or beige, semi-transparent, mesenterial insertions visible. Mesenteries hexamerously arranged in four cycles (48 pairs in specimens examined): first cycle perfect, others imperfect. No gametogenic tissue observed in specimens reviewed. Two pairs of directives each attached to a well developed siphonoglyph ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 E). Retractor muscles strong, restricted ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 E); parietobasilar poorly developed. Basilar muscles poorly developed. Marginal sphincter muscle not observed. Longitudinal muscles of tentacles ectodermal. Acontia white, with basitrichs and microbasic p -amastigophores. Zooxanthellae present. Cnidom: basitrichs, holotrichs, microbasic p- amastigophores and spirocysts ( Figure 10 View FIGURE 10 G –T; see Table 2).

Natural history.— Bartholomea annulata   lives in shallow waters inside crevices of rocks and coral rubble, with only its tentacles above the substrate, in the lagoon and back-reef zones, often between 1–15 m but observed down to 20 m. Often observed in caves and crevices at the interface between hard and sandy substratum. Bartholomea annulata   is commonly associated with the shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni   and the pistol shrimp Alpheus armatus Rathbun, 1901   ( Manjarrés 1977; Ritson-Williams & Paul 2007). Alpheus armatus   protects the anemone   from predation by the fire-worm Hermodice carunculata ( Pallas, 1766)   and cleans the shelter, allowing the anemone   to expand and retract its tentacles completely when disturbed; the anemone   protects the shrimp from predation and provides it lodging ( Smith 1977). Other crustaceans reported in association with B. annulata   are Periclimenes yucatanicus   , P. rathbunae   , Thor amboinensis   , Alpheus immaculatus Knowlton & Keller, 1983   and Alpheus polystictus Knowlton & Keller, 1985   ( Manjarrés 1978, Knowlton & Keller 1983, 1985, 1986; Ritson-Williams & Paul 2007).

Distribution.—From Bermuda to Barbados, along the entire Caribbean Sea (see Table 1). In the Mexican Caribbean, this species is reported in Cozumel and Puerto Morelos reefs (INE 2000; Sánchez-Rodríguez et al. 2001, 2006; Jordán-Dahlgren 2008), but this is the first time recorded for Majahual, Punta Cancún, Isla Mujeres, Akumal, Xcalak, and Isla Contoy reefs.

Remarks.—Currently Bartholomea   has three valid species, of which B. annulata   and B. werneri Watzl, 1922   are reported for the Caribbean Sea ( Fautin 2011). According to Watzl (1922), the spiral bands in the tentacles of B. werneri   are more widely spaced than those in B. annulata   . Further studies are needed to establish if the difference in the arrangement of the spiral bands of both species represents a species level difference or intraspecific variation.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Cnidaria

Class

Anthozoa

Order

Actiniaria

Family

Aiptasiidae

Genus

Bartholomea

Loc

Bartholomea annulata ( Le Sueur, 1817 )

Gonzalez-Muñoz, Ricardo, Simões, Nuno, Sanchez-Rodriguez, Judith, Rodriguez, Estefania & Segura-Puertas, Lourdes 2012
2012
Loc

Batholomea annulata

Chen 2008: 37
2008
Loc

Carlgreniella robusta

Atoda 1954: 123
Watzl 1922: 60
1922
Loc

Bartholomea annulata

Stephenson 1920: 532
1920
Loc

Aiptasia annulata solifera

Verrill 1907: 251
1907
Loc

Aiptasia annulata

Andres 1883: 392
1883
Loc

Bartholomea solifera

Andres 1883: 386
Duchassaing 1870: 21
Duchassaing 1864: 39
1864
Loc

Paractis solifera

Milne-Edwards 1857: 249
Milne-Edwards 1857: 262
1857
Loc

Actinia annulata

Le 1817: 172
1817
Loc

Actinia solifera

Le 1817: 173
1817