Hodgson, Chris, 2012, Comparison of the morphology of the adult males of the rhizoecine, phenacoccine and pseudococcine mealybugs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea), with the recognition of the family Rhizoecidae Williams 3291, Zootaxa 3291 (1), pp. 1-79: 64

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3291.1.1

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Subfamily PSEUDOCOCCINAE Westwood  

Introduction. Quite a few adult males have been described in detail. Pseudococcini   (current name in parentheses, if applicable): Pseudococcus citriculus Green   (= P. cryptus Hempel   ), P. fragilis Brain   (= P. calceolariae (Maskell))   , P. obscurus (Essig)   (= P. affinis (Maskell))   , and Dysmicoccus alazon Williams   (= D. grassii (Leonardi))   (all Afifi, 1968); Leptococcus metroxyli (Reyne) ( Miller & Denno, 1977)   ; both apterous and macropterous morphs of D. vaccinii ( Miller & Polavarapu, 1997)   and the apterous morph of D. jenniferae ( Williams, 1985)   . In the Planococcini   and Trabutinini   : Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell)   , Trionymus newsteadi (Green)   , Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell)   , N. vastator (Maskell)   (= N. viridis (Newstead))   , Planococcoides ireneus De Lotto   , Planococcus dioscorea Williams   , P. kenyae (Le Pelley)   , P. citri (Risso)   and Saccharicoccus sacchari   (all Afifi, 1968); Plotococcus eugeniae Miller & Denno and Macrocepiococcus   loranthi Morrison ( Miller & Denno, 1977), and Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink ( Miller & Miller, 2002)   . All species with macropterous males, including those described below, are morphologically very similar and fall within the diagnosis outlined in the key above. The apterous species are discussed further below. In addition, Williams and Miller (1999) described the adult male of Quadrigallococcus lauracearum Williams & Miller. This latter species is gall inducing and, although the male is an otherwise typical macropterous male, the abdomen and particularly the penial sheath have become considerably elongated, presumably to assist in fertilization of the female within the gall. This abdominal and/or penial sheath extension is typical of many males of gall-inducing Eriococcidae ( Hodgson & Miller, 2010)   .