Plectranthias Bleeker

Gill, Anthony C., Pogonoski, John J., Moore, Glenn I. & Johnson, Jeffrey W., 2021, Review of Australian species of Plectranthias Bleeker and Selenanthias Tanaka (Teleostei: Serranidae: Anthiadinae), with descriptions of four new species, Zootaxa 4918 (1), pp. 1-116: 29-32

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4918.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:3FEF9EA2-B755-4B22-8B6A-FAFC5C0FFCDF

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4474369

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/335587B2-C44B-1C11-FF28-FF65FA78FE0B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Plectranthias Bleeker
status

 

Plectranthias Bleeker  

Plectranthias Bleeker 1873: 238   (masculine; type species Plectropoma anthioides G̹nther 1872   , by monotypy).

Paracirrhites Steindachner in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883b: 25   (masculine; type species Paracirrhites japonicus Steindachner 1883 in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883b   by monotypy; preoccupied by Paracirrhites Bleeker 1874   , replaced by Isobuna Jordan 1907   ).

Sayonara Jordan & Seale 1906: 145   (feminine; type species Sayonara satsumae   Jordan & Seale 1906 [= Paracirrhites japonicus Steindachner in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883b   ] by original designation and monotypy).

lsobuna Jordan in Jordan & Herre 1907: 158  (feminine; type species Paracirrhites japonicus Steindachner 1883 in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883b   by being a replacement name).

Xenanthias Regan 1908: 223   (masculine; type species Xenanthias gardineri Regan 1908   , by monotypy).

Zalanthias Jordan & Richardson 1910: 470   (masculine; type species Anthias kelloggi Jordan & Evermann 1903   , by original designation).

Pteranthias Weber 1913: 208   (masculine; type species Pteranthias longimanus Weber 1913   , by monotypy).

Serranops Regan 1914: 15   (masculine; type species Serranops maculicauda Regan 1914   , by monotypy).

Pelontrus Smith 1961: 364   (masculine; type species Pelontrus morgansi Smith 1961   by original designation and monotypy).

Zacallanthias Katayama 1964: 27   (masculine; type species Zacallanthias sagamiensis Katayama 1964   , by original designation and monotypy).

Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes Plectranthias   from other serranid genera: dorsal fin with 10 (rarely 9) spines and 13–20 segmented rays, incised between the spinous and soft portions; pectoral rays 12–18; lateral line with 8–46 tubed scales; no auxiliary scales on head or body; scales with or without basal cteni; teeth on vomer in a V- or U-shaped patch; no teeth on tongue; gill rakers 3–10+7–22=12–31; total vertebrae 26 (rarely 27).

Remarks. We follow Randall (1980) in including Sayonara   Jordan & Seale, 1906, lsobuna Jordan in Jordan & Herre, 1907, Xenanthias Regan, 1908   , Zalanthias   Jordan & Richardson, 1910, Pteranthias Weber, 1913   , Serranops Regan, 1914   , Pelontrus Smith, 1961   and Zacallanthias Katayama, 1964   in the synonymy of Plectranthias   . This is despite the lack of evidence for monophyly of the genus, and results from preliminary molecular studies that suggest the genus is not only non-monophyletic, but that some species are more closely related to the Serraninae than the Anthiadinae ( Smith & Craig 2007, but see Smith et al. 2018). We further note that some characters used to diagnose other anthiadine genera, such as presence or absence of basal cteni on scales, lateral-line development and pectoral-ray branching, vary among Plectranthias   species. Although some authors have recognised Zalanthias   as a valid genus (e.g. Smith & Craig 2007; Kharin & Balanov 2013), we feel that more extensive sampling of species and characters is needed before any classification changes are made.

The genus Hypoplectrodes Gill, 1862   is well represented in southern Australian waters and is easily confused with Plectranthias   . Heemstra & Anderson (1983) distinguished Hypoplectrodes   (as Ellerkeldia Whitley, 1927   , a junior synonym; see Anderson & Heemstra 1989) from Plectranthias   solely on the basis of vertebral counts, with Hypoplectrodes   typically having one more vertebra (27 versus 26 in Plectranthias   ). The monotypic Australian genera Epinephelides Ogilby, 1899   and Othos Castelnau, 1875   also resemble Plectranthias   but were not considered by Heemstra & Anderson (1983). We confirm counts of 10+17 vertebrae for all Australian Hypoplectrodes   , Othos   and Epinephelides   based on the examination of radiographs of the following specimens (number of specimens in parentheses): E. armatus ( Castelnau, 1875)   , AMS I.20233-011 (4), AMS I.20233-071 (1), AMS I.20245-015 (1); H. annulatus   (G̹nther, 1859), AMS I.17234-001 (1), AMS I.19901-034 (1), AMS I.22559-001 (1); H. cardinalis Allen & Randall, 1990   , AMS E.2492 (1), AMS I.12403 (1), AMS I.18476-001 (1 paratype)   , CSIRO H 6381-07 View Materials (1)   , CSIRO H 6381-08 View Materials (1)   ; H. jamesoni Ogilby, 1908   , AMS I.17773-001 (1), AMS I.19237-002 (1), AMS I.19246-001 (1), CSIRO H 6727-04 View Materials (1)   , CSIRO H 7678-03 View Materials (1)   , CSIRO H 7679-02 View Materials (1)   ; H. maccullochi ( Whitley, 1929)   , AMS I.19700-016 (4), CSIRO CA 680 (1)   ; H. nigrorubrum (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828)   , AMS I.19103-024 (2), AMS I.20239–015 (1); H. wilsoni ( Allen & Moyer, 1980)   , AMS I.20233-010 (3 paratypes); H. sp. nov. (C.D. Roberts ms)   , AMS I.17260-001 (1), AMS I.18428-001 (1), AMS I.20774-001 (1), AMS I.22756-001 (1), CSIRO H 8032-01 View Materials (1)   ; and Othos dentex (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1828)   , WAM P.4136-001 (2), WAM P.4071-001 (1), USNM 177012 View Materials   (1).

Most other anthiadines have 26 vertebrae, the typical count for Plectranthias   species. Aside from Epinephelides   , Othos   and Hypoplectrodes   , a count of 27 has been otherwise recorded from one species of the genus Caprodon Temminck & Schlegel, 1843   by Kharin & Dudarev (1983), from the holotype of Plectranthias bilaticlavia Paulin & Roberts, 1987   and from some specimens of P. japonicus   by Katayama (1959; as Sayonara satsumae   ). Pinheiro et al. (2018) recorded a count of 10+17 vertebrae for their new species Tosanoides aphrodite   . However, their radiographs of the holotype and a paratype (their figures 1 and 2) indicate this count is in error, and that the species agrees with other species of Tosanoides Kamohara, 1953   in having 10+16 vertebrae. We record a count of 10+17 from two additional anthiadines, one of four examined specimens of P. longimanus   , and the holotype and only known specimen of P. grahami   n. sp. Justification for classifying P. grahami   in Plectranthias   rather than Hypoplectrodes   , Epinephelides   or Othos   is given under Remarks for P. grahami   .

We here recognise 22 species of Plectranthias   from Australian waters: P. sp. 1 from a large seamount north of Middleton Reef and Norfolk Rise, Tasman Sea; P. alleni   from off southwest Western Australia; P. azumanus   ( Jordan & Richardson 1910) from off southwest Western Australia; P. bennetti   from Holmes Reef, Coral Sea; P. cruentus   from Lord Howe Island and possibly from off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; P. ferrugineus   n. sp. from the North West Shelf; P. fourmanoiri   from Christmas Island and Holmes Reef, Coral Sea; P. grahami   n. sp. from off central New South Wales, Tasman Sea; P. inermis   from Christmas Island; P. japonicus   from the North West Shelf and Arafura Sea; P. kamii Randall, 1980   from Christmas Island, east of the Murray Islands, Coral Sea, and Lord Howe Island; P. lasti   from the North West Shelf and off Marion Reef, Queensland; P. longimanus   from the Timor Sea, Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea and southern Queensland; P. maculicauda   from southeastern Australia; P. megalophthalmus   from northeast of the Whitsunday Islands, Queensland; P. mcgroutheri   n. sp. from the North West Shelf; P. melanesius Randall, 1980   from southeastern Queensland and a seamount north of Middleton Reef; P. moretonensis   n. sp. from off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; P. nanus   from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island, the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea; P. retrofasciatus Fourmanoir & Randall, 1979   from the Great Barrier Reef; P. robertsi   from off the Queensland coast, Coral Sea; and P. winniensis   from the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. Four of the species represent new records for Australia: P. azumanus   , P. kamii   , P. megalophthalmus   and P. melanesius   . Previous records of P. megalophthalmus   from the North West Shelf are based on misidentified specimens of P. lasti   . Records of P. wheeleri   from the North West Shelf are here identified as P. mcgroutheri   n. sp. A record of P. yamakawai Yoshino   from Christmas Island is based on a misidentified specimen of P. kamii   . Plectranthias retrofasciatus   was previously recorded from the Great Barrier Reef as P. pallidus   , here shown to be a junior synonym. Video-based records of P. kelloggi   from the Great Barrier Reef appear to be based also on P. retrofasciatus   .

Key to Australian species of Plectranthias  

1 Predorsal scales not extending anteriorly beyond supratemporal commissure (to vertical above preopercle)...... P. cruentus  

- Predorsal scales reaching anteriorly to at least vertical through posterior edge of eye................................ 2

2 No teeth on palatine; colour in preservative pale with four brown bars, and four prominent dark grey to black spots, one over mid-dorsal fin, one at end of dorsal fin, one at end of anal fin, and one mid-ventrally on abdomen in front of anus.................................................................................................. P. fourmanoiri  

- Palatine teeth present; coloration not as above............................................................... 3

3 Two or three large antrorse serrations on lower edge of preopercle.............................................. 4

- Serrations, if present on lower edge of preopercle neither enlarged nor antrorse................................... 13

4 Third dorsal spine longest.............................................................................. 5

- Fourth, fifth or sixth dorsal spine longest................................................................... 8

5 Pectoral fin with 14 rays................................................................ P. mcgroutheri   n. sp.

- Pectoral fin with 13 rays................................................................................ 6

6 Lateral line with 32–38 tubed scales................................................................. P. kamii  

- Lateral line with 27–30 tubed scales...................................................................... 7

7 Pectoral rays all unbranched; 6 branched rays in lower lobe of caudal fin; predorsal scales reach mid-interorbital space, at vertical through posterior edge of pupil........................................................ P. moretonensis   n. sp.

- Pectoral rays mostly branched; 7 branched rays in lower lobe of caudal fin; predorsal scales reach posterior nostrils or farther forward................................................................................. P. retrofasciatus  

8 Pectoral rays 16–18.......................................................................... P. winniensis  

- Pectoral rays 12–15................................................................................... 9

9 Lateral line complete, with 27–30 tubed scales; predorsal formula 0/0+0/2/1+1; hypurals 1–2 autogenous ( Figure 5A View FIGURE 5 ).... 10

- Lateral line incomplete, with 10–21 tubed scales; predorsal formula 0/0/2/1+1; hypurals 1–2 undifferentiated ( Figure 5B View FIGURE 5 )... .................................................................................................. 12

10 Three antrorse serrations on lower edge of preopercle................................................. P. bennetti  

- Two antrorse serrations on lower edge of preopercle......................................................... 11

11 Basal cteni present on at least some anterior lateral-line scales; circumpeduncular scales 12..................... P. sp. 1

- Basal cteni absent; circumpeduncular scales 14–16............................................ P. ferrugineus   n. sp.

12 Pectoral rays 12–13; lateral line with 10–17 tubed scales; circumpeduncular scales 12; 2–6 conspicuous serrations on interopercle, 2–7 conspicuous serrations on subopercle ( Figure 3A View FIGURE 3 ); greatest body depth 32.3–39.9 % SL; body depth at anal origin 27.1–32.0 % SL............................................................................ P. longimanus  

- Pectoral rays usually 14–15, rarely 13; lateral line with 15–21 tubed scales; circumpeduncular scales 12–15, usually 14; 0–2 weak serrations on interopercle and subopercle ( Figure 3B View FIGURE 3 ); greatest body depth 29.4–33.3 % SL; body depth at anal origin 24.6–27.2 % SL................................................................................ P. nanus  

13 Predorsal scales not extending anteriorly beyond vertical through mid-pupil; pectoral rays 12–13; branched caudal rays 7+6............................................................................................. P. inermis  

- Predorsal scales extending anteriorly to at least posterior nostrils; pectoral rays 14–18; branched caudal rays 8+7........ 14

14 Pectoral rays 18; lateral-line scales 41–42..................................................... P. grahami   n. sp.

- Pectoral rays 14–17; lateral-line scales 28–37.............................................................. 15

15 No serrations on preopercle............................................................................ 16

- Preopercle distinctly serrated, at least posteriorly........................................................... 17

16 Segmented dorsal rays 14; scales below the lateral line to the anal origin 9–10................................. P. lasti  

- Segmented dorsal rays 15; scales below the lateral line to the anal origin 12–13..................... P. megalophthalmus  

17 Segmented dorsal rays 13–14, usually 14; in preservative, a short dark stripe in front of the eye, a faint dusky stripe from behind eye across upper side of body, and a faint small dusky spot at midbase of caudal fin (stripes and spot better developed in small specimens)..................................................................................... P. alleni  

- Segmented dorsal rays 14–16, usually 15; coloration not as above.............................................. 18

18 Gill rakers 5–7+10–13=16–19; orbit diameter 9.8–11.9 % SL; tenth dorsal spine 3.4–6.2 % SL; bony interorbital width 3.5–4.2 % SL...................................................................................... P. japonicus  

- Gill rakers 5–8+13–16=18–26; orbit diameter 11.4–15.4 % SL; tenth dorsal spine 4.4–12.1 % SL; bony interorbital width 4.2–7.1 % SL....................................................................................... 19

19. Pectoral rays 15–16, usually 16; total caudal rays 28–31, usually 28–29; predorsal formula 0/0/2/1+1; second segmented pelvic ray elongate and filamentous; third dorsal spine 10.2–12.9% SL; tenth dorsal spine 4.4–6.0 % SL; colour in preservative generally pale, with dusky grey markings on anterior few lateral-line scales................................... P. robertsi  

- Pectoral rays 14–16 (rarely 14 or 16); total caudal rays 30–34; predorsal formula 0/0+0/2/1+1; second segmented pelvic ray not elongate; third dorsal spine 15.2–18.2 % SL; tenth dorsal spine 8.0–12.1 % SL; coloration not as above................ 20

20 Caudal peduncle with melanophores arranged in a large (larger than pupil) dark spot mid-laterally.......... P. maculicauda  

- Caudal peduncle with melanophores arranged in a bar or saddle............................................... 21

21 Melanophores of caudal peduncle marking form a dorsal saddle, which extends ventrally to about 1–2 scale rows beneath lateral line.................................................................................... P. azumanus  

- Melanophores of caudal peduncle marking form a bar, which extends ventrally to ventral margin of peduncle...................................................................................................... P. melanesius  

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

WAM

Western Australian Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Serranidae

Loc

Plectranthias Bleeker

Gill, Anthony C., Pogonoski, John J., Moore, Glenn I. & Johnson, Jeffrey W. 2021
2021
Loc

Zacallanthias

Katayama, M. 1964: 27
1964
Loc

Pelontrus

Smith, J. L. B. 1961: 364
1961
Loc

Serranops

Regan, C. T. 1914: 15
1914
Loc

Pteranthias

Weber, M. 1913: 208
1913
Loc

Zalanthias Jordan & Richardson 1910: 470

Jordan, D. S. & Richardson, R. E. 1910: 470
1910
Loc

Xenanthias

Regan, C. T. 1908: 223
1908
Loc

Sayonara Jordan & Seale 1906: 145

Jordan, D. S. & Seale, A. 1906: 145
1906
Loc

Paracirrhites Steindachner in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883b: 25

Steindachner, F. & Doderlein, L. 1883: 25
1883
Loc

Plectranthias

Bleeker, P. 1873: 238
1873