Mexalictus (Mexalictus) raavo Dumesh, 2013

DUMESH, SHEILA, 2013, <p> <strong> Revision of the rare Mesoamerican bee genus <em> Mexalictus </ em> (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) with the description of </ strong> <br /> <strong> 21 new species </ strong> </ p>, Zootaxa 3708 (1), pp. 1-80 : 50-52

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Mexalictus (Mexalictus) raavo Dumesh

new species

Mexalictus (Mexalictus) raavo Dumesh , new species

( Figs. 146–151)

Holotype. Female. MEXICO, Morelos, Tepoztlán, km 4.5 Autopista México-Cuautla, 07/07/1996, O. Yanez OY- 736 15:55H, 1940m 1999’15 9907’46, Bosque de Encino , s/ Verbena Carolina [ UNAM]; collection code MZH 04034 View Materials .

Diagnosis. Both sexes of this species can be distinguished by the following combination: supraclypeal area basally flattened; frontal line weakly carinate between antennal sockets; punctures on clypeus, surpraclypeal area, and lower paraocular area large and sparse; and mesoscutum and metapostnotum strongly imbricate. This species is most similar to M. ayalai but can be differentiated by the flattened supraclypeal area (convex) and the even dorsal metapostnotum (depressed).

Description. Female (Holotype): Body length 7.5mm, forewing length 5.5–5.6mm, head width 1.70mm, ITW 1.13–1.15mm. Head and mesosoma metallic green; pubescence pale whitish. Head: slightly longer than wide, L:W = 1.06:1. (1) Labrum and mandible: dark brown, with a subrectangular basal area raised medioapically with lateral areas shiny and flattened, narrow triangular distal process; basal area of mandible dark brown, mandible red apically. (2) Clypeus: shiny, apical third black; length subequal to length of supraclypeal area, nearly entire length below lower compound eye, weakly convex in lateral view, less protuberant than supraclypeual area; punctures separated by 1–2pd basally, evenly distributed throughout, less dense apically with larger punctures separated by <2pd. (3) Supraclypeal area basally dull, apically shiny; convex, slightly protuberant, length subequal to apical width; punctation large punctures separated by 1–4pd, dulled area between antennal sockets more evident. (4) Lower paraocular area: punctures below antennal sockets separated by>1pd, more sparse towards supraclypeal area (1–2pd); paraocular lobe nearly impunctate. (5) Frontal area: frontal line not carinate between antennae, but line beginning at level of lower antennal socket margin and terminating much below median ocellus; punctation coarse and crowded above antennae. (6) Vertexal area: shiny, vertex with weak transverse depression, IOD = 1.6MOD, OOD = 1.6MOD, OVD = 1.2MOD; punctures between lateral ocelli sparse and deep, vertex with larger punctures separated by>2pd, smaller punctures more dense (1–2pd). (7) Genal and hypostomal areas: genal area subequal to compound eye in lateral view, shiny with fine obscure punctures, hypostomal area granular, impunctate. (8) Antenna: brown, scape, pedicel, and F1–F3 appearing darker than F4–F10; scape reaching posterior median ocellus, pedicel slightly longer than wide, F2 and F3 subequal in size, both wider than long and shorter than F1, flagellomeres slightly increasing in length from F2–F10, F10 as wide as long. Mesosoma: (9) Pronotum: smooth, impunctate, more shiny dorsally; pronotal lobe pubescent, bearing pale branched hairs. (10) Mesoscutum: basal area dulled medially and along admedian line, otherwise entirely shiny; punctures of 2 sizes, larger punctures deep, separated by>4pd in central disc, smaller punctures shallow and more dense, separated by 2–3pd; punctures becoming more dense laterally beyond parapsidal lines, where punctures are separated by 1– 1.5pd. (11) Mesoscutellum: entirely shiny, with a basal depressed midline; smaller punctures minute, extremely fine and slightly more dense than those of mesoscutum, larger punctures basally sparse, separated by>4pd, becoming closer apically (1–3pd). (12) Metanotum: mostly dull, may appear somewhat shiny at certain angles, with sparse punctures laterally, nearly impunctate medially. (13) Mesopleuron: shiny above becoming dull below, punctures fine above, separated by>2pd, becoming larger and deeper below, separated by 2pd, with several dense and deep punctures along posterior margin; pre-episternum weakly granular anteriorly; punctures coarse, separated by 2–4pd with smaller obscure punctures between them, separated by 1–2pd; hypoepimeral area and central episternum smooth, punctures fine and sparse (2–4pd). (14) Metapleuron: transversely striate basally, otherwise weakly granular and somewhat shiny. (15) Metapostnotum and propodeum: metapostnotum shiny and smooth throughout, but weakly granular baso-medially, striation present basally, strongest laterally, extending to apical, becoming centrally microareolate; propodeum with punctures sparse and obscured laterally, absent posteriorly. (16) Wings: clear, veins and stigma brown, membrane slightly infuscate, hairs sparse in radial cell and basal half of 1 st submarginal cell; first recurrent vein meeting second transcubital vein, arched becoming sharply angled about 2 vein widths from second transcubital vein; second submarginal cell with anterior margin 3/4 length of posterior margin. (17) Tegula: punctate anteriorly, with few long branched hairs distally, posteriorly shiny with minute and sparse punctures. (18) Foreleg: hairs pale golden on tarsi, metafemoral brush and anterior tibia; coxa, trochanter, and femur with branching shorter erect hairs; pubescence on tibia and basitarsus dense, hairs long, not branched. (19) Middle leg: as foreleg, hairs brownish on outer surfaces of tibia and basitarsus as well as basitibial plate; tibia with lateral patch of pale, long and dense pubescence on apical 2/3. (20) Hind leg: as middle leg, coxa and trochanter with long, branching, pale pubescence; femoral scopa well formed with long branching hairs; tibia densely pubescent, hairs long and erect; basitarsus with several branched hairs, pubescence less dense than on tibia; femur 3X as long as greatest width; tibia 4X as long as greatest width; basitarsus 3.5X as long as greatest width; tibial spurs translucent yellow, apically darkened; inner hind tibial spur microserrate, with over 15 short, close teeth outer hind tibial spur weakly curved at apical 1/3. Metasoma: (21) Terga: dark brown basally becoming lighter brown toward apical margin with margin somewhat hyaline, nearly entirely shiny, metallic reflections absent; T2– T4 with minute punctures present basally, separated by 2–4pd, apically shiny and impunctate, T5 with punctures more coarse and sparse; T1 smooth and shiny, branching pubescence present laterally and anteriorly, pubescence pale on T1–T4, darker on T5, reddish to dark brown apical and pseudopygidial area, T4 bearing only long branched pubescence, apical impressed areas translucent, T5 with dense pubescence, branched hairs longer than unbranched, black anteriorly, golden posteriorly. (22) Sterna: ventral hairs long, plumose and pale, brownish on anterior surface of S5–S6, long pubescence on S1 near crossing with mesosoma.

Male (Allotype): Body length 7.0– 7.2mm, forewing length 4.7–4.8mm, head width 1.44–1.45mm, ITW 0.88– 0.90mm. Head and mesosoma metallic blue-green; pubescence pale whitish. Head: slightly longer than wide, L:W = 1.05:1. (1) Labrum and mandible: dark brown, basally raised with several deep punctures, becoming flattened and shiny apically, triangular distal process broad with a row of long pale bristles; basal area of mandible dark brown, mandible red apically. (2) Clypeus: shiny, apical 1/5 brown; length 0.83X length of supraclypeal area, half length below lower ocular tangent; weakly convex in lateral view, protuberance subequal to as supraclypeal area.; punctures separated by ≤1pd basally, apically separated by ~2pd. (3) Supraclypeal area: shiny, dulled mesad of antennal sockets; supraclypeal area flattened above, slightly depressed between antennal sockets, becoming slightly protuberant below, about 0.83 X as wide as long, punctures separated by 1pd laterally, becoming very sparse medially and apically. (4) Lower paraocular area: shiny, becoming dull towards antennal socket; punctures separated by 1pd, becoming slightly sparser laterad of supraclypeal area, punctures fine and well separated towards paraocular lobe; paraocular lobe brown and nearly impunctate. (6) Vertexal area: shiny, with weak transverse depression, IOD = 1.5MOD, OOD = 1.7MOD, OVD = 1.1MOD; larger punctures separated by>2pd, smaller punctures more dense, separated by 1pd. (7) Genal and hypostomal areas: genal area dull, slightly narrower than compound eye in lateral view, shiny with fine punctures separated by 1–2pd, hypostomal area with extremely sparse punctures, separated by>4pd. (8) Antenna: dark brown, scape, pedicel, and F1 appearing darker than F2– F11; scape reaching posterior margin of median ocellus, pedicel slightly longer than wide, F2 wider than long and shorter than F1, flagellomeres slightly increasing in length from F2 to F11, F11 longer than wide. Mesosoma: (10) Mesoscutum: larger punctures deep, separated by ~2pd in central disc, smaller punctures shallow and separated by 2–3pd; punctures equally dense laterally beyond parapsidal lines. (20) Hind leg: coxa, trochanter, femur and tibia with sparse rather than long and dense hairs. Metasoma: (21) Terga: T6 with deep and large punctures with hairs sparse and long, T7 centrally depressed. (22) Sterna: S4 and S5 with sharp lateral elevated areas; S5 with lateral patches of medially directed hairs; S6 with lateral areas elevated, bearing patches of dense short pubescence merging apically. (23) Terminalia: see Figs. 150, 151.

Material examined. MEXICO, Morelos, Tepoztlán, km 4.5 Autopista México-Cuautla, 07/07/1996, O. Yanez OY-736 15:55H, 1940m 1999’15 9907’46, Bosque de Encino , s/ Verbena carolina (holotype female ( MZH 04034 View Materials ), allotype male ( MZH 04013 View Materials ) [ UNAM]) ; Mexico, 6km E Tenanacingo , 1950m, 30.Oct.1991, T. Griswold (1 paratype male, SM0317158 KUNHM-ENT [ KUM]) ; Tancitaro, Michoacan, 6000’, July 27 1940, H. Hoogstraal (1 paratype female [ AMNH]) ; same locality, August 9 1940 (1 paratype female [ AMNH]) .

Etymology. This species is named in honour of my mother, grandparents and the rest of the Raavo family for always being supportive of my studies and research.


Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


Finnish Museum of Natural History


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Resource Management Support Center


American Museum of Natural History