Conostegia setosa Triana
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|Conostegia setosa Triana|
Conostegia setosa Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 28: 99. 1872. Type: Colombia. Chocó: Cordillera Occidental, between Tuquerres and Barbacoas, 1851-1857, J. Triana 3940 (holotype: BM!, isotypes: BR!, K!, P (fide Almeda in Schnell 1996), W).
Cryptophysa setosa Standl. & J. F. Macbr., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 4: 244. 1929. Type: Panama. Bocas del Toro: Buena Vista, Almirante, January-March 1928, G. Cooper 219 (holotype: F!, isotype: NY!). Conostegia hirsuta Gleason, Phytologia 3: 359. 1959. Non Conostegia setosa Triana.
Shrubs to less commonly small trees 0.9-1.5(-3) m tall with terete to a somewhat tetragonal stems that are covered with long smooth spreading hairs and a sparse and inconspicuous ground layer of brown lepidote hairs; the nodal line obscured and covered by the setae as the rest of the node and internode. Leaves of a pair equal to unequal in length. Petiole 0.2-3.9 cm. Leaf blades 7.6-35.5 × 3.22-13.5 cm, usually clustered at the apex of the branches, 5-7 plinerved, with the innermost pair of primary veins diverging from the mid vein up to about 4 cm above the base usually after the formicarium mostly opposite fashion, elliptic to obovate, the base acute and attenuate or rounded and with formicarium 1.5-3 cm long entirely on the leaf blade when the base is decurrent ot half of the formicarium on the petiole when not, the apex acute to abruptly acuminate, the margin denticulate to dentate, setose on both surfaces. Inflorescence a terminal panicle 3.4-16.3 cm long branched above the base but sometimes appearing branched at the base because of multiple inflorescences arising at opposing meristems at the terminal node, accessory branches present, the rachis setose with green or red trichomes, bracts subtending the nodes up to 3 cm long, persistent or deciduous, bracteoles up to 1 cm long, linear, persistent. Pedicel 0.5-3 mm. Flowers (4-)5(-6) merous, obovate to pyriform, calyptrate, the floral buds 4-7 × 2-4 mm, the base rounded, the apex apiculate, slightly constricted; the hypanthium 2.35-3.5 × 2-3 mm, setose with green or red trichomes and tiny brownish glands to rarely glabrescent. Petals 6-7 × 4-5 mm, white to pale pink, broadly obovate, spreading, eventually closing and persisting closed, emarginate, glabrous. Stamens (13-)15(-17), 4-5.5 mm long, radially arranged but sometimes bilaterally symmetric or asymmetric apparently from interactions with the style, the filament 2.45-2.75 mm long, white, anthers 2.25-2.75 × 0.5-0.75 mm, linear and sinuous, laterally compressed, the base sagittate, yellow, the pore ca. 0.15 mm wide, ventro terminal. Ovary (4-)5(-7) locular, inferior, apically glabrous and forming a low collar around the style. Style 4-5 mm long, straight and just slightly curved upward apically, vertical distance of the anther pore to the stigma -2 - 0 mm, horizontal distance absent; stigma capitellate to subcapitate, 1-1.5 mm wide. Berry 5-6 × 5-6 mm, dark purple to black. Seeds 0.3-0.5 mm, ovoid, the testa smooth.
(Fig. 108 View Figure 108 ). From Nicaragua through Costa Rica and Panama to Colombia and Ecuador, 0-1400 m elevation.
This is one of the most distinctive species of Conostegia because of the densely setose indument on most parts and the presence of pouch formicaria at the base of the leaf. Only one additional species has this kind of structure within Conostegia and that is Conostegia dentata . The latter taxon differs from Conostegia setosa in its reduced inflorescences, larger flowers, and exserted styles. Two morphotypes exist in Conostegia setosa , with typical plants having almost sessile leaves with mostly acute to attenuate bases in which the formicarium is almost all on the lamina. On the other hand plants described by Standley and Macbride as Cyprophysa setosa and given the new name of Conostegia hirsuta by Gleason have long petioles with the formicarium placed half on the petiole and half on the lamina. Schnell (1996) considered these two morphotypes to be the same species because he saw intermediate morphologies. The latter author also observed no geographic pattern but noted the similarity between plants from the same locality. During the course of this study plants of both morphotypes were collected in the same locality in Santa Fé, Veraguas, Panama (short petiolate leaves with acute to attenuate bases in Kriebel and Burke 5731, petiolate leaves with rounded bases in Kriebel and Burke 5712 - both at NY, PMA).
Schnell (1996) studied the phenology of this species in detail and observed one or two flowers opening everyday for two to three months. He hypothesized that this behavior might result in a greater degree of outcrossing by forcing the bees to forage to other plants in these large clonal populations. He further noted that bee species that visit Conostegia setosa are non traplining opportunistic species ( Schnell 1996). I have observed one of these opportunistic bees in the Halictidae family visiting Conostegia setosa at La Selva, Costa Rica. Perhaps as expected for a species that flowers over a long period of time, fruiting is also spread through large periods of time ( Schnell 1996).
Alonso (1998) studied populations of Conostegia setosa in Costa Rica and Panama and observed some populations in Colombia and Ecuador. She found that in the southern part of it distribution, Conostegia setosa was inhabited by more specialized ants and one obligate inhabitant, Pheidole melastomae . The latter inhabitant was most common in South America so Alonso (1998) hypothesized that perhaps this pattern is due to the fact that because Conostegia setosa is bird dispersed, plants have dispersed more rapidly than their obligate ant inhabitant Pheidole melastomae . In general, Alonso (1998) found a lot of variation in the ant inhabitants of Conostegia setosa .
COSTA RICA. Alajuela: San Carlos, Boca Tapada, Laguna de Lagarto Lodge, Solano 894, 1448 ( INB, NY) . Cartago: Jiménez, Pejibaye, Reserva El Copal, Kriebel 2474 ( INB); Jiménez, Pejibaye , Refugio de Vida Silvestre La Marta, Kriebel 4484 ( INB) ; Heredia: La Selva, Sendero Holdridge a Parcelas, Kriebel 3565 ( INB) . Limón: North end of Tortuguero National Park and near the Boca de las Lagunas de Tortuguero , Burger and Antonio 11274 ( CR, F, NY); Between Cerro Jacrón and Cerro Bitárkara, Trail between "Sitio Rangalle and Cuen", Hazlett 5125 ( NY); Pococí, R. B. Bosque Lluvioso, Sendero derecho, Vargas et al. 3539 ( INB, NY) .
PANAMA. Coclé: 7 km from Llano Grande on road to Coclesito near Continental Divide, Antonio 1365 ( NY); Vicinity of La Mesa, N of El Valle de Antón, along steep slopes above water reservoirs, ca. 1 km W of road between Finca Mandarinas and Finca Furlong, Croat 67169 ( MO, NY); Parque Nacional Omar Torrijos, Sendero Cuerpo de Paz , Penneys and Blanco 1760 ( FLAS, NY) . Darién: 0-2 mi. E of Tres Bocas along shortest headwater of Río Coasi, Kirkbride and Duke 1170 ( MO, NY); Mannene to the mouth of Rio Coasi , Kirkbride and Bristan 1492 ( MO, NY); Ensenada Guayabo, between Punta Guayabo Grande and Punta Guayabo Chiquita, Stern and Chambers 178 ( NY) . Panamá: On Atlantic side Llano-Carti Road, 12 miles from Pan-American Highway, Antonio 3308 ( MO, NY); Road to Carti (San Blas), 19 km north of El Llano, Busey 894 ( MO, NY); Near summit of Cerro Camapan, Croat 22814 ( MO, NY); Cerro Azul, D’Arcy and D’Arcy 6233 ( MO, NY); Cerro Jefe, Dwyer and Gentry 10257 ( MO, NY); On trails radiating from end of road which passes Campana water tank near Cerro Campana, Kirkbride and Hayden 311 ( MO, NY); along El Llano Carti-Tupile road, 12 mi above Pan-Am Hwy, Liesner 1132 ( MO, NY); Forest 10 miles north of Highway 1 towards Cerro Jefe, Luteyn 1323 ( MO, NY); Cerro Campana, Sendero La Cruz , near the summit, Penneys and Blanco 1678 ( FLAS, NY) .
COLOMBIA. Chocó: North ridge of Alto de Buey, above Dos Bocas del Río Mutatá, tributary of Río El Valle , ESE of El Valle, Gentry and Fallen 17413 ( MO, NY); Nuquí, Alto de Buey , von Sneidern 7 ( NY) . El Valle: Cordillera Occidental, vertiente occidental, hoya del río Anchicayá, lado derecho, bosques entre Pavas y Miramar, Cuatrecasas 14380 ( NY); Costa del Pacífico, rio Cajambre , Silva, Cuatrecasas 17555 ( NY) .
ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: Eloy Alfaro, Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas, Parroquia Luis Vargas Torres, Rio Santiago , estero Pote, Tirado et al. 529 ( MO, NY) . Pichincha: Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito km 113, Betancourt 82, 111, 166, 169, 218 ( NY); Carretera Quito-Puerto Quito km 113, 10 km al Norte de la carretera principal, Freire 1060 ( NY); Reserva Forestal ENDESA, Rio Silanche : “Corporación Forestal Juan Manuel Durini", km 113 de la carretera Quito-Pto. Quito, faldas occidentales a 10 km al Norte de la carretera principal, Jaramillo 5202, 6412 ( NY) .
VENEZUELA (fide Schnell). Zulia: Caño Helena, Sierra Perijá, Delascio and Benkowsky 3191 ( US).
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