Nipponomyia okinawensis Kolcsar & Kato, Kolcsar & Kato, 2020

Kolcsar, Levente-Peter, Kato, Daichi, Gamboa, Maribet & Watanabe, Kozo, 2020, Revision of Japanese species of Nipponomyia Alexander, 1924 (Diptera, Pediciidae), ZooKeys 1000, pp. 71-105: 71

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Nipponomyia okinawensis Kolcsar & Kato

sp. nov.

Nipponomyia okinawensis Kolcsar & Kato   sp. nov. Figs 4E View Figure 4 , 12C, D View Figure 12 , 14 View Figure 14

Type material.

Holotype ♀, pinned. Original label: " Japan , Okinawa Island , Okinawa , Kunigami , Mt Fuenchiji-dake, Yona ; alt. 250 m; 26°44.93'N, 128°14.54'E; 21 May 2016; D. Kato leg." " Holotype Nipponomyia okinawensis   Kolcsár & Kato, sp. nov. [red label]" ( BLKU). GoogleMaps  

Diagnostic characters.

Anterior part of thorax dark brown to black, posterior part yellowish brown (yellow in N. pentacantha   and N. kuwanai   ), abdomen yellow. Thorax with 7 darker patches (11 in N. pentacantha   and 11-13 in N. kuwanai   ), 2 in presutural area of scutum. Wing with transverse dark lines in costal cell. Brown marking extending from R2+3 to base of M1 (brown marking usually not extending to base of M1 in N. kuwanai   and extending to crossvein m-m in N. pentacantha   ). Second sternite without dark line (with black marking at corner of membranous area in N. kuwanai   and with a diffuse line positioned same level as line on sternite 3 in N. pentacantha   ). Cercus straight (curved upward in N. kuwanai   and N. pentacantha   ). Genital opening T-shaped (Y-shaped in N. kuwanai   and N. pentacantha   ), lateral sclerite very small, less than 1/6-1/7 of length of genital fork (1/3 of length of genital fork in N. pentacantha   and less than 1/5 of length of genital fork in N. kuwanai   ). Genital fork cross-shaped, lateral branch curved caudally (spoon-shaped in N. kuwanai   and cross-shaped in N. pentacantha   but lateral branch almost straight).


Body length: female: 12 mm.

Wing length: female 10 mm.

Head: General coloration brown (Fig. 14B, C View Figure 14 ). Palpus dark brown, 5-segmented, segments 2-4 almost same in length, last segment 1.5-1.6 × longer than segment 4. Tip of last flagellomere darker than other part of palpus. Antenna 1.5 × longer than head. Flagellum 13-segmented, scape and pedicel brown, flagellum gradually lightening from base to tip.

Thorax: Apical half of thorax dark brown, almost black, partly due to decay inside, posterior part yellowish brown (Fig. 14 View Figure 14 ). Pattern of thorax hardly recognizable, only 2 lateral large spots on presutural area of scutum distinct. Postsutural area of scutum with 5 spots, 1 triangular black spot at middle of suture, other 2 spots at anterior corners of transverse suture, and 2 small spots at posterior corners of scutum (parascutum) (Fig. 14B, C View Figure 14 ).

Legs: General coloration yellow, covered with yellowish setae. Femora without apical dark area, tip of tibiae with a narrow darker ring. Apical ends of tarsomeres 1 to 4 each with narrow dark yellow to light brown ring. Tarsomeres 4 and 5 yellowish (Fig. 14A View Figure 14 ). Tarsomeres each with 2 spurs, black, easily discernible.

Wings: As in Fig. 4E View Figure 4 . Wing with transverse dark lines in costal cell. Crossvein m-m present. Narrow band on R2+3 not extending to crossvein m-m. Small yellowish brown area around connection of m-cu to Cu.

Abdomen: Yellow to light brown, relatively short setae dark on tergites and pale on sternites. Tergites 2-6, each with longitudinal narrow black line on lateral side, 1/4-1/3 length of tergite length, less prominent compared to other species. Sternite 2 without dark mark. Sternites 3-5 each with narrow brown line, not continuous in sternite 3 (Fig. 14A, B View Figure 14 ). The abdomen removed in specimen for DNA extraction.

Female terminalia, ovipositor: General coloration dark yellow (Fig. 14A View Figure 14 ). Cercus almost straight (Fig. 12C View Figure 12 ). Genital fork cross-shaped, widening at posterior 1/3, lateral branches directed caudally. Lateral sclerite of genital plate very small, indistinct, less than 1/6-1/7 of length of genital fork. Genital opening T-shaped, two darker areas between genital fork and genital opening diffuse, twice longer than lateral sclerite (Fig. 12D View Figure 12 ).

Male: Unknown.

Larva: Unknown.

Pupa: Unknown.


Japan: Ryukyu Islands: Okinawa Island (Fig. 9 View Figure 9 ). Oriental region.

Flying period.

Type specimen collected at the end of May.

Biogeographic notes.

Okinawa Island is the largest island of the Ryukyu Archipelago, located roughly midway between Kyushu and Taiwan. The island was formed by complex process of Paleogene volcanic activities and Neogene-Quaternary sedimentations and reef deposits ( Osozawa et al. 2012; Fujita et al. 2018). Okinawa is a continental island, separated and reconnected to the Eurasian mainland by land bridges few times during Neogene-Quaternary sea level fluctuations ( Ota 1998). The last separation of Okinawa from mainland occurred 1.552 ± 0.154 million years ago ( Osozawa et al. 2012). The island is situated in the Oriental faunal realm. The northern part of the island, the so called Yambaru Forest consists of unique, relatively well-preserved subtropical rainforest, which is home to numerous endemic plant and animal species ( Ito et al. 2000). The crane fly fauna of the island very poorly known, with six species known as endemic to the island so far. The new species, Nipponomyia okinawensis   Kolcsár & Kato, sp. nov., is most probably more closely related to the Taiwanese N. symphyletes   than to other Japanese species; however, to support this hypothesis additional specimens must be collected from both species and both sexes.

Japanese species of trispinosa species group