Paratrephes hintoni, : Roback & Nieser, 1974

Rodrigues, Higor D. D., Melo, Alan Lane De & Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L., 2012, Macropterous form of Paratrephes China, 1940, with new distributional records of Neotrephinae from Brazil (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Helotrephidae), Zootaxa 3483, pp. 82-88: 83-86

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Paratrephes hintoni


Paratrephes hintoni   China, 1940

( Figs. 1–13, 18)

Paratrephes hintoni   China, 1940: 118–122. [Type Species, by original designation; from   French Guiana]

Paratrephes hintoni: Roback & Nieser 1974   , 42. [List of species; record from Colombia]

Paratrephes hintoni: Nieser 1975   , 166. [List of species; record from Suriname]

Paratrephes hintoni: Bachmann & López-Ruf 1994   , 11. [Comments; record from Bolivia (without locality specific)] Paratrephes hintoni: Papáček & Zettel 2004   , 105. [Checklist]

Macropterous male description. Dimensions (n=1): Length: 2.15; maximum width (across humeral angles): 1.37; length of pronotum: 0.68; length of scutellum: 0.50; length of segments of fore leg, femur: 0.61; tibia: 0.48; tarsomeres I+II: 0.14, III: 0.15; middle leg, femur: 0.57; tibia: 0.44; tarsomeres I+II: 0.14, III: 0.17; hind leg, femur: 0.59; tibia: 0.72; tarsomeres I+II: 0.30, III: 0.26.

Coloration. Dorsally, ground color dark brown, with ferruginous and black spots. Anterior half of head to inner margins of eyes brownish yellow; posterior half brown to black; eyes dark red. Pronotum dark brown to black, with ferruginous areas in anterior and posterior margins. Scutellum dark brown to black; clavus black with ferruginous areas in apex. Hemelytra dark brown to black, with ferruginous areas. Ventrally, rostrum, antenna, and legs brownish yellow; pro-, meso- and metasternum brown; abdominal sterna brown, with margins brownish yellow.

Cephalonotum. Head: Anterior region shining, W-shaped shiny area near cephalonotal suture ( Fig. 5); covered with long setae, concentrated laterally near inner margin of eyes (best seen in liquid); punctures relatively fine, less distinct than on rest of body, concentrated near cephalonotal suture at posterior margin. Rostrum long, reaching hind coxae ( Figs. 3–4); fourth rostral segment almost 4.0 times as long as segment 3 (0.65/0.18). Antenna two-segmented; the second segment three times longer than wide, with two long apical setae of similar size ( Fig. 7). Cephalonotum suture almost straight. Thorax: pronotum with punctures more distinct than on head; anterior margin with two small shining areas; anterolateral angle acute, reaching posterior margin of eye (in lateral view); humeral angles slightly elevated. Scutellum: posterior portion naked, lacking punctures. Hemelytra: same punctures as pronotum but more concentrated; lateral margins of hemelytra narrows slightly immediately after lateroposterior angles of pronotum, and expanding again in middle of clavus; claval and embolar suture present ( Figs. 2–3). Tibia and femur of fore and middle legs with a row of 14–17 small spines.

Ventral carinae ( Fig. 8): Prosternal carina with rounded anterior corner and posterior outline convex; mesosternal carina with anterior edge touching posterior edge of prosternal carina, posterior corner acute and posterior outline convex; metasternal carina with rounded anterior and posterior corner, anterior edge not touching posterior edge of mesosternal carina; carina of sternite II and III united, with posterior corner of sternite III almost straight; carinae of sternites IV–VI smaller than previous.

Abdomen. Abdominal segments ventrally with short pubescence, except marginal band naked, shining; mediosternites IV–VII with shining areas ( Fig 4). Seventh abdominal sternite with long whitish setae, wider at base and converging posteriorly ( Fig. 11). Dorsal ( Fig. 9) and ventral ( Fig. 10) parameres broad at base, with posterior half as finger-like shaped and upturned, rounded at apex; ventral paramere narrows more strongly and slightly longer than dorsal paramere.

Macropterous female description. Dimensions (n=1): Length: 2.21; maximum width (across humeral angles): 1.43; length of pronotum: 0.71; length of scutellum: 0.53; length of segments of fore leg, femur: 0.60; tibia: 0.50; tarsomeres I+II: 0.12, III: 0.18; middle leg, femur: 0.56; tibia: 0.47; tarsomeres I+II: 0.13, III: 0.18; hind leg, femur: 0.62; tibia: 0.73; tarsomeres I+II: 0.30, III: 0.27.

Similar to macropterous male in color and morphology, except in some dimensions. Subgenital plate with long whitish setae, wider at base and converging posteriorly; apex slightly produced medially, with two sets of long setae ( Fig. 12). Eighth and ninth abdominal segments as in Fig. 13, with posterior angle acute, smaller setae at posterior margin of segment IX.

Material examined. BRAZIL: 1 brachypterous male, 1 nymph, Amazonas State, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Igarapé Miuá (00º06’33,2”S, 66º52’24,2”W), tributary of Negro river , 24.VIII.2011, R GoogleMaps   . L. Ferreira-Keppler, P. V   . Cruz, A. Fernandes and E. De Angelis-Reis coll. ( INPA); 1 macropterous male, 1 macropterous female, 4 nymphs, Minas Gerais State, Luz, Ribeirão Jorge Grande (19º40’13”S, 45º36’37”W), tributary of São Francisco river , 13.III.2010, H.D.D. Rodrigues and G.J.C. Vianna coll. ( DPIC) GoogleMaps   .

Discussion. This species has never been recorded from Brazil previously; thus, this is the first record of Paratrephes   for the country and the first record of Helotrephidae   for northern Brazil. The record of the genus in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State extends considerably its range into southern South America ( Fig. 18). In Amazonas State the Igarapé Miuá has black-water with moderate current, submerged roots, and kinon (see Fittkau 1977) on the surface; whereas in Minas Gerais the Ribeirão Jorge Grande was brown-water (because of the mud substrate) with moderate current in the margins and submerged vegetation. In Minas Gerais, despite several attempts, Paratrephes   was collected only during the rainy season (January–March) when the water level reached the marginal vegetation.

It is known that in species of Neotrephes   , wing form is related to the number of antennal segment; brachypterous specimens have one antennal segment and macropterous specimens have two segments ( China 1940; Nieser & Chen 2002). Previously, only brachypterous specimens ( Fig. 1) of Paratrephes   were known. The macropterous specimens of Paratrephes   from Minas Gerais ( Figs. 2–5), as well as the macropterous form of all known species of Neotrephes   , have two antennal segments ( Fig. 7), which characterizes the subfamily Neotrephinae   .


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Belo Horizonte, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas














Paratrephes hintoni

Rodrigues, Higor D. D., Melo, Alan Lane De & Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L. 2012

Paratrephes hintoni

China, W. E. 1940: 118