Yoyetta kershawi ( Goding & Froggatt, 1904 ) Emery & Emery & Popple, 2019
Emery, David L., Emery, Nathan J. & Popple, Lindsay W., 2019, A Revision of the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) Species Group of Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae), Introducing Eight New Species, Records of the Australian Museum 71 (7), pp. 277-347 : 295-298
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|Yoyetta kershawi ( Goding & Froggatt, 1904 )|
stat. rev., comb. nov.
Yoyetta kershawi ( Goding & Froggatt, 1904) stat. rev., comb. nov.
Melampsalta kershawi Goding & Froggatt, 1904: 636 ; Distant, 1906: 176.
Synonym of Melampsalta denisoni Ashton, 1912: 25 ; Burns, 1957: 650; Moulds and Cowan, 2002: 26.
The holotype of Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. is a female from Marysville in Victoria. Males from the vicinity of type locality and elsewhere in Victoria consistently have a markedly different shaped aedeagus from the holotype of Y. denisoni (see Fig. 10 View Figure 10 ), as well as other specimens matching Y. denisoni from New South Wales (e.g., Fig. 9 View Figure 9 ). Males with an aedeagus shape characteristic of Y. denisoni have not been found in Victoria. On the basis of this morphological difference, we hereby raise Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. from synonymy.
Material examined. VICTORIA: Holotype female (by monotypy), [handwritten] “ Melampsalta kershawi ”, “GandF ♀ type” / “Marysville” [no collector or date] / “Det by Goding & Froggatt, 1904 ” ( T14237 View Materials , MMV). 1♂ 2♀♀, Country Fire Authority Station, Toolangi, 37°32'32"S 145°28'29"E, 436m, 11.i.2017, S. Emery & T.Corbin (at light); 2♂♂ 2♀♀, same location, 27.xii.2018, S. Emery & T. Corbin (at light) ( T 22393 View Materials –4 [♀], T22935 View Materials –6 [♂]); 8♂♂, Tennyson Creek , 5 km NW of Buldah, Vic , 37°14'S 149°07'E, 1–16.i.1982, ANZSES Expedition ( HEM 2545–53) ( MMV); 1♂, 38°55'S 146°22'E, nr Barrys Ck, Wilsons Promontory, Vic, 3.i.1989, J. Balderson; 2♂♂, 36°56'S 148°12'E, 3 km NNE Mt Wombago, E of Benambra , Vic. , 29.xii.1983, 1417 m, K. W. L. Key, ANIC Database Nos 20 010696, 20 010700 ( ANIC); 1♂, Fernshaw, 11.xii.26, E.B.; 1♂, Belgrave, 1.i.1949, N. I. A. Webb ( UQIC); 1♀, S Gippsland, (no date) (Ashton collection; AM K.307127); 2♂♂, Dunmoochin, 1.5 km NE Cottles Bridge, 37°37'23"S 145°13'13"E, 27.x.1998, F. Douglas; 23♂♂ 4♀♀, Country Fire Authority Station , Toolangi, 37°32'32"S 145°28'29"E, 436m, 11.i.2017, S. Emery & T. Corbin (at light); 12♂♂ 4♀♀, same location, 27.xii.2018, S. Emery & T. Corbin (at light); 1♀, Dandenong Range National Park ., 28.xii.2016, L. Rogan (DE); 1♂, Morwell National Park , 31.i.1995, K. Harris, 510-0001; 1♀, Dandenong Range, Lyrebird track, 37°53'10"S 145°22'15"E, 27.xii.2010, A. Thornhill, 510-0011 ( LWP); 6♂♂ 8♀♀, N. Walkerville, 28.xii.1988, H. Abbott; 3♂♂ 3♀♀, same data, 2.i.1989; 1♂, same data, 9.i.1989; 1♂, same data, 10.i.1989; 1♂ 1♀, same data, 13.i.1989; 1♂, same data, 16.i.1989; 1♂, same data, 27.xii.1989; 2♀♀, same data, 27.xii.1988; 1♂, Reeves Beach, nr Woodside, 16.i.1989, H.Abbott; 8♂♂ 1♀, 10 km E of Warburton, 6.i.1987, G. & J. Burns; 6♂♂ 3♀♀, Mt Oberon , 2.i.1989, K. L. Dunn; 5♂♂ 3♀♀, Mt Oberon , Wilsons Prom., 2.i.1989, K. L. Dunn, found dead; 2♂♂, Healesville, 25.i.1992, C. Rojewski; 1♂, Norman Bay , tidal river, Wilsons Promontory, 14.i.1986, K. L. Dunn; 1♀, Hurstbridge, 2.i.1986, T. R. New; 1♀, Waldron Mtn, near Cann River , 31.xii.1975, M. S. Moulds; 2♂♂, Warburton , 14.xii.2007, Stephen Smith; 2♂♂, same data, 7.i.2011; 4♂♂, Starvation Ck, McMahons Creek township , 1.i.2011, Stephen Smith; 4♂♂, same data, 9.i.2011; 3♂♂ 4♀♀, Starvation Ck, nr McMahons Ck township , 37°45'S 145°51'E, 23.xii.2007, S. Smith; 1♀, same data, 25.xii.2007 ( MSM). NEW SOUTH WALES: 10♂♂ 16♀♀, Frank Tetley Park, nr Fred Piper Lookout, Brown Mtn, nr Bega, 9–12.i.1982, M. S. & B. J. Moulds ( MSM). GoogleMaps
Distribution, habitat and seasonality. This species inhabits cool temperate eucalypt forest in far southern New South Wales and northern and eastern Victoria where it extends from east Gippsland south and west through the Great Dividing Range to the Greater Melbourne region and Wilsons Promontory ( Fig. 5 View Figure 5 ). Adults are present between November and January and occur principally in the upper canopy. Most specimens have been collected at light. Large emergences are known to occur, although these appear to be infrequent.
Male ( Figs 13 View Figure 13 A–C, 14). Head approximately as wide as mesonotum; most specimens predominantly dull black, with a brown to orange-brown central marking on posterior dorsal area extending between lateral ocelli and through dorsal postclypeus; ocelli pink to red; postclypeus predominantly black, with circular dull reddish-brown markings above either side of central orange line, black transverse grooves below with orange-brown lateral and posterior margins, rounded laterally; lora black; gena black; anteclypeus black; rostrum black anteriorly, variably ochraceous centrally, black at apex, extending to posterior margin of middle coxae; eyes brown to dull black; antennae black, supra-antennal plates black.
Thorax almost entirely black (or sometimes a mix of dark brown and black); pronotum predominantly black, paramedian and lateral fissures black with intermediate ridges variably dull orange-brown laterally on lighter coloured specimens; pronotal collar black, brown in some specimens, sometimes with central lateral section ochraceous posteriorly. Mesonotum black, cruciform elevation arms black, lateral depressions brown; scutal depressions black; parapsidal sutures black; metanotum black.
Legs with coxae black; coxal joints bright red; meracantha small creamy, pointed, black at base, partly overlapping opercula; trochanters red; meron reddish; fore femora striped black and red; mid and hind femora with lateral and anterior surfaces black, inner side ochraceous to dark brown; femoral joints orange to pale yellow; tibiae black to dark brown laterally becoming ochraceous medially and towards base, with fore tibial spines black, mid and hind tibial spines variably pale brown and black at tips; tarsal joints orange;
male pygofer and internal genitalia; (a) viewed laterally from the left; (b) viewed ventrally;
(c) aedeagus; (d) apex of theca, viewed laterally from left; and (e) apex of theca, viewed
ventrally. Characters as depicted in Fig. 4 View Figure 4 . Specimen from Toolangi (37°32'S 145°28'E).
tarsi dark brown, becoming black towards claws; claws brown, black at tips.
Wings with fore wing costal veins typically black (sometimes brown); pterostigma with reddish-brown mottling; basal membranes vivid red; basal cell translucent brown; veins mainly black to dark brown, with eight apical cells; hind wing plaga white, extending over medial third of anal lobe, remainder of anal lobe diffuse white, veins mainly brown, CuA black proximally, brown after junction, with six apical cells.
Opercula ( Fig. 3L View Figure 3 ) medium, spatulate, following body axis ventrolaterally; black at bases, red over remainder, including crests; clearly separated.
Timbals ( Fig. 2H View Figure 2 ) with five distinct long ribs, long ribs 1–4 each spanning across timbal membrane and fused dorsally along basal spur; long rib 4 narrowing over third quarter; long rib 5 noticeably shorter than other long ribs; large ridged dome on posterior timbal plate extending across two-thirds of timbal; apodeme pit oval-shaped and conspicuous.
Abdomen with tergites 1–7 black, tergite 8 black, lateral margins red. Epipleurites black. Sternite I black, partly ochraceous around inner surface of tympanal cavity; sternite II black with small central ochraceous marking; sternites III–VII black, posterior margin of sternite VII red; sternite VIII black on anterior margin, bright red over remainder, with black to pale brown pubescence.
Genitalia ( Figs 10C View Figure 10 , 14 View Figure 14 ). Pygofer mainly black; dorsal beak black, upper lobe prominent, pointed, red at tip; basal lobe dark brown to black; anal styles bright red. Uncus red, in lateral view beak-like and stumpy; lobes in ventral view less produced, rounded laterally; claspers divided, closely applied, with apices gradually tapering laterally. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres extending around half the length of theca; theca gradually recurved ventrally at 180° towards apex, with translucent flanges along outer margin of recurvature, these smooth dorsally,> 2× diameter of theca, tapering towards apex of theca; apex transparent, sclerotized, knob-like, sometimes weakly bifurcate ( Fig. 10C View Figure 10 ), with multiple small cornuti on ventral border.
Wings similar to male, with basal membranes typically vivid red.
Abdomen with tergites 1–8 black. Sternites I–VIII black, red posterior margin on Sternite VIII; abdominal segment 9 black dorsally with two small, orange, triangular spots either side of midline, orange laterally with posterior black spot, red ventrally, dorsal beak black; anal styles and ovipositor sheath red; ovipositor dark brown to black, extending up to approximately 1 mm beyond dorsal beak.
Measurements (in mm; range with mean in parentheses: 12 males, 8 females). Body length: male 24.5–28.4 (26.6); female 25.6–28.0 (27.0). Fore wing length: male 28.2–32.4 (30.0); female 30.6–34.5 (32.5). Head width: male 6.8–7.3 (6.9); female 7.2–8.0 (7.6). Pronotum width: male 6.5–7.0 (6.8); female 7.5–8.2 (7.8). Abdomen width: male 6.8–7.8 (7.4); female 7.6–8.9 (8.2). Ovipositor length: 8.2–9.0 (8.7).
Colour forms. Yoyetta kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. occurs in two broad colour forms: brown and black. The brown form (as per the “ type ” female and Fig. 13D View Figure 13 ) is characterized by a mixture of brown and black colouration on the thorax and brown along the costal veins ( Fig. 13A,B,E,F View Figure 13 ). The black strongly predominates, particularly in male specimens.
Distinguishing features. Apart from Yoyetta denisoni and Y. timothyi sp. nov., Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. is readily distinguished morphologically from all other species of Yoyetta in the abdominalis group using the following combination of characters: (1) large size with body length> 23 mm and forewing length> 28 mm; (2) contrasting black and red markings with red coloration confined to coxal joints and fore femora, basal membranes, sternite VIII and opercula (male), coxal joints, fore femora and ventral and lateral surfaces of abdominal segment 9 (female); (3) black coloration of sternites. Males of Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. can be distinguished from Y. denisoni and the black colour form of Y. timothyi sp. nov. by the simple, knob-like apex of the aedeagus, in contrast to the terminus of the other two species, which is heavily bifurcated and splayed into two lateral arms. Females of Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. can be distinguished from Y. timothyi sp. nov. by examining the basal membranes of the fore wings, which are vivid red to pink (cf. orange, pale orange-white in Y. timothyi sp. nov.). Females of Y. kershawi may be indistinguishable from Y. denisoni , although the latter species is separated geographically, apparently being restricted to New South Wales.
Calling song. The calling song of Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. has not been recorded to date.
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