Yoyetta grandis, Emery & Emery & Popple, 2019
Emery, David L., Emery, Nathan J. & Popple, Lindsay W., 2019, A Revision of the Yoyetta abdominalis (Distant) Species Group of Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae), Introducing Eight New Species, Records of the Australian Museum 71 (7), pp. 277-347 : 324-328
treatment provided by
Yoyetta grandis sp. nov.
Figs 2L View Figure 2 , 3J View Figure 3 , 26 View Figure 26 , 35–37 View Figure 35 View Figure 36 View Figure 37 , 52H, 53E View Figure 53
Holotype ♂, Meredith,VIC, 12–13.ii.1959, A.N.Burns ( HEM2054 ) ( MMV) . Paratypes VICTORIA: 1♂, Lakes Entrance, W. W. Froggatt collection, ex. National Museum of Victoria; 1♂, Mt Beauty dist. VIC, i.1979, P. Polile for W. N. B. Quick ( ANIC) ; 2♂♂, Mt Buffalo , VIC, 36°43'S 146°46'E, 29.xii.1951 ( HEM 2603–04) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Walhalla , VIC, 37°57'S 146°27'E, 1.i.1937 ( HEM2606 ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Kinglake , VIC, 37°32'S 145°20'E, xii.1927 ( HEM2607 ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Bogong , VIC, 36°48'S 147°13'E, no date ( HEM2619 ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂ 1♀, Moggs Creek , VIC, 38°27'S 143°59'E, 27.xii.1981 ( HEM 2621–22) GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂ 1♀, Mt Eccles , VIC, 38°22'S 145°59'E, xii.1961 ( HEM 2626–29) GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Pyrenees Range W of Avoca, VIC, 37°05'S 143°16'E, 10.xii.1970, ( HEM2630 ) ( MMV) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, same location, 1.xii.2006, D. Marshall & K. Hill (06.AU.VI.GRL) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Healesville , 25.i.1992, C. Rojewski ; 1♀, Erskine Falls nr Lorne , 18.ii.1984, G. Theischinger ; 1♀, Otway State Forest , 17.i.1990, G. &. J. Burns ; 2♂♂ 5♀♀, Warburton , 7.i.2011, S.Smith ; 2♂♂, Brisbane Ranges , 14–24.i.1999, Stephen Smith ; 6♂♂, same data, 14.ii.2004, S. Smith ; 1♂, 12 km SE of Healesville, Yarra Ranges Nat.Pk , 15.i.1999 ; 1♂, Don Rd, near Healesville , 26.xii.1994, Stephen Smith ; 1♂, Anakie , 16.xii.2003, S. K.Smith ; 2♂♂ 1♀, Charley Ck , 5 km N of Ferguson, 1.i.1998, Stephen Smith ; 1♀, Starvation Ck township, Little Peninsula Tunnel Picnic Ground , 12.xii.2007, S. Smith ; 1♂, same data, 14.xii.2007 ; 3♀♀, same data, 27.xii.2007 ; 1♂ 2♀♀, Starvation Ck.Rd, McMahons Creek township , 37°45'S 145°51'E, 23.xii.2007 GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Don Gap nr Warburton , 37°41'S 145°36'E, 16.i.2008, S. Smith GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Healesville , 25.i.1992, C. Rojewski ; 1♀, Eerskine Falls nr Lorne , 18.ii.1984, G. Theischinger ; 1♀, Otway State Forest , 17.i.1990, G. &. J. Burns 1♂, same location, 15.i.2011, S. Smith ; 1♂, Healesville , 25.i.1992, C. Rojewski ; 1♀, Erskine Falls nr Lorne , 18.ii.1984, G. Theischinger ; 1♀, Otway State Forest , 17.i.1990, G. &. J. Burns ; 1♂, Reid’s Lookout, W of Halls Gap, Grampians National Park , 1.xii.2006, 37°08.971'S 142°26.808'E, 717 m, D. Marshall, K.Hill, C. Simon lab voucher, legs in ETOH, body pinned, 06.AU.VI.GRL.01, Yoyetta “slow ticker” ( MSM) GoogleMaps ; 5♂♂ 6♀♀, 1 km SE of Forrest, Otway Ranges , 38°31'25"S 143°43'19"E, 5.ii.15, S. Emery & T. Corbin GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Kinglake-Glenburn Rd, Kinglake , 32°28'1"S 145°23'41"E, 17.xii.2016, S. Emery & T. Corbin GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂ 8♀♀, McMahons Creek Rd, 37°42'05"S 145°50'06"E, 26.i.2017, N., C. & D. Emery GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Kallista , 37°53'52"S 145°22'10"E, 26.xii.2018, S. Emery & T. Corbin (emerging) GoogleMaps ; 3♂♂ 1♀, Grampians Nat Pk., Reed Lookout , 7 km W Hall’s Gap, 2.i.2000, F. Douglas (DE) ; 1♂ 1♀, same location, 2.ii.2000, F. Douglas ( FD) . AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY: 1♂ 1♀, Warks Rd, Brindabella Range , 35°19'59"S 148°49'49"E, 7.i.2011, L. W. Popple, 720-0001 (♂), 720-0002 (♀) ( LWP) GoogleMaps . NEW SOUTH WALES: 1♂, Yarrangobilly Caves road, Kosciuszko NP, 35°42.600'S 148°30.386'E, 1286 m [elev.], 16.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall, AU.NS.YAR, C. Simon lab voucher,legs in ETOH, body pinned, Yoyetta sp., 11.AU.NS.YAR.01 ( MSM) GoogleMaps .
Distribution, habitat and seasonality. Tall open forest in the Brindabella Ranges of the Australian Capital Territory south through much of eastern Victoria, particularly north east of the Dandenong Ranges, with additional populations in the Otway and Grampians Ranges ( Fig. 25 View Figure 25 ). Adults are present during December and January. Males tend to remain on the main trunks and upper branches of eucalypts (section Maidenaria), while females are generally found within 5 m of the forest floor. Very large seasonal populations of this species have been observed over multiple years in succession and are considered likely to be a frequent occurrence.
Male ( Figs 2L View Figure 2 , 3J View Figure 3 , 35A,B,E,F View Figure 35 , 52H). Head as wide as mesonotum, with a thin ochraceous fascia on the midline posterior to ocelli, not reaching posterior margin; ocelli pink; dorsal side of postclypeus black with central ochraceous triangular marking, apex directed anteriorly; ventral side of postclypeus black with anterior brown marking on midline, black transverse grooves, lateral borders ochraceous; anteclypeus black, rostrum black at base, brown centrally, becoming black at apex, reaching the posterior margin of mid coxae; lora black with ochraceous anterior spot, gena black; eyes red in live specimens, grey-white in preserved specimens; antennae black, supra-antennal plates black, brown at base of pedicel.
Thorax predominantly black. Pronotum black, with a thin brown line along anterior midline; pronotal collar black, paranota black. Mesonotum black; cruciform elevation arms black, posterolateral arms and lateral depressions brown. Metanotum black.
Legs. Coxae mainly black, fore coxae black with lateral red stripe; mid and hind coxae black; coxal membranes red; basisterna black; meracanthus small, narrow, orange, black at base, pointed, rounded at tip, overlapping one-third of opercula; trochanters black with central segment orangered; fore femora striped longitudinally orange-red and black, black along base of femoral spines, femoral spines erect, black; mid and hind femora black, orange-brown longitudinal stripe on medial and lateral aspects; distal femoral joint orange-red; fore tibiae black, brown at distal tip; mid tibiae black, with medial ochraceous stripe; hind tibiae black proximally, ochraceous over distal half; fore tarsi black with brown distal margins; mid and hind tarsi blackish-brown becoming black towards claws; claws dark brown, black at tips.
Wings with fore wing costal veins black, browner posteriorly, becoming brown distally, pterostigma mottled dark red, basal cell yellowish, translucent, black anterior border, brown spot in arculus, basal membranes grey, pale orange on Grampians specimens, other veins dark brown to black, with eight apical cells; hind wing plagas white over entire anal cell 3 and medial quarter and base of ac2(v), thin along vein 2A, veins 2A and 3A pale brown, remainder black, with six apical cells.
Opercula ( Fig. 3J View Figure 3 ) medium, spatulate, following body axis ventrolaterally, black over basal third, pale cream across remainder, clearly separated.
Timbals ( Fig. 2L View Figure 2 ) with five distinct long ribs; long ribs 1–3 extending across surrounding membrane and fused dorsally along basal spur, long rib 3 conspicuously narrowing over lateral third; long rib 5 independent of basal spur, comparatively shorter, extending ventrally across half of membrane; large ridged dome on posterior timbal plate extending across two-thirds of timbal; apodeme pit ovalshaped and conspicuous.
Abdomen with tergite 1 black, ochraceous around medial margin of timbal cavity; tergite 2 black; tergites 3–7 black with orange posterior margins, extending laterally to epipleurites, increasing on tergites 6–7 on either side of midline, intersegmental membranes orange; tergite 8 entirely black. Epipleurites 3–4 black anteriorly, orange over remainder; epipleurites 5–7 orange. Sternite II black; sternite III black, with ochraceous anterior margin around timbal cavity; sternite IV black anteriorly, stippled black orange posteriorly; sternites V–VI orange, diffuse black midline markings prominent over posterior midline of sternite VI; sternite VII orange with central black spot; sternite VIII black, dark brown posteriorly, with black pubescence ( Fig. 52H).
Genitalia ( Fig. 36 View Figure 36 ). Pygofer black, dorsal beak black, dark brown posterior margins, upper lobe developed, rounded, black, orange on ventral aspect, basal lobe, rudimentary, black, anal styles reddish. Uncus mainly black; lateral
viewed laterally from the left; (b) viewed ventrally; (c) aedeagus; and (d) apex of theca.
Characters as depicted in Fig. 4 View Figure 4 . Specimen from McMahons Creek (37°42'S 145°50'E) GoogleMaps .
process beak-like and stumpy; lobes in ventral view bulbous, short, with rounded anterior termination; claspers apposed posteriorly, clearly divided anteriorly, short, with apices reducing and rounded laterally. Aedeagus brown, with pseudoparameres extending around two-thirds the length of theca; theca recurved ventrally at 180° towards apex, with transparent flange along outer margin of distal half of recurvature, smooth, around diameter of theca; apex brownish, sclerotized, bifurcate, branches closely applied, directed dorsolaterally with prominent cornuti over entire surface.
Female ( Fig. 35 View Figure 35 C–D, G–H). Head similar to male, with additional brown spot midway between ocelli and eye, ochraceous-brown markings on dorsal and anterior postclypeus more pronounced, lateral areas dark brown, supra-antennal plate black with distinct ochraceous anterior margin adjacent to pedicel.
Thorax predominantly black (similar to male), except in pale specimens, which exhibit extensive brown colouration on the pronotum and mesonotum (with contrasting black sigilla); metanotum brown posterior to cruciform elevation.
Abdomen similar to male. Tergites 4–7 with posterior annular orange markings less pronounced than males; tergite 8 black. Epipleurites mainly black, orange posteriorly. Sternites I–VII similar to male; sternite VII orange with 2 distinct black spots either side of midline; abdominal segment 9 black with ochraceous-orange longitudinal triangles either side of midline, tapering posteriorly, and broad ochraceous-orange area over middle third of lateral surface; dorsal beak black. Ovipositor brown, black at tip, extending approximately 1.5 mm beyond apex of abdominal segment 9. Anal styles dull brown, ovipositor sheath dark brown to black.
Measurements (in mm; range with mean in parentheses: 10 males, 12 females). Body length: male 24.8–26.8 (25.6); female 26.7–31.6 (29.6). Fore wing length: male 27.9–30.8 (29.6); female 28.1–34.5 (32.3). Head width: male 6.5–7.5 (7.0); female 6.6–7.9 (7.4). Pronotum width: male 6.4–7.5 (6.9); female 6.4–7.8 (7.3). Abdomen width: male 6.3–7.8 (7.2); female 6.9–8.1 (7.6). Ovipositor length 10.0–11.5 (10.6).
Distinguishing features. Within the Y. abdominalis species group, Y. grandis sp. nov. is most similar in appearance to Y. electrica sp. nov., Y. regalis sp. nov., Y. subalpina sp. nov. and Y. verrens sp. nov. Each of these species has black tergites with contrasting, narrow orange bands on the posterior edge. The following characters, in combination, can be used to distinguish Y. grandis sp. nov. from these species: (1) eyes red (live or freshly-preserved specimens, fading to dark pink or grey), (2) fore wing basal membranes grey (or pale orange in Grampians specimens), (3) sternite VIII (or ventral abdominal segment in female specimens) dark brown (not orange, orange-brown or brown), (4) ovipositor extends 1.5 mm beyond apex of abdominal segment 9. Specimens of this species in collections have previously been attributed Y. denisoni and Y. aaede . However adults can be easily distinguished from Y. denisoni and its relatives ( Y. kershawi stat. rev., comb. nov. and Y. timothyi sp. nov.). The female of Y. grandis sp. nov. bears a superficial resemblance to Y. aaede ; however, the former species is much larger (fore wing length> 27 mm) and Y. aaede is known only from the Adelaide region in South Australia.
Calling song ( Figs 37 View Figure 37 , 53E View Figure 53 ). Yoyetta grandis sp. nov. males call when stationary and during flight. The calling song contains a simple series of sharp, single macrosyllables or short echemes. Based on available recordings from Brindabella (n = 5) and a recording supplied by David Marshall from Birdwood, each macrosyllable or short echeme is between 0.085 and 0.135 s duration ( Fig. 36 View Figure 36 ). The intervals between these range from 0.566 – 0.708 s duration. The highest frequency plateau of this song ranges from 8.4–11.4 kHz, with a dominant frequency of 9.5–10.5 kHz. When males are stationary, they occasionally produce a longer echeme before a bout of typical echemes (illustrated in Fig. 53E View Figure 53 ).
Despite its simplicity, the calling of Y. grandis sp. nov. is distinctive and unique amongst its relatives in the Y. abdominalis species group.
Australian National Insect Collection
Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas
Marine Science Museum, Tokai Univ.
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