Peckoltia vittata ( Steindachner, 1881 ),

Armbruster, Jonathan W., 2008, The genus Peckoltia with the description of two new species and a reanalysis of the phylogeny of the genera of the Hypostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), Zootaxa 1822 (1), pp. 1-76: 40-44

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1822.1.1

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Peckoltia vittata ( Steindachner, 1881 )


Peckoltia vittata ( Steindachner, 1881) 

( Figs. 2fView FIGURE 2 and 21–22View FIGURE 21View FIGURE 22)

Chaetostomus vittatus Steindachner, 1881: 115  , pl. 2 (fig. 5). Type locality: Amazonen-Strom, Tajapouru, Xingu bei Porto de Moz, Rio Madeira [ Brazil]. Syntypes: MCZ 7999View Materials (1)  , MCZ 8017View Materials (1)  , NMW 47225View Materials (1)  , NMW 47226View Materials (1)  , NMW 47227View Materials (1)  , NMW 47228View Materials  (2).

Peckoltichthys kuhlmanni  Miranda Ribeiro, 1920: 10, pl. 5 (middle). Type locality: Tapajóz [ Brazil]. Lectotype: MNRJ 2044View Materials A, designated by Miranda Ribeiro (1953: 401), but specimen not isolated. 

Material Examined: BOLIVIA, unknown state, Río Madeira - Río Amazonas drainage: FMNH 59718View Materials, 4View Materials, 89.9View Materials 100.2View Materials, San Joaquin, J.D. Haseman, 6 September 1909  . BOLIVIA, Beni, Río Madeira - Río Amazonas drainage: USNM 305554View Materials, Ballivia Province, Rio Curiraba at 10 km NE El Porvenir Biol. Sta., at 40 Air Km E San Borja., 14°55’S, 066°17’W, W.C. Starnes, T. Munroe, and J. Sarmiento, 28 August 1987GoogleMaps  . BOLIVIA, Pando, Río Madeira - Río Amazonas drainage: FMNH 107073View Materials, 2View Materials, 69.5View Materials 71.6View Materials, Nareuda rapids, +/- 6 km from the mouth of the Tahuamanu , 11°18’18”S, 068°45’25”W, J. Sarmiento, H. Ortega, S. Barrera, and F. Yapur, 11 September 1996GoogleMaps  ; FMNH 107074View Materials, 1View Materials, 85.2View Materials, a small rapids in Río Tahuamanu just above Boca Nareuda , 0.44 km above, 11°18’51”S, 068°44’35”W, H. Ortega, B. Chernoff, N. Menezes, T. Bert, and R. Coca, 12 September 1996GoogleMaps  .

BRAZIL, unknown locality: CU 76567, 1, 107.3. BRAZIL, Amapá, Rio Amazonas drainage: MNRJ 20973View Materials, 10View Materials, 73.6View Materials 104.3View Materials, Queimada, near Mazangão , G.W. Nunan, D.F. Moraes, and W.D. Bandeira  , April 1981; MNRJ 20990View Materials, 1View Materials, 71.0, Rio Miri, near Mazagão-Macapá, G.W. Nunan and D.F. Moraes Jr  ., April 1981. BRAZIL, Amazonas, Rio Amazonas drainage: INPA 4741View Materials, 1View Materials, 113.0, Rio Uatumã, S. Amadio, 1 April 1985  . BRAZIL, Pará, Rio Amazonas drainage: CAS 6476View Materials, 1View Materials cs, Belem fish market, C. Ternetz  , April 1924; FMNH 59717View Materials, 3View Materials, 53.1View Materials 91.5View Materials, Pará  , J.D. Haseman, 15 January 1910; FMNH 70113View Materials, 1View Materials, Rio Tapajos, Pindobal, H. Sioli   , 28 October 1947; INPA 11143View Materials, 3View Materials, 84.0–89.6, Rio Tocantins  , Itupiranga, Equipe Ictilogia do INPA  , 1 November 1980; INPA 4028View Materials, 1View Materials, 86.8View Materials, Rio Xingu, Altamira province , L. Rapp Py-Daniel & J. A. Zuanon  , 1 October 1990; INPA 4029View Materials, 1View Materials, 68.1View Materials, Rio Xingu, Cachoeira de Kaituka , L. Rapp Py-Daniel & J. A. Zuanon  , 10 October 1990; INPA 5726View Materials, Rio Trombetas, Porto Trombetas, E. G. Ferreira & J. A. Zuanon   , 30 August 1990; INPA 6315View Materials, 3View Materials, 93.4View Materials –112.0, Rio Tocantins  , Acari-pucu, Equipe Ictilogia do INPA  , 30 January 1985; INPA 6326View Materials, 3View Materials, 88.2View Materials 93.8View Materials, Rio Tocantins  , Breu Branco   , 05°04’04”S, 049°38’13”W, Equipe Ictilogia do INPAGoogleMaps  , 13 July 1982; INPA 6337View Materials, 2View Materials, 45.9View Materials 100.4View Materials, Rio Tocantins  , 50 km above the dam, Equipe Ictilogia do INPA, 30 January 1985; INPA 7274View Materials, 1View Materials, 75.6View Materials, Rio Tapajos, Ilha da Pedra in the village Vila de Bui , L.Rapp Py-Daniel & J. A. Zuanon  , 28 October 1991; MCP 30027View Materials, 4View Materials, 57.7View Materials –68.0, Rio Tapajós , left margin  , 04°17’S, 055°59’W, J. G. de Frota & M. L. de Sousa Abreu, 29 July 2002; MNRJ 2044View Materials, 2View MaterialsGoogleMaps  , Syntypes of Peckoltia kuhlmanni  , Rio Tapajos , G. Kuhlmann  , November 1915; MNRJ 19374View Materials, 3View Materials, 44.6View Materials 51.8View Materials, Rio Tocantins near Tucuruí, L.C. Alvarenga; MZUSP 23988View Materials, 1View Materials, 100.3View Materials, Igarapé Sororoca , Furo de Panaquera   , 07°50’S, 049°07’W, EPAGoogleMaps  , 31 August 1970; MZUSP 23999View Materials, 6View Materials, 85.3View Materials –103.0, Igarapé Inó, Furo de Panaquera , EPA  , 1 September 1970; MZUSP 24122View Materials, 6View Materials, 68.1View Materials 77.3View Materials, Lagoon near Jatobal, Rio Tocantins   , 04°32’S, 049°32’W, Expedicão Permanente à Amazônia, 16 September 1970; MZUSP 34188View Materials, 0, 41.6, Rio Tapajos, Pederneiras, near the Itaituba , poço de pedralGoogleMaps  , 04°12’S, 055°10’W, M. Goulding, 24 October 1983; MZUSP 34189View Materials, 1View Materials, 78.7View Materials, Rio Tapajós, near Alter do Chão , M. Goulding  , 25 November 1983; MZUSP 34190View Materials, 5View Materials, 64.2View Materials 86.4View Materials, Rio Tapajos, São Luis, above the Itaituba   , 04°12’S, 055°50’W, M. Goulding, 22 October 1983; MZUSP 3590View Materials, 5View Materials, 79.3View Materials 86.1View Materials, Santarém; MZUSP 61995View Materials, 1View Materials, 102.4View Materials, Rio Tocantins , from immediately below to ca. three km below of the spillway of the reservoir  , 03°42’S, 049°27’W, Equipe CPA-Eletronorte and F.C. T. LimaGoogleMaps  , 17 May 2000; MZUSP 75226View Materials, 1View Materials, 83.6View Materials, Bank of Ilha das Araras, Curralinho, Rio Para , R. B. Barthem  , 24 July 1984; NMW 46360View Materials, 3View Materials, 95.0–99.8, Pará   , Brasilien Expedition ; NMW 46361View Materials, 1View Materials, 93.3View Materials, Pará  , Brasilien Expedition ; NMW 47228View Materials  , Syntype, 2, 58.1–91.1, Tajapuru, Thayer Expedition, January 1874; NMW 48055View Materials, 1View Materials, 51.3View Materials, Santarem, J.D. Haseman ; NMW 48057View Materials, 1View Materials, 57.6View Materials, Pará  , Brasilien Expedition ; NMW 48058View Materials, 1View Materials, 83.4View Materials, Pará  , Brasilien Expedition ; NMW 48060View Materials, 1View Materials, 98.0, Pará  , Brasilien Expedition ; NMW 48061View Materials, 1View Materials, 95.1View Materials, Pará  , Brasilien Expedition ; NMW 48062View Materials, 1View Materials, 89.4View Materials, Pará  , Brasilien Expedition; Rio Amazonas, NMW 48063View Materials, 1View Materials, 71.6View Materials, Rio Tapajos , Villa Braga , Museum Goldi, Snethlage; USNM 52593View Materials, 2View Materials, 98.1View Materials 99.2View Materials, Pará  to Manaus, Rio Amazonas , J.B. Steere, 1901  . BRAZIL, Rondônia, Rio Madeira - Rio Amazonas drainage: INPA 11135View Materials, 1View Materials, 69.0, Rio Machado   20 km below Ji-Paraná, Equipe Ictiologia do INPA  , 4 June 1984; MCP 35634View Materials, 10View Materials, 65.8View Materials 73.6View Materials, Rio Machado upstream of bridge to Ji-Paraná   , 10°53’S, 067°56’21”W, 15 July 2004; MNRJ 15619View Materials, 2View Materials, 76.7View Materials 77.9View Materials, Rio Urupá (tributary of the Rio Machado), Gleba G, linha 24 (between Ouro Preto do Oeste and Ji-Paraná, W.D. Bandeira and G.W. Nunan, 15 July 1986; UF 100630View Materials, 1, 74.8, Jamari River , ca 20 km downstream from Samuel dam, locally called Pedra de Santa Ana, J.P. Viana, 15 August 1993.GoogleMaps 

COLOMBIA, Meta: ICNMNH 7954View Materials, Rio Duda, tributary of Rio Guyabero - Rio  Guaviare, Mesetas Veleda, San Isidro.

VENEZUELA, Amazonas, Río Orinoco drainage: AUM 39248View Materials, 1View Materials, 63.2View Materials, Río Ventuari, Moriche (beach) 116 km NE of Macuruco, 169 km NE of San Fernando de Atabapo, 04°45’09”N, 066°21’17”, D.C. Werneke, N.K. Lujan, M.H. Sabaj, L.S. de Souza, 7 April 2004  ; AUM 39313View Materials, 26View Materials, 2View Materials cs, 56.8–87.3, Rio Manapiare , 14.5 km NW of San Juan de Manapiare, 05°25’43”N, 066°08’10"W, N.K. Lujan, M.H. Sabaj, L.S. de Souza, and D.C. Werneke, 12 April 2004GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis: Peckoltia vittata  can be identified from all other Peckoltia  by having the dorsal color of the head with a wedge of dark pigment on the snout and a bar from the posterior edge of the frontal to just behind the parieto-supraoccipital (the pigment may alternatively appear as dark mottling and/or the anterior marking may appear, particularly in juveniles, in the form of a dark E on the snout). All other Peckoltia  either have spots or vermiculations on the head, or the head plates and bones outlined in black.

Description. Morphometrics in Table 5, counts based on 155 individuals unless otherwise stated. Largest specimen examined 113.0 mm SL. Body stout but slightly narrower in appearance than other Peckoltia  . Head gently sloped to parieto-supraoccipital. Parieto-supraoccipital with tall, rounded crest. Parieto-supraoccipital crest raised slightly above nuchal region. Nuchal region rises slightly to nuchal plate. Dorsal profile sloped ventrally to dorsal procurrent caudal-fin spines, then rising rapidly to caudal fin. Ventral profile flat to ventral procurrent caudal-fin spines and then sloping ventrally to caudal fin. Supraorbital ridge rounded, contiguous, but slightly offset medially from rounded ridge proceeding from anterior margin of orbit to anterolateral corner of anterior nare. Head contours smooth. Eye medium-sized.

Keels absent. Mid-ventral plates bent at their midline above pectoral fin to form ridge. Dorsal plates bent dorsally below dorsal fin to form ridges that converge at preadipose plate, dorsal surface flat between ridges. Five rows of plates on caudal peduncle. Abdomen ranging from naked to fully covered in small plates except for small naked areas posterior to lower lip and at insertions of paired fins. First anal-fin pterygiophore exposed to form a platelike structure. A pair of lateral plates converging at midline between anus and exposed first anal-fin pterygiophore. 22–26 (mode 24) plates in the median series.

Frontal, infraorbitals, nasal, compound pterotic, sphenotic, and parieto-supraoccipital, supporting odontodes; opercle supporting odontodes in juveniles but not in adults, posterodorsal corner of opercle covered by one or two plates in adults. Odontodes on lateral plates not enlarged to form keels. Hypertrophied cheek odontodes 13–57 (N=101), longest almost reaching first mid-ventral plate in adults. Cheek plates evertible to approximately 90° from head. Odontodes on tip of pectoral-fin spine slightly hypertrophied.

Dorsal fin short, reaching preadipose plate fin when adpressed; dorsal-fin spine same length as proceeding rays making edge straight. Dorsal-fin spinelet V -shaped, dorsal-fin spine lock functional. Dorsal fin II,7. Adipose fin with one preadipose plate and fairly long spine. Caudal fin forked, lower lobe longer than upper, I,14,I with two to five (mode four) dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays and two to five (mode four) ventral procurrent-fin rays. Anal fin short with unbranched ray weak and approximately same length of first branched ray. Anal fin I,4, Pectoral-fin spine almost reaching just beyond pelvic fin when adpressed ventral to pelvic fin. Pectoral fin I,6. Pelvic fin reaching to posterior insertion of anal-fin when adpressed. Pelvic fin I,5.

Iris operculum present. Flap between anterior and posterior nares short. Lips wide, fairly thin. Upper lip with small, round papillae. Lower lip with small papillae anteriorly and posteriorly, becoming larger medially. Maxillary barbel short, maximally reaching base of evertible cheek plates. Buccal papilla small. Jaws narrow, dentaries forming very acute angle, premaxillaries forming angle of 90° to slightly greater than 90°. Teeth with small, moderately wide cusps, lateral cusp approximately half length of medial cusp, stalk of tooth long; seven to 32 dentary teeth (mode 15), 10–35 premaxillary teeth (mode 18).

Color: Base color light tan with brown markings. Intensity of color is variable, but always consists of four dorsal saddles on the body, the first below the middle rays of the dorsal fin, the second below the posterior rays of the dorsal fin and slightly posterior, the third below the adipose fin and slightly anterior, and the fourth at the end of the caudal peduncle. The first two saddles may or may not combine at the midline. There may be secondary bars slightly lighter than the main saddles and not or barely reaching the dorsal midline between the second and third and third and fourth saddles. There may be a faint, broad stripe that covers the lower half of the sides from first to last saddle. Two additional saddles are present on the head of adults, the first forming a wedge on the snout from the tip of the snout to the anterior margins of the orbits and the second from the posterior edge of the frontal to just behind the parieto-supraoccipital; the intensity of the head saddles varies, and sometimes they appear more like mottling; occasionally, the first head saddle will appear as diffuse E -shaped blotch. All fins with dark bands with dark and light areas of approximately equal width, dorsal and caudal bands may be irregular; intensity of the bands varies greatly with some specimens having the pectoral-fin and pelvic-fin bands faint. Number of bands increases with size. Dark spot present between dorsal-fin spinelet and spine. Abdomen either without spots or with large, faint spots. Lower surface of caudal peduncle mottled. Juveniles colored as adults except that the smallest individuals usually have a dark E on the snout (vs. a dark wedge).

Sexual Dimorphism: Few breeding males examined, and they are not fully developed. Appears to be the same as in P.brevis  : nuptial males with hypertrophied odontodes on sides and posterior part of head; hypertrophied odontodes becoming larger posteriorly. Hypertrophied odontodes on upper caudal-fin spine and adipose spine. Upper caudal-fin spine thickened. Odontodes on pectoral-fin spine not noticeably larger.

Range. Described from the Brazilian Amazon and lower reaches of the Rio Tapajos, Rio Madeira and Xingu. Also known from the Río Ventuari of Venezuela, southern tributaries of the Amazon from the Madeira to the mouth, and the Rios Uatumã, Trombetas, Capim, and Maranhão ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11). One collection of what appears to be Peckoltia vittata  was also identified from the upper Río Guaviare of Colombia ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11). Armbruster and Werneke (2005) suggest that the specimen pictured in Le Bail et al. (2000) and labeled as Hemiancistrus aff. braueri  from the Maroni River of French Guiana could be Peckoltia vittata  . In appearance, it is closest to P. vittata  ; however, it is difficult to discern its identity from photographs, and its color pattern seems different enough that the Maroni population may represent an undescribed species.

Habitat. Specimens collected in Venezuela were from rocks in runs.


Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul


Florida Museum of Natural History- Zoology, Paleontology and Paleobotany


Auburn University Museum of Natural History














Peckoltia vittata ( Steindachner, 1881 )

Armbruster, Jonathan W. 2008

Peckoltichthys kuhlmanni

Miranda Ribeiro, A. de 1920: 10

Chaetostomus vittatus

Steindachner, F. 1881: 115