Spalangia plaumanni, Gibson, 2009

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159: 134-137

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5322046

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5322046

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/2C2C87BE-9EF8-A0E9-FF67-D4E0092BF62B

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Spalangia plaumanni
status

n. sp.

25. Spalangia plaumanni   n. sp.

(Figs 259, 387–399)

Type material. HOLOTYPE (♀, CNC no. 23891). “ BRAZIL: Nova Teutonia , 27º11'S 52º23'W, 300‒500 m., IX.1972, Fritz Plaumann”. Condition: point-mounted, entire. GoogleMaps  

PARATYPES (282♀, 200♁). Neotropical. BELIZE: CAYO, Las Cuevas Res. Sta. , Chiquibul For. Rsrv., 80 km. S Santa Elena, VI.95, T. King & A. Howe (2♀ UCDC)   . BOLIVIA: Dpto. Santa Cruz, 5 km. SSE Buena Vista Hotel, Fauna y Flora , 17º29.925'S 63º39.128'W, 440 m., 6-15.XII.03, S. & J. Peck, for. FIT (1♀, 1♁). BRAZIL: M. [Mato] Grosso , Rio Caraguata , 27, 29, 30.III.53, F. Plaumann (2♀, 1♁ BMNH) GoogleMaps   . Paraná, Rondon, VIII.52 (2♀, 5♁ BMNH)   , 22.VIII.52 (4♀, 2♁ BMNH)   , 24.VIII.52 (1♀ BMNH)   , 28.VIII.52 (1♁ BMNH), 31.VIII.52 (1♀ BMNH)   , 5.X.52 (1♁ BMNH), 6.X.52 (1♁ BMNH), 17.X.52 (1♀, 3♁ BMNH)   , 18.X.52 (1♁ BMNH), 20.X.52 (1♁ BMNH), 21.X.52 (2♀ BMNH)   , 22.X.52 (6♀, 4♁ BMNH)   , 23.X.52 (1♀ BMNH)   , 25.X.52 (3♀, 4♁ BMNH)   , 26.X.52 (3♀ BMNH)   , 27.X.52 (6♀, 2♁ BMNH)   , 28.X.52 (2♀, 2♁ BMNH)   , 29.X.52 (1♀ BMNH)   , 30.X.52 (1♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 6.XI.52 (2♀, 2♁ BMNH)   , 7.XI.52 (3♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , F. Plaumann. Rio Caraguatà , 21º48'S 52º27'W, 26.III.53, F. Plaumann (1♁). R. G. Sol. [Rio Grande do Sul], Fortaleza, VIII.51, F. Plaumann (4♁ BMNH) GoogleMaps   . Sao Paulo, Teodoro Sampaio, XII.77, M. Alvarenga (1♀). Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia, F. Plaumman — 20.III.41 (1♁ BMNH)   , 22.III.41 (1♁ BMNH), 26.III.41 (1♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 29.III.41 (3♀, 1♁ AEIC)   , 1.IV.41 (5♀ AEIC)   , 3.IV.41 (1♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 8.IV.41 (2♀, 1♁ AEIC)   , 10.IV.41 (1♀ BMNH)   , 11.IV.41 (1♀ AEIC)   , 12.IV.41 (3♀, 6♁ AEIC)   , 19.IV.41 (9♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 21.IV.41 (1♁ BMNH), 29.IV.41 (4♀ BMNH)   , 1.V.41 (1♁ BMNH), 2.V.41 (1♀, 1♁ AEIC)   , 9.V.41 (1♀ BMNH)   , 9.VI.41 (1♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 19.VI.41 (2♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 23.VI.43 (1♀ BMNH)   , 17.VII.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 7.VIII.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 10.VIII.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 13.VIII.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 28.VIII.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 20.IX.44 (3♁ BMNH), 27.IX.44 (2♀ BMNH)   , 30.IX.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 13.X.44 (3♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 14.X.44 (6♀, 2♁ BMNH)   , 19.X.44 (1♁ BMNH), 30.X.44 (1♀ BMNH)   , 2.II.50 (1♀, 2♁ BMNH)   , 3.II.50 (3♀ BMNH)   , 5.II.50 (2♀ BMNH)   , 78.II.50 (1♀ BMNH)   , 11.II.50 (1♀ BMNH)   , 13.II.50 (1♁ BMNH), 15.II.50 (1♀ BMNH)   , 17.II.50 (2♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 22.II.50 (1♁ BMNH), 24.II.50 (21♀, 14♁ BMNH)   , 25.II.50 (1♀ BMNH)   , 26.II.50 (6♀, 3♁ BMNH)   , 27.II.50 (6♀, 7♁ BMNH)   , 28.II.50 (2♁ BMNH), 1.III.50 (6♀, 7♁ BMNH)   , 3.III.50 (4♀, 6♁ BMNH)   , 5.III.50 (13♀, 15♁ BMNH)   , 6.III.50 (37♀, 11♁ BMNH)   , 7.III.50 (10♀, 9♁ BMNH)   , 8.III.50 (9♀, 9♁ BMNH)   , 24.III.50 (1♀, 3♁ BMNH)   , 26.III.50 (6♀, 6♁ BMNH)   , 5.IV.50 (3♀, 3♁ BMNH)   , 4.X.52 (1♀ BMNH)   , 1.XI.52 (1♀ BMNH)   , 6.XI.55 (1♀ BMNH)   , 7.XI.55 (1♁ BMNH), 10.X.56 (1♁ BMNH), 18.X.56 (1♀, 1♁ BMNH)   , 21.X.56 (1♁ BMNH), 8.X.65 (1♁ MCZH), X.65 (2♀ MCZH)   ; same data as holotype (15♀, 20♁) or collected VII.57 (1♀ BMNH) GoogleMaps   , IV.71 (3♀), VIII.71 (1♀), IX.71 (1♀), X.72 (7♀, 3♁), VIII-II.73 (1♀), XI.73 (4♀, 2♁), 1973 (2♀, 1♁). COSTA RICA: Cartago, Turrialba , IICA, 13.IV.76, M. Wasbaurer, MT (1♁ EMEC)   . Guanacaste P. N., Santa Rosa , 200 m., I.91, P. Hanson (1♁ MZCR)   . Her. Santo Domingo, INBIO, 6-7.III.96, L. Masner (1♁). San Jose, Ciudad Colón, 800 m., XII.89- I.90, L. Founier (1♀ MZCR)   . ECUADOR: Sucumbios, Napo R., Sacha Lodge, 0º30'S 76º30'W, 270 m., 4- 14.III.94, P. Hibbs, MT (1♀). PANAMA: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Is., IX.40, JasZetek no. 4690, bred from fls Heliconia platystachys   (1♁ USNM) GoogleMaps   . El Cermeno, em. VII-VIII.41, JZetek 4857 42-20632, ex fruit Labatia standleyana   (1♀ USNM)   . PERU: Madre de Dios, Cocha Cashu, 350 m., 17-19.X.00, R. Brooks, FIT (1♀). Rio Perene , 25.III.10, C.H.T. Townsend (1♀ USNM)   . VENEZUELA: Aragua, Cuyagua , 600 m., 10.VIII.87, S. & J. Peck, coastal thorn-scrub, soil washing (1♁). Conuco, El Mirador, Caripe, 10.VI.73, S. Peck (1♁)   .

Etymology. Named in honor of the late Fritz Plaumann, who collected the majority of the specimens comprising the type series.

Figs 387–394. Spalangia plaumanni Gibson.   387–390, head: 387, anterior view ♀, 388, lateral view ♀, 389, anterior view ♁, 390, lateral view ♁; 391, ♁ mesosoma, dorsal view; 392 & 393, pronotum and mesoscutum, dorsolateral view: 392, ♁, 393, ♀; 394, ♁ frenum–petiole, dorsolateral view.

Figs 395–399. Spalangia plaumanni Gibson.   395 & 396, mesopleuron: 395, ♀, 396, ♁; 397 & 398, antenna: 397, ♀, 398, ♁; 399, ♁ fu 1.

Description. Female. Length = 1.5–2.0 mm. Legs dark except at least basal tarsal segments yellow and one or more of subsequent 3 segments yellow or brown. Head in anterior view (Fig. 387) about 1.2–1.3x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.8–2.0x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 388) with malar space about 0.6–0.8x eye height and about 0.9–1.3x eye width. Head capsule smooth and shiny except for crowded setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to level of lower orbit, usually within equilateral-triangular or more transverse-oval scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region with distinct, flat-bottomed punctures, the punctures sometimes separated by about 1–2 puncture diameters on upper face (Fig. 387) but at least more densely crowded on parascrobal region where separated only by linear ridges; scrobal depression with finely coriaceous to coriaceous-granular scrobes on either side of smooth and shiny interantennal region, the sculpture extending over inclined lateral surface of depression and sometimes partly obscuring punctures on parascrobal region near torulus (Fig. 387); gena with distinct crowded punctures similar to lower parascrobal region (Fig. 388), the subcontiguous punctures sometimes aligned in rows and then often obscuring linear malar sulcus; temple with distinct punctures similar to gena. Antenna (Fig. 397) with scape about 4.6–5.1x as long as wide, the inner and outer surfaces uniformly setose and punctate-rugose; pedicel about 1.9–2.6x as long as apical width and about 2.4–2.6x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 0.8–1.2x as long as wide, but usually at least quadrate, and subsequent segments transverse or subquadrate basally to transverse apically, with fu 7 about 1.2–1.6x as wide as long; clava about 1.8–2.3x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view only very low convex behind neck and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; with variably distinct cross-furrow posteriorly (Figs 391– 393), the furrow sometimes coriaceous or if obscurely crenulate then at least setae originating from tiny bumps within furrow (Fig. 393), and variably, often quite densely setose with setae originating from distinct bumps anterior to furrow except mediolongitudinally, but otherwise smooth and shiny. Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 391, 392) with anterior convex region smooth and shiny anteriorly and coriaceous to transversely alutaceous posteriorly; internotaular region with setae often originating from bumps lateral to 1 or 2 median punctures or depressions (Fig. 393). Axillae (Fig. 392) shiny with setae originating from at most minute pinprick-like punctures. Scutellum (Fig. 391) flat and shiny but variably extensively setose laterally, the setae originating from pinprick-like punctures; frenum (Figs 391, 394) with crenulate frenal line interrupted over at least medial third. Mesopleuron (Fig. 395) completely, distinctly sculptured as follows: pectal region coriaceous-granular to rugose-roughened and more or less uniformly covered with several though often inconspicuous setae; acropleuron longitudinally striate-strigose; subalar and episternal scrobes shallow depressions connected by a shallow, linear furrow; upper mesepimeron quite strongly, obliquely alutaceous-coriaceous, the sculpture becoming more coriaceous-alutaceous on lower mesepimeron ventrally; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by variably distinctly carinate transepisternal line and adjacent line of setae, the upper mesepisternum obliquely to posteriorly more longitudinally striate-strigose (Figs 395, 396). Fore wing hyaline; at least with line of several setae on mediocubital fold. Propodeum with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus punctate-reticulate to rugulose; plical region with narrowly V- or Y- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows sometimes delineating a median carina (Fig. 391), but usually with at least a very slender, flat, smooth lanceolate median band, and furrows united into single crenulate line over about posterior half (Fig. 394); supracoxal bands contiguous with paramedian crenulate furrow; panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole about 1.7–1.8x as long as medial width; punctate-reticulate to reticulate-rugulose; bare. Gaster shiny with Gt 1 smooth, but at least Gt 2 and Gt 3 in part very finely coriaceous.

Male. Length = 1.2–1.6 mm. Antenna (Fig. 398) with scape about 4.2–4.9x as long as wide, and often with finer sculpture than for female; pedicel about 1.2–1.4x as long as wide; flagellum with strongly curved setae, but setae not extending from surface for distance obviously equal to width of segment; funicle with fu 1 (Fig. 399) about 2.3–3.1x as long as wide and about 1.7–2.5x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments all longer than wide, with fu 7 about 1.3–1.9x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view (Fig. 389) about 0.9–1.0x as wide as high; in lateral view (Fig. 390) with malar space about 0.6–0.7x eye height and about 0.8–0.9x eye width. Head usually less densely punctate than for female (cf. Fig. 389 with 387, Fig. 390 with 388); gena sometimes with very shallow punctures. Pronotal collar (Figs 391, 392) always with conspicuous, often medially quite distinctly crenulate cross-furrow, but otherwise smoother and shinier with sparser setae arising from less distinct bumps (cf. Fig. 392 with 393). Mesopleuron with pectal region at least sparsely setose dorsally to acropleuron, but sometimes only finely coriaceous and quite shiny (Fig. 396). Propodeum (Fig. 394) more commonly with only very narrowly divergent, V- like paramedian crenulate furrows differentiating irregular median carina (Fig. 391). Petiole (Fig. 394) about 2.1–2.3x as long as medial width, often longitudinally carinate-strigose anteriorly and punctate-reticulate posteriorly.

Distribution. Central America ( Belize, Costa Rica, Panama) and South America ( Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela) (Fig. 259).

Biology. Hosts unknown, but associated with the flowers of Heliconia platystachys Baker   ( Heliconiaceae   ) and fruit of Labatia standleyana (Pittier)   ( Sapotaceae   ), perhaps indicating fruit fly ( Tephritidae   , Drosophilidae   ) hosts.

Recognition. I include S. plaumanni   as one of seven species in the drosophilae   species group as discussed under S. drosophilae   . It is differentiated from all other species of Spalangia   by its uniquely setose and sculptured pectal region (Fig. 395) and from all other drosophilae   -group species except S. flavicrus   by the presence of distinct, flat-bottomed setiferous punctures at least on the gena (Figs 388, 390), though both features (Figs 396, 390) are less conspicuous for some small males. Leg color readily differentiates S. plaumanni   from S. flavicrus   . Males of S. plaumanni   also have less conspicuously long flagellar setae (Figs 398, 399) than other known drosophilae   -group males, though flagellar structure and setation of S. flavicrus   males likely is similar to S. plaumanni   . Both sexes of S. plaumanni   have quite a distinct though at most only obscurely crenulate furrow on the pronotal collar (Figs 391–393), which is less distinct than the cross-furrow in S. innuba   (Figs 255, 256) but more conspicuous than in S. bethyloides   (Fig. 51).

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

AEIC

American Entomological Institute

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

MZCR

Museo de Zoologia

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History