Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead, 1894

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159: 81-85

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Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead, 1894


13. Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead, 1894  

(Figs 208–220)

Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead, 1894: 37   ; holotype ♀ (USNM, examined). Type data: [Warrenton, Virginia,] 4285/ 24, Sept. 13.9 [1889], [Dr. Riley, from Haematobia serrata   larva].

Description. Female. Length = 1.0– 2.5 mm. Legs usually completely dark but tarsi sometimes yellowishbrown. Head in anterior view about 1.1–1.2x as high as wide; in dorsal view 1.5–1.7x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 208) with malar space about 0.9–1.0x as long as eye height and about 1.4–1.6x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 208–210) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate-triangular scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region usually with pinprick-like punctures or punctures at least small and widely spaced if distinct, with setae extending over smooth inclined surface of scrobal depression and often quite dense and originating from tiny bumps ventrally toward torulus; scrobal depression with finely coriaceous to coriaceousgranular scrobes and smooth and shiny interantennal region; gena (Figs 208, 209) rugulose-roughened near oral margin and with linear malar sulcus, but otherwise smooth except for setae originating from at most tiny bumps; temple smooth except for setae similar to gena. Antenna (Fig. 216) with scape about 5.8–7.3x as long as wide, the outer surface (Fig. 218) punctate-rugulose roughened but inner surface usually more finely sculptured, more or less alutaceous; pedicel about 1.7–2.5x as long as apical width and about 1.7–2.0x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.0–1.5x as long as wide, subsequent segments sometimes all distinctly transverse in small specimens but often subquadrate to slightly longer than wide basally and quadrate to only slightly wider than long apically in large specimens, with fu 7 about 1.0–1.5x as wide as long; clava about 2.4–3.1x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view only very low convex behind neck and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; smooth and shiny to sometimes very finely coriaceous laterally or posterolaterally, but without distinct cross-line posteriorly and uniformly setose except mediolongitudinally (Fig. 211), the setae at most originating from tiny bumps sometimes partly surrounded by impressed circular line. Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 211) with anterior convex region smooth and shiny anteriorly and finely coriaceous to transversely alutaceous posteriorly; internotaular region smooth and shiny to distinctly coriaceous lateral to median punctate-rugose region, the region extending virtually to transscutal articulation and usually divided by irregular median carina. Axillae (Figs 211, 214) smooth and shiny except for setae. Scutellum (Figs 211, 214) low convex, shiny and variably extensively but sparsely setose with setae originating from at most pinprick-like setiferous punctures; frenum (Figs 211, 214) with frenal line broadly interrupted, consisting of only 1–3 distinct punctures laterally. Mesopleuron (Fig. 212) comparatively shiny and finely sculptured as follows: pectal region at least shiny and bare except for 1 seta ventrally, usually smooth except sometimes finely coriaceous dorsally or rarely completely, very finely coriaceous-alutaceous; acropleuron longitudinally striate-carinate, the ridges extending posteriorly onto alar shelf; subalar scrobe not distinctly differentiated from upper mesepisternum, the combined region variably extensively longitudinally or obliquely strigose to reticulate- or rugose-strigose anteriorly and obliquely alutaceous-coriaceous posteriorly; episternal scrobe quite a distinct depression connected to subalar scrobe by a shallow, linear furrow; upper mesepimeron finely, obliquely alutaceous and lower mesepimeron obliquely alutaceous anteriorly to coriaceous or coriaceous-granular posteroventrally; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated primarily by partial or complete line of ventral setae, though sometimes with fine transepisternal line within anterior half below strongly strigose portion and/or with fine sulcus ventral to setal line. Fore wing hyaline or sometimes very slightly embrowned; bare behind submarginal vein except for a few setae distally near parastigma. Propodeum (Figs 211, 214) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus reticulate-rugulose at least anterior to level of spiracle, but variably extensively smooth and shiny posteriorly beside postspiracular sulcus; plical

Figs 208–215. Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead.   208–210, head: 208, lateral view ♀, 209, frontolateral view ♀, 210, lateral view ♁; 211, ♀ mesosoma, dorsal view; 212 & 213, mesopleuron: 212, ♀, 213, ♁; 214 & 215, scutellum–petiole, posterodorsal view: 214, ♀, 215, ♁.

region with narrowly V- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating median carina, the carina in lateral view usually distinctly convex except is small specimens; supracoxal bands usually continuous with paramedian crenulate furrow; panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole (Fig. 214) about 1.2–1.7x as long as medial width; punctate-reticulate between longitudinal carinae; with 1 seta laterally. Gaster shiny with fine coriaceous sculpture on at least Gt 2 and Gt 3.

Male. Length = 0.9–1.6 mm. Antenna (Fig. 217) with scape about 4.9–5.4x as long as wide, the inner and outer (Fig. 219) surfaces similar to female except often more finely sculptured; pedicel about 1.5–1.7x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 about 1.7–2.5x as long as wide and about 1.1–2.1x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments sometimes quadrate in smallest specimens but usually oblong, with fu 7 about 1.1–1.5x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view about 1.0–1.1x as high as wide; in lateral view (Fig. 210) with malar space about 0.7–0.8x eye height and about 1.0–1.2x eye width. Pronotal collar sometimes completely, very finely coriaceous. Mesonotal median lobe internotaular region sometimes without distinct punctaterugose median region. Mesopleuron (Fig. 213) with pectal region completely, finely, coriaceous-alutaceous, the sculpture conspicuously different from more irregular, obliquely strigose to alutaceous-reticulate upper mesepisternum (Fig. 213). Fore wing rarely with 1 or 2 setae on mediocubital fold. Petiole (Fig. 215) about 2.2–2.5x as long as medial width.

Figs 216–219. Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead.   216 & 217, antenna: 216, ♀, 217, ♁; 218 & 219, scape, outer view: 218, ♀, 219, ♁.

Material examined. Nearctic (75♀, 45♁). CANADA: Alberta, Cypress Hills Prov. Pk., 14.VIII.80, G. Gibson (1♁). Haney ̓s feedlot, 10.VI.97, K. Floate (1♀). Lethbridge Research Centre — 13-25.V.97, 24.VI.97, K. Floate (3♀); late May-early June, 1998/1999/2000, K. Floate, cow pats from pasture (7♀, 1♁); Macleod, 19.VI.50, W.A. Nelson, Siphona irritans   (2♁). Onefour, 1.VI.56, O. Peck (1♀). Magrath, 16 km. S, McIntyre Ranch, 26.VIII-9.IX.90, D. Griffith (7♁). Writing-on-Stone Prov. Pk. — 10-16, 20-30.VIII.90, M. Klassen (2♀); 6-12.VI.94, D. McCorquodale (1♀); 0.5 mi. E, 27.VI-5.VII.81 (1♀, 1♁), 30.VII-5.VIII.81, 22- 30.VIII.81, 8-17.IX.87, D. McCorquodale (3♀, 4♁); east, 27.VII-4.VIII.82, G. Gibson (1♁)   . British Columbia, Anahim Lk to Redstone , 17.VII.88, 1000-1500 m., S. & J. Peck (6♀)   . New Brunswick, Fredericton, Acadia Exp. Sta. , 14.VII.70, C.M. Yoshimoto (1♀)   . Ontario, Constance Bay — 1.X.53, J.F. McAlpine, ex cow manure (1♁); 31.VII.59 (1♁). Merivale , 18.VI.45, O. Peck (1♀). Ottawa, 3-10.VI.86 (1♀), 6-17.VII.86 (1♁ UCRC)   , 17-27.VII.86 (1♁), H. Goulet. Prince Edward Island, N Tryon, 26.VI.91, M.E. Smith (1♀)   . Quebec, Eardley, Jct. Hwy 148 & Eardley Marsham Rd , 7.VII.92, J. Heraty (1♀ UCRC)   . Gatineau Pk. , 30.VIII.86, J. Denis & G. Gibson (1♀)   . USA: California, Alpine Co., along Monitor Cr., 9 km. SE Markleeville , 38º40'N 119º42'W, 22.VIII.98, S.L. Heydon (1♀ UCDC) GoogleMaps   . Lassen Co., Hallelujah Jct. , 2.VII.80, J.A. Skinner (1♀ UCDC)   . Marin Co., VIII (1♀ USNM)   . Modoc Co., Warner Mts., 4 mi. W Cedar Pass Cmpgd., 5900', 23.VII.92, J. Pinto & G. Platner (1♁). Orange Co. , Ortega Hwy , 4.3 mi. NE Hwy 5, 9.IV.82, H. Anderson (1♀, 1♁ UCRC)   . Riverside Co., Gilman Hot Spgs. , 8.I.77, K.W. Copper, ex pack rat nest (10♀, 5♁ UCRC)   . San Bernardino Co., 7 mi. E Phelan , 15-30.IV.82, J. Huber (1♀ UCRC)   . Sonoma Co., 1.5 m. W Bloomfield, 29.IX.70, P. Rubtzoff, ex cow pat (1♀ CASC)   . Tuolumne Co., Stan. Nat. For., Eagle Meadow , 38º17'14"N 119º50'05"W, 7509 ft, 9.VII.06, S. Fullerton et al. (1♀ UCFO) GoogleMaps   . Colorado, Grand Co., Hwy 40 & Rd 27, 22 km. NNW Kremmling at Chimney Rock , 40º15'N 106º27'W, 4.VIII.99, S.L. & S.M.L. Heydon (1♀ UCDC) GoogleMaps   . Nunn , 21.VI.71, K. Kumar (1♀ USNM)   . Illinois, Algonquin , 3.VIII.1907, Nason (1♀, INHS)   . Michigan, Ing. [Ingham] Co. , 12.X.73, J. Johnson (1♀ UCDC)   . New Hampshire, Durham , 6, 15, 27, 29.VII.54, 2.VIII.54, 31.V.55, 16.VI.55, 1.VII.55, R.L. Blickle (12♀ DENH; 1♀ USNM)   . New York, Ithaca , 16.VII.66, I. Vafiela, cow dung (1♀ USNM)   . Washington Co., Coon road, 43º10.362'N 73º30.025'W, 28.VII.99, K. Hamilton (12♁) GoogleMaps   . Oregon, Lake Co., Bull Cr. Cmpgd. , 15 km. NE Lakeview, 20.VII.94, S.L. Heydon (1♀ UCDC)   . Curry Co., Mt. Bolivar area , 9.VI.85, P. Hanson (1♀ OSAC)   . Wasco Co., Clear Cr. Cmpgd. , NE Warm Spring Jct., 8.VII.86, P. Hanson (1♁ OSAC)   . South Carolina, Anderson Co., Pendleton, Tanglewood Spring , 34º38.7'N 82º47.1'W, 225 m., 15-30.X.87, J. Morse (1♀) GoogleMaps   . Utah, Cache Co., Logan Canyon between 3 rd Dam & Temple Fork Rd, 15.VI.00, P.J. Russell (1♀, 3♁ UCFO)   . Garfield Co., Henry Mts., Lonesome Beaver Cmpgd. , 27.VIII.81, E.E. Grissell, sweeping Artemesia   (1♁ USNM)   . Virginia, [ Warrenton ], 13.IX.1889, 4285/24, [Riley, ex horn fly larva, Haematobia serrata   ] (holotype ♀, USNM)   . Winchester , 16.VI.64, O. Peck (2♀)   . Washington, Grant Co., O’Sullivan Dam , 22.V.54, M.T. James (1#m WSUC)   . Whitman Co., Pullman , 23.VII.1908, W.W. Mann (1♀ USNM)   . Wyoming, Chugwater Cr., 10.VIII.86, J. Pinto (1♀)   .

Neotropical (2♀). COSTA RICA: Heredia, La Selva Biol. Station , VII-VIII.98, 50 m.   , N. Franz (1♀). DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Pedernales, Cabo Rojo, Compañia Alcoa, 17.I.89, L. Masner (1♀)   .

Distribution. Spalangia haematobiae   is widely distributed in the Nearctic region at least between about 53º–33ºN, but apparently also extends further south into Central America and West Indies (Fig. 220). The previous distribution record for Costa Rica in Noyes (2003) as well as those for the Caribbean, Mexico, Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands are based on Burks (1979) and De Santis (1979), which were based on specimens in the USNM that are all S. imitator   (see below). The record from Hawaii in Noyes (2003) is also incorrect because it is based on Bouček̓s (1963: 494) statement that S. lanaiensis   (= S. impunctata   ) might be found to be conspecific with S. haematobiae   , which is incorrect.

Biology. Noyes (2003) lists hosts of S. haematobiae   in Anthomyiidae   , Muscidae   , Sarcophagidae   and Sepsidae   , but the horn fly, H. irritans   , is the only host confirmed through examination of voucher specimens. Most of the host records in Noyes (2003) were provided by Blume (1987), including rearings from Gymnodia   (= Brontaea   ) debilis (Williston)   , Gymnodia delecta (Wulp)   (= B. arcuata   ), Gymnodia quadristigma (Thomson)   (= B. cilifera   ) ( Muscidae   ), Adia cinerella (Fallén)   ( Anthomyiidae   ), Ravinia derelicta (Walker)   ( Sarcophagidae   ), Sepsis neocynipsea Melander and Spuler   ( Sepsidae   ), and Coproica setulosa (Duda)   ( Sphaeroceridae   ). Of the Blume (1987) records, I only saw voucher specimens reared from A. cinerella   and R. derelicta   and all are S. imitator   rather than S. haematobiae   . Voucher specimens also indicate all host records for S. haematobiae   in Figg et al. (1983) are incorrect, with females reared from A. (= Paregle   ) cinerella   and Ravinia sp.   being S. leiopleura   and those reared from Sepsis biflexuosa Strobl   and Saltella sphondylii (Schrank)   ( Sepsidae   ) being S. imitator   .

Recognition. I include S. haematobiae   as one of five species in the subpunctata   species group as discussed under S. subpunctata   . It is most likely to be confused with either S. imitator   or S. subpunctata   as discussed under these species. Bouček (1963) included S. haematobiae   in his key to the Holarctic species and as a valid species (p. 475), but he stated that it might represent only a form of S. subpunctata   and therefore listed it as a questionable synonym under S. subpunctata   (p. 473). Likely because of this, both Graham (1969: 55) and Wall (1972: 7) questionably placed S. haematobiae   under synonymy with S. subpunctata   .

Fig. 220. Distribution of Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead.  


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Spalangia haematobiae Ashmead, 1894

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia haematobiae

Ashmead, W. H. 1894: 37