Torobus Herman, 2001

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos, 2018, A Review of the Genera Dysanellus Bernhauer and Torobus Herman (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae: Staphylinini), The Coleopterists Bulletin 72 (2), pp. 279-291: 285-289

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-72.2.279

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:38A07005-9DF6-4468-BBC3-BD16FE6851B4

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/296D87B5-FFE8-240E-FEEE-FCBAFF25FECF

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Diego

scientific name

Torobus Herman, 2001
status

 

Torobus Herman, 2001  

( Figs. 3–4 View Figs , 7–8 View Figs , 10 View Figs , 14–15 View Figs , 19–24 View Figs View Figs , 26 View Fig )

Type Species. Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann   , by original designation.

Diagnosis. Torobus   , as it is defined in this paper to only include T. laetipes   and T. purpurascens   , can be distinguished from other Xanthopygina   by the combination of the following characters: right mandible with bicuspid tooth; labial palpomere 3 dilated (but not securiform; Fig. 10 View Figs unfortunately does not provide the best view of this structure); antennomeres 6–10 transverse; disc of pronotum impunctate (at most with 2–3 scattered punctures); postcoxal process present; and porose structure on abdominal sternum VII of males present.

Description. Habitus as in Figs. 3–4 View Figs , body medium to large size, 13.2–20.1 mm in total length. Color of head metallic green, yellow-red, or purple; pronotum metallic dark blue-green or purple; elytra orange or blue-purple; legs, mouthparts, and antennae orange or brown, abdomen brown except VIII orange (in T. laetipes   and some specimens of T. purpurascens   ).

Head transverse with medium-sized to large, setose punctures around margin of head and microsculpture; with various punctures and sculpture on epicranium; head appearing rounded or as rectangle. Anterior margin of clypeus straight or slightly emarginate; anteclypeus expanded. Eyes medium size, occupying approximately 1/2 lateral margins of head. Ventral surface of head with transverse or polygonal microsculpture and scattered medium-size punctures; postoccipital suture and ventral basal ridge present; infraorbital ridge well-delineated; postmandibular ridge present, prominent, extending from near mandible to lateral side of head; gular sutures separated anteriorly, converging medially and separating again posteriorly; nuchal depression prominent, forming well-defined neck; neck with microsculpture and micropunctures.

Antennomeres 1–4 with multiple rows of macrosetae; antennomeres 5–11 with macrosetae but also with microtrichiae; antennomeres 1–4 longer than wide; antennomere 5 subquadrate; antennomeres 6–11 transverse; antennomere 1 twice as long as antennomere 2; antennomere 3 longer than 2; antennomeres 4 shorter than 3; antennomere 5 longer than 4; antennomeres 7–10 gradually increase in size, slightly asymmetrical.

Mouthparts with labrum medially emarginate to its base. Mandibles large, curved, blunt; left mandible with bicuspid tooth; right mandible with an elongate tooth; mandibles with dorsolateral groove extending from condyle to just above tooth; prostheca setose. Maxilla with galea and lacinia densely setose; maxillary palpi 4-segmented; P 1 small, about 1/3 as long as P 2; P 2 curved, elongate, longer than P 3; P 2 –P 3 with large setae apically; P 4 elongate, longer than P 3. Submentum with 1 long and 1 shorter anterolateral setae in each end; labial palpi 3- segmented; P 1 subequal in length to P 2; both P 1 and P 2 with several long setae; P 3 with distal end dilated but not securiform.

Pronotum longer than wide to quadrate; lateral margins of pronotum slightly concave in dorsal aspect; pronotum broadest in apical 1/3 and narrower at basal angles. Hypomeron expanded, with microsculpture and few micropunctures; superior and inferior marginal lines of hypomeron separate throughout their lengths; superior line fully visible from above, extending around anterolateral margin of pronotum and contacting inferior line at neck fossa; no portion of dorsum of pronotum visible from below. Pronotum without rows of punctures on disc. Postcoxal process present, elongate.

Mesoscutellum prominent, long, with dense polygonal microsculpture and micropunctures; with multiple rows of small punctures. Basisternum with dense, polygonal microsculpture and carina; anterior marginal depression present; furcasternum with medial carina pointed vertically; furcasternum with polygonal microsculpture.

Elytral width subequal to pronotal width; with shallow or deep punctures and rugose microsculpture; elytra appearing matte due to microsculpture. Hind wings fully developed. Mesoventrite with anterior margin forming “lip”; with dense, polygonal microsculpture and few punctures along edges; without median carina. Metaventrite with mediumsized punctures; metaventral process small, rounded, with v-shaped emargination.

Tarsal segmentation 5-5-5; meso- and metatibiae with multiple rows of spurs. Protarsus enlarged in both sexes, with spatulate setae ventrally; meso- and metatarsi not enlarged. Empodium with 2 small setae.

Abdomen with paired protergal glands present; abdomen expanding from segment III to segment V (widest) and then becoming narrower towards segment VIII. Abdominal terga III–V with basal carina; tergum III with faint subbasal (arch-like) carina; tergum IV with faint subbasal (arch-like) carina in T. laetipes   slightly less delineated in T. purpurascens   . Segments with sparse (more or less uniform) small punctures and microsculpture. Males with secondary sexual structures on sterna VIII–IX; porose structure present on sternum VII. Lateral tergal sclerites of abdominal segment IX long and straight, covered with long macrosetae. Male genitalia with aedeagus typical of Xanthopygina   ( Figs. 19–24 View Figs View Figs ); median lobe wider than paramere; median lobe with a dorsal tooth; paramere long, not divided into lobes. Paramere with peg setae and short apical setae. Spermatheca not sclerotized.

Synoptic Catalogue. The catalogue presented below follows the format of the catalogue presented in Herman (2001b), and its purpose here is to clarify the status of all taxa assigned to Torobus   in the past. For the complete catalogue entry details, see Herman (2001b).

Torobus Herman 2001a: 29   (species included: T. badiipennis   , T. brasilianus   , T. chloris   , T. erithacus   ,

T. fassli   , T. laetipes   , T. mautnermarkhofi   , T. principalis   , T. purpurascens   ).

badiipennis Nordmann 1837: 25   ( Creophilus   ), in Terataki Chatzimanolis   ( Chatzimanolis 2013).

brasilianus Bernhauer 1906: 327   ( Trigonurus   ). Originally described as Trigonurus brasilianus   , this species is recognized as a junior synonym of Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann   , new synonymy.

chloris Nordmann 1837: 26   ( Creophilus   ), in Terataki ( Chatzimanolis 2013)   , as a junior synonym of Terataki erithacus   .

erithacus Nordmann 1837: 25   ( Creophilus   ), in Terataki ( Chatzimanolis 2013)   , = Terataki erithracus   ; Chatzimanolis 2013: 260 (subsequent misspelling). Note: Name consistently spelled erithracus   throughout publication.

fassli Bernhauer 1917: 113   ( Trigonopselaphus   ), in Phanolinopsis Scheerpeltz   ( Chatzimanolis 2017a).

laetipes Bernhauer 1911: 418   ( Trigonopselaphus   ).

mautnermarkhofi Scheerpeltz 1972: 43   ( Trigonopselaphus   ). This species is here transferred to Scariphaeus Erichson   as Scariphaeus mautnermarkhofi (Scheerpeltz)   new combination. More details and illustrations of this species will be given in a subsequent revision of Scariphaeus   .

principalis Bernhauer 1911: 416   ( Trigonopselaphus   ), in Ocyolinus Sharp   ( Chatzimanolis 2017b).

purpurascens Nordmann 1837: 47   ( Staphylinus   ).

Torobus laetipes ( Bernhauer, 1911)   ( Figs. 3 View Figs , 7 View Figs , 10 View Figs , 14 View Figs , 19–21 View Figs , 26 View Fig )

Trigonopselaphus laetipes Bernhauer 1911: 418   . Torobus laetipes (Bernhauer)   ; Herman 2001a: 29.

Type Material. Holotype, female with labels: “ Paraguay? Bang-Haas” / “ laetipes Brh   Typus” / “Chicago NHMus M. Bernhauer Collection”. In the collection of FMNH.

Additional Material. ARGENTINA: Jujuy: P. N. Calilegua, Sendero Tataupa , -23.7414 -64.8531, 11–12.iii.2011, M. Caterino & A. Tishechkin (1 female, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; Missiones: El Soberbio, 27.18S 54.13W, ii.1985, S. Bolle (1 female, FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Tucumán: unknown locality (1 male, FMNH)   . BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia , -27.1833 -52.3833, 300–500 m, ix.1950, F.Plaumann (2 males, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality and collector except 21.i.1949 (1 male, CNC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality and collector except 15.iii.1948 (1 male, AMNH) GoogleMaps   ; same locality and collector except 13.iii.1952, SM0079876 (1 female, SEMC) GoogleMaps   ; same locality and collector except 16. i.1964, UTCI000014740 (1 male, UTCI) GoogleMaps   ; same locality and collector except 193x (1 female, FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; same locality, A. Moller, iii.1967 (1 female, NMW) GoogleMaps   ; S~ao Paulo: Araras , 15.i.1981, M. M. Capuano, UTCI000003897 (1 male, UTCI)   ; Ribeirao Preto , iii–vii.1899, Riedel (1 female, FMNH)   ; Unknown state: unknown locality (1 female, SDEI)   . PARA- GUAY: Alto Paraná: Hohenau , 10.ix.1932, J. Jacob (1 male, NMW)   ; same locality and collector except 26.xi.1928 (1 male, NMW)   ; same locality and collector except 21.ii.1932 (1 male, NMW)   ; same locality and collector, 1932 (1 male, BMNH)   ; same locality and collector except unknown date (1 female, NMW)   ; same locality, i.1955, unknown collector (1 female, FMNH)   ; Asunción: Asunción, U. Dreschel , 20.ix1990, SM0079875 (1 female SEMC)   ; Guairá: Villarica , Fr. Schade, x.1922 (1 female, NMW)   ; unknown locality, C. Pfannel , 300m (1 male, NMW)   ; Paraguar´ı: Sapucai , 190 m, -25.6667 -56.91676, 28.ix.1994, U. Dreschel, SM0648025 (1 female, SEMC) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Torobus laetipes   is among the most easily recognizable species in Xanthopygina   due to the different coloration of the head, pronotum, and elytra ( Fig. 3 View Figs ). Even if no coloration is taken into account, T. laetipes   can be distinguished from T. purpurascens   based on the shape of the head (head rounded in T. laetipes   , rectangular in T. purpurascens   ) and the shape of the aedeagus (paramere much wider in T. laetipes   than in T. purpurascens   ). A few rare specimens of T. laetipes   that have the same color on the head and prothorax can be confused with Nausicotus castaneipennis Lynch. However   , the two species can be easily distinguished from each other due to the lack of extensive pronotal punctuation on T. laetipes   (at least two rows of large punctures on the pronotal disc of N. castaneipennis   ) and the coloration of segment VIII (orange in T. laetipes   , brown in N. castaneipennis   ).

Description. Body length 13.2–17.9 mm. Coloration of head metallic green with yellow, orange, and red overtones; pronotum metallic dark bluegreen [in three specimens examined, coloration of head also metallic dark blue-green]; elytra and mouthparts orange; antennomeres 1–2 orange, 3–11 dark orange-brown; mesoscutellum and ventral surface of head brown; ventral surface of thorax orange except mesoventrite brown; legs orange except parts of pro- and metacoxae; abdomen brown except VIII orange. Head transverse, width:length ratio = 1.30, appearing rounded. Epicranium with dense polygonal microsculpture and micropunctures; few large to medium-sized punctures around margin of head and eyes and few other scattered medium-sized punctures anteriorly on epicranium. Clypeus not emarginate. Eyes medium-sized, length of eyes / length of head ratio = 0.46, distance between eyes as wide as 1.82 times length of eye. Neck with polygonal microsculpture and few micropunctures. Pronotum quadrate, width:length ratio = 1.03; surface of pronotum uniformly covered with dense polygonal microsculpture and micropunctures; appearing matte due to microsculpture. Pronotum without well-defined rows of punctures on disc; at most with 2–3 punctures near center; with few scattered medium-sized punctures near anterolateral margins; pronotal margin without thick area of micropunctures. Elytra appearing smooth and impunctate at low magnification due to shallow, sparse, medium-sized punctures (about 8–9 punctures / elytral width); distance between punctures 1–2 times width of puncture; elytra with rugose microsculpture. Abdominal terga III–IV with faint subbasal (arch-like) carina. Male secondary sexual structures ( Fig. 14 View Figs ) on sternum VII with broad, shallow emargination medially; porose structure present on sternum VII; sternum VIII with moderate U-shaped emargination medially; sternum IX with deep, V-shaped emargination medially. Female without obvious sexual structures. Aedeagus as in Figs. 19–21 View Figs ; in dorsal view, paramere wide, converging to rounded tip; paramere slightly shorter (or subequal) and narrower than median lobe; in lateral view, paramere straight, narrower apically; paramere with peg setae along lateral margins. Median lobe in dorsal view wide, converging to narrow rounded apex, with a large tooth apically; in lateral view, becoming much narrower near apex.

Distribution. Known from the provinces of Jujuy, Missiones, and Tucumán in Argentina, the states of Santa Catarina and S~ao Paulo in Brazil, and the departments of Alto Paraná, Asunción, Guairá, and Paraguar´ı in Paraguay.

Torobus purpurascens ( Nordmann, 1837)   ( Figs. 4 View Figs , 8 View Figs , 15 View Figs , 22–24 View Figs , 26 View Fig )

Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann 1837: 47   .

Trigonopselaphus purpurascens (Nordmann)   ; Gemminger and Harold 1868: 597.

Trigonurus   [sic; lapsus of Trigonopselaphus   ] brasilianus Bernhauer 1906: 327   . New synonymy.

Trigonopselaphus brasilianus (Bernhauer)   ; Bernhauer and Schubert 1914: 403.

Torobus purpurascens (Nordmann)   ; Herman 2001a: 29.

Torobus brasilianus (Bernhauer)   ; Herman 2001a: 29.

Type Material. Lectotype of Staphylinus purpurascens   , here designated, with labels: “Type” / “5976” / “Hist. -Coll. ( Coleoptera   ) Nr. 5976 Staphylinus purpurascens Nordm.   Brasil v. Langsdorff Zool. Mus. Berlin” / “ SYNTYPE Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann, 1837   labelled by MFNB 2017” / “ Lectotype Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann   des. Chatzimanolis 2017” / “ Torobus purpurascens Nordmann   det. Chatzimanolis 2017”. In the collection of ZMHB   . Paralectotypes, two females, here designated, with labels “Type” / “Hist. -Coll. ( Coleoptera   ) Nr. 5976 Staphylinus purpurascens Nordm.   Brasil v. Langsdorff Zool. Mus. Berlin” / “ SYNTYPE Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann, 1837   labelled by MFNB 2017” / “ Paralectotype Staphylinus purpurascens Nordmann   des. Chatzimanolis 2017” / “ Torobus purpurascens Nordmann   det. Chatzimanolis 2017”. In the collection of ZMHB   .

Holotype for Torobus brasilianus   , male with labels: “ Brasilien Bang-Haas” / “ Trigonurus brasilianus Brh   Typus det. Bernhauer” / “ brasilianus Bernh Typ.   ” / “Chicago NHMus. M. Bernhauer Collection” / “ HOLOTYPE teste A. Westrich 2015 GDI Imaging Project” / “PHOTOGRAPHED Kelsey Keaton 2015 Emu Catalog” / “FMNHNS3047815 Field Museum Pinned”. In the collection of FMNH. Photographs of the holotype and labels for T. brasilianus   are available at collections-zoology.fieldmuseum.org/catalogue/3047815.

Additional Material. BRAZIL: Bahia: unknown locality (1 male, BMNH)   ; Esp´ırito   Santo: Fazenda Jerusalem , 3.xii.1913, J. F. Zikan (1 female, FMNH)   ; Trijuco Preto , 900 m, iii.1940, E. Reitter (1 male, NMW)   ; unknown locality, Descourtilz (1 male, 1 female, FMNH)   ; unknown locality (1 female, BMNH)   ; Minas Gerais: Santa Bárbara , iii.1957 (1 female, NMW)   ; unknown locality (1 male, BMNH)   ; Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo (1 male, MHNG)   ; Rio Grande do Sul: Rio Grande (1 female, BMNH)   ; Santa Catarina: Hansa Humboldt , viii.1939, E. Reitter (2 males, NMW)   ; S ‾ ao Paulo: Cantareira, A. Bierig (1 male, FMNH)   ; same locality, 8.xii.1929, J. Halik, UTCI000004381 (1 male, UTCI)   ; Mogi des Cruzes, 50 km SE Sierra do Mar., Est. Biol. Boraceia , 800–900 m, 28–30.iv.1997, F. Genier, SM0156870, SM0156872, SM0156874 (3 males, SEMC)   ; Unknown state: (1 male, 2 females, BMNH; 2 females, FMNH)   ; Bescke , GAC7936 (1 female, MZH)   ; PARAGUAY: Alto Paraná: Hohenau , 26. viii.1934, J. Jacob (1 female NMW)   ; UNKNOWN COUNTRY: (1 male, NMW)   ; Kraatz (2 males, SDEI; 1 female, MHNG)   ;

Diagnosis. Torobus purpurascens   can be easily distinguished from T. laetipes   due to the overall different color patterns in these two species. Besides the different coloration, T. purpurascens   can be distinguished from T. laetipes   based on the shape of the head (head rectangular in T. purpurascens   , rounded in T. laetipes   ) and the shape of the aedeagus (paramere much wider in T. laetipes   than in T. purpurascens   ).

Description. Body length 14.9–20.1 mm. Coloration of head and pronotum dark metallic purple to metallic green-red; elytra dark metallic bluepurple; mouthparts, antennae, mesoscutellum, legs, ventral surface of body, and abdomen brown except VIII variable from brown to orange. Head transverse, with posterolateral corners slightly expanded, width:length ratio = 1.29, rectangular. Epicranium with transverse microsculpture and micropunctures; with few medium-sized punctures around margin of head and eyes and few other scattered medium-sized punctures on epicranium. Clypeus slightly emarginate. Eyes medium-sized, length of eyes / length of head ratio = 0.48, distance between eyes as wide as 1.80 times length of eye. Neck with transverse microsculpture and few micropunctures. Pronotum longer than wide, width: length ratio = 0.91; surface of pronotum uniformly covered with sparse transverse microsculpture and micropunctures; appearing shiny. Pronotum without well-defined rows of punctures at disc; at most with 2–3 punctures near center; few scattered mediumsized punctures near anterolateral margins; pronotal margin with thick area of micropunctures, appearing as a fine grey line around margin. Elytra not appearing smooth; with medium-sized to large, deep punctures (about 11–12 punctures / elytral width); distance between punctures equal to width of puncture; elytra with rugose microsculpture. Abdominal tergum III with faint subbasal (archlike) carina; tergum IV with slightly less delineated subbasal (arch-like) carina. Male secondary sexual structures ( Fig. 15 View Figs ) on sternum VII with slight emargination medially; porose structure present on sternum VII [see Remarks below]; sternum VIII with shallow, U-shaped emargination medially; sternum IX with deep, V-shaped emargination medially. Female without obvious sexual structures. Aedeagus as in Figs. 22–24 View Figs ; in dorsal view, paramere narrow [in comparison to T. laetipes   ], converging to rounded tip; paramere slightly longer (or subequal) and narrower than median lobe; in lateral view, paramere concave, narrower apically; paramere with peg setae along the anterior lateral margins. Median lobe in dorsal view wide, converging to narrowly rounded apex, with a large tooth apically; in lateral view, becoming much narrower near apex.

Distribution. Known from several states in Brazil and the department of Alto Parańa in Paraguay.

Remarks. Bernhauer (1906) mentioned that T. brasilianus   was different from T. purpurascens   due to the coloration and the smaller head and pronotum. However, after comparing all taxa that were previously identified by Bernhauer, Scheerpeltz, and others as belonging to these two species, as well as the type material, I cannot find any significant differences in the shape of the aedeagi. Additionally, the minor differences in coloration and size among specimens do not form any clear geographic patterns.

Chatzimanolis (2013) erroneously mentioned that T. purpurascens   has no porose structure while comparing that species with members of Terataki   . The porose structure on T. purpurascens   is positioned rather anteriorly on the segment, and it was obscured by the preceding segments on the rather limited number of specimens I examined at that time.

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

MZH

Finnish Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Staphylinidae

Loc

Torobus Herman, 2001

Chatzimanolis, Stylianos 2018
2018
Loc

Torobus

Herman, L. H. 2001: 29
2001
Loc

Torobus purpurascens (Nordmann)

Herman, L. H. 2001: 29
2001
Loc

Torobus brasilianus (Bernhauer)

Herman, L. H. 2001: 29
2001
Loc

mautnermarkhofi

Scheerpeltz, O. 1972: 43
1972
Loc

fassli

Bernhauer, M. 1917: 113
1917
Loc

Trigonopselaphus brasilianus (Bernhauer)

Bernhauer, M. & K. Schubert 1914: 403
1914
Loc

laetipes

Bernhauer, M. 1911: 418
1911
Loc

principalis

Bernhauer, M. 1911: 416
1911
Loc

Trigonopselaphus laetipes

Herman, L. H. 2001: 29
Bernhauer, M. 1911: 418
1911
Loc

brasilianus

Bernhauer, M. 1906: 327
1906
Loc

Trigonurus

Bernhauer, M. 1906: 327
1906
Loc

Trigonopselaphus purpurascens (Nordmann)

Gemminger, M. & E. von Harold 1868: 597
1868
Loc

badiipennis

Nordmann, A. von 1837: 25
1837
Loc

chloris

Nordmann, A. von 1837: 26
1837
Loc

erithacus

Chatzimanolis, S. 2013: 260
Nordmann, A. von 1837: 25
1837
Loc

purpurascens

Nordmann, A. von 1837: 47
1837
Loc

Staphylinus purpurascens

Nordmann, A. von 1837: 47
1837