Coccus vitis

Williams, D. J. & Z. - Q, 2007, Carl Linnaeus and his scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) *, Zootaxa 1668 (1), pp. 427-490: 465-467

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1668.1.23

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Coccus vitis


Coccus vitis   (Family Coccidae   ) [now known as Pulvinaria vitis   (L.)]

( Figure 14 View FIGURE 14 )


In life, adult female predominantly dark brown, fairly flat before maturity then becoming convex, secreting a white ovisac posteriorly so that posterior end of body is elevated at an angle and only anterior end of body remaining attached to plant.

Body of adult female on microscope slide broadly oval, membranous in newly-moulted specimens, sclerotized in mature specimens, with a few small areolations. Stigmatic clefts only moderately developed. Antennae each with 8 segments, gradually tapering, third segment usually longest. Legs well developed, tibia and tarsus well articulated and with an articulatory sclerosis. Claw with minute denticle and a pair of expanded digitules. Anal plates together quadrate, each plate with anterior edge slightly shorter than posterior edge; apex of each plate with 3 or 4 short setae.

Dorsal surface with short, stiff pointed setae, fairly evenly distributed. Simple pores of 2 sizes present, one with minute filament, frequent. Paraopercular pores larger than simple pores, present in a medial elongate group forwards from anal plates. Dorsal tubercles present around margins.

Ventral surface with each stigmatic cleft bearing 3 bluntly pointed stigmatic setae, medial seta longest. Other marginal setae often slightly curved, fairly stiff but slender and pointed. A submarginal row of shorter setae present. Medial setae flagellate, mostly longest between antennal bases and prevulvar region. Multilocular disc pores numerous in vulvar region and becoming less frequent anteriorly in medial areas of abdominal segments; small groups also present lateral to each mid and hind coxa. Quinquelocular pores present in moderately wide bands between each spiracle and stigmatic cleft. Tubular ducts abundant, of 3 distinct types in a submarginal band and medially on thorax and abdomen; a type with filamentous ductule and others present with either short or longer and thicker ductules. Microducts present, more numerous in submarginal band.


There are no specimens of this species in Linnaeus’ collection. Linnaeus (1758) referred to the works of Gusmanus and Réaumur, and for that time, both gave good accounts and excellent illustrations of this insect in life, leaving little doubt about the identity of this species. Linnaeus’ citations, therefore, validate the name.

There are many synonyms of this species including C. carpini   L., C. oxyacanthae   L., and the name C. betulae   discussed above. For information on the name C. crataegi   which has also been associated with C. vitis   , see comments under C. oxyacanthae   . For many years the names C. betulae   and C. oxyacanthae   were applied to separate species despite earlier synonymy but it has been shown by Malumphy (1991) and Łagowska (1996) using host transference experiments that all represent the same species.

Targioni Tozzetti (1866) designated Coccus vitis   as the type species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti. The species   is common throughout the Palaearctic Region and has been introduced to North America, Brazil and New Zealand. It is known on many plant species. For a full synonymy, distribution and host range see Ben- Dov (1993), and for fuller descriptions see Newstead (1903), who included an excellent colour plate, Borchsenius (1957), Kosztarab & Kozár (1988) and Hodgson (1994). The accompanying illustration first appeared in Hodgson (1994) and is reproduced herein by kind permission of the author and CABI Publishing.