Emargininae, Kovalev, 1994

Buffington, Matthew L., Forshage, Mattias, Liljeblad, Johan, Tang, Chang-Ti & Noort, Simon van, 2020, World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera): A Key to Higher- Level Groups, Insect Systematics and Diversity 4 (2020), No. 1, pp. 1-69: 55

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http://doi.org/ 10.1093/isd/ixaa003

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Figs. 249 and 250 View Plate 19

This unusual group of diminutive wasps has been variously classified, often as eucoilines. Ronquist (1999) clarified the circumscription of the group and recognized them as their own subfamily (reviewed by Pujade-Villar 2019). While typically rare in most parts of the world, they are a dominant figitid group in Madagascar ( van Noort et al. 2015). Several genera have been described, but all have been synonymized under Thoreauella Girault   ; considering that, nothing less than a world-wide revision would be able to find phylogenetically meaningful groups.

Biology. Host unknown, but adults have been collected from formicid refuse piles ( Weld 1960b).

Distribution. Pantropical and transgressing into Eastern Palearctic, but rarely collected outside Madagascar.

Relevant literature. Ronquist (1999) circumscribed the group; Weld (1960b) suggested species are ant associates. Van Noort et al. (2015) reviewed the Afrotropical species and moved all species into Thoreauella   .


Emargininae Kovalev, 1994  

Thoreauella Girault, 1930   ; 15 species pantropical ePAePA