Trachinotus botla (Shaw)

Smith-Vaniz, William F. & Walsh, Stephen J., 2019, Indo-West Pacific species of Trachinotus with spots on their sides as adults, with description of a new species endemic to the Marquesas Islands (Teleostei: Carangidae), Zootaxa 4651 (1), pp. 1-37: 17-20

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4651.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9AAC432F-D0FC-470A-8468-7B24E4D57514

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/270A87D7-FFD1-FFC8-FF05-5C798775FEFC

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Trachinotus botla (Shaw)
status

 

Trachinotus botla (Shaw)  

Largespot pompano, Common dart

Figures 2A View TABLE 2 , 5C View FIGURE 5 , 6–8 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 , 12–16 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 ; Tables 1–6 View TABLE 1 View TABLE 2 View TABLE 3 View TABLE 4 View TABLE 5 View TABLE 6 , 8 View TABLE 8

Scomber botla parah Russell, 1803:32   , pl. 142 (non-valid name; Vizagapatam, India).

Scomber botla Shaw, 1803:591   (original description; Vizagapatam, India; no types known); Day, 1875:233 (listed as synonym of Trachinotus russelii   ).

Trachinotus russelii Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1832:436   (original description; Pondichéry = Puducherry, India; syntypes MNHN A-5663); McCulloch, 1914:223 (misidentification = T. botla, Bernier   Island, Western Australia); Oshima, 1925:408 (after Day); McCulloch, 1929:192 (checklist of Australian fishes; listed as synonym of T. botla   ); Smith, 1967:163, pl. 37 (Natal, Mozambique and Kenya); Smith-Vaniz et al., 1979:30 (syntype listed as synonym of T. botla   ); Talwar and Kacker, 1984:488 ( India); Joshi et al., 2011:407, color pl. LVI ( India); Joshi et al., 2016:44 (Gulf of Mannar, checklist).

Trachynotus russellii   . Day, 1875:233, pl. 51B, fig. 3 (Canara, India); Barnard, 1927:554 (description; Natal Coast); Gushiken, 1983:164 (description after Williams, 1958; no specimens listed from Japan).

Trachynotus oblongus   (not of Cuvier). Gilchrist and Thompson, 1908:187 (Natal).

Trachinotus russelli   . Pellegrin, 1914:228 ( Madagascar); Weber and de Beaufort, 1931:289 (synonymy with T. oblongus   , T. coppingeri   and T. velox   listed as synonyms; description; distribution); Munro, 1955:131 ( Ceylon), pl. 22, fig. 370, after Ogilby, 1915, pl. 28 = T. coppingeri   ; Williams, 1958:424, pl. 26, fig. 27 (East Africa); Munro, 1960:133, fig. 851 (in part, only records from Western Australia); Fourmanoir and Crosnier,1964:17 (Nosy Be, Madagascar); Maugé, 1967:225 (Toliara [=Tuléar], Madagascar); Abdussamad et al., 2013:25, color fig. 12 ( India).

Trachynotus russelli   . Pellegrin, 1914:228 (Mahambo and Fort Dauphin [Tolagnaro], Madagascar).

Trachinotus botla   . Smith-Vaniz et al., 1979:30 (syntype listed with T. russellii   in synonymy); Smith-Vaniz, 1986:659, fig. 210.50 ( South Africa to Kenya and Madagascar); Hutchins and Swainston, 1986:58, 130, fig. 288 (Western Australia to Northern Territory); Van der Elst, 1988:161, unnumbered color photo (southern Africa); Allen and Swainston, 1988:74, color fig. 459 (northwestern Australia). Paxton et al., 1989:586 (Zoological Catalogue of Australia); Hutchins, 1990:270 (Shark Bay, Western Australia); Smale et al., 1995:127, pl. 74, figs. E1-3 (otolith description); Randall, 1995:472, color fig. 472 (Gulf of Oman); Smith-Vaniz, 1999:2747, unnumbered fig. (“apparently restricted to the Indian Ocean,” including Western Australia); Hutchins, 2001:33 (Western Australia); Manilo and Bogorodsky, 2003:S107 ( Oman, Gulf of Aden and Somali); Allen and Adrim, 2003:38 (Sumatra to Java); Heemstra & Heemstra, 2004:314, unnumbered color fig. (southern Africa); Springer and Smith-Vaniz, 2008:31 (supraneural and pterygiophore insertion patterns); White et al., 2013:176, color fig. 63.46 ( Indonesia); Moore et al., 2014:186 (Kimberly region, Australia); Psomadakis et al, 2015:230, pl. 18, color fig. 143 ( Pakistan); Parker & Booth, 2015:247 (biology and life history); Fricke et al., 2018:188 ( Madagascar).

Trachinotus russellii   . Oshima, 1925:408 (compiled, after Day); Smith, 1949:222, fig. 549 (Natal, Delagoa and occasionally East London); Kiener, 1966:1119, pl 19, fig. 35 ( Madagascar).

Trachinotus baillonii   . (not of Lacepède) Fowler, 1934b:452 (Natal).

Caesiomorus botla   . Whitley, 1948:20 (Western Australia).

Palinurichthys umhlangae Smith, 1949:304   , fig. 849b (original description; Umhlanga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; syntype SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13654).

Trachinotus coppingeri   (not of Günther) Joshi et al., 2011:399, color pl. 60, fig. A (Tuticorin, India); Abdussamad et al., 2013:25, color fig. 13 ( India); Joshi et al., 2016:44 (Gulf of Mannar, checklist).

Type material examined. CAS-SU 14445 View Materials (342 mm FL), neotype of Trachinotus botla Shaw, Vizagapatam   , India   , 17°41’N, 83°13’E (see Nomenclatural history); MNHN A.5663 (314 mm FL), dry mount on glass plate, syntype of Trachinotus russelii Cuvier   , Pondichéry   , Sonnerat, India; SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 13654 (32 mm FL), syntype of Palinurichthys umhlangae Smith, Umhlanga, KwaZulu-Natal   , South Africa   .

Other material examined. 110 specimens, 73–558 mm FL, including 39 uncataloged specimens from Sri Lanka and India that cannot be located but presumably were transferred to CAS (listed as CAS uncat.). Data for these specimens were taken by F.H. Berry when he worked at the National Marine Fishery Service’s former Tropical Atlantic Biological Laboratory in Miami , Florida, and subsequently made available to us   . South Africa: SAM 9979 View Materials (1, 178), Durban   ; SAM 9980 View Materials (1, 167), Natal   ; SAIAB 10453 View Materials (1, 178) and SAIAB 11079 View Materials (2, 248–258), Maputo Bay (= Delagoa Bay ), (25°59’S, 32°57’E) GoogleMaps   ; ANSP 159120 View Materials (2, 128–152 C&S), Sodwana Bay (27°32’S, 32°41’E) GoogleMaps   ; ANSP 54830 View Materials (5, 91–184), ANSP 93097 View Materials (1, 348) and ANSP 95000 View Materials (2, 121–189), Durban (29°53’S, 31°03’E) GoogleMaps   ; SAIAB 7491 View Materials (1, 313), Isipingo (29°59’S, 30°41’E) GoogleMaps   ; SAIAB 10268 View Materials (2, 290–327), Algoa Bay (33°50’S, 25°50’E GoogleMaps   . Mozambique: SAIAB 55601 View Materials (1, 287), Ponta Lipobane , (17°00’S, 92°05’E) GoogleMaps   . Madagascar: UMMZ 185864 View Materials (1, 146), St. Augustin, near Tuléar   . Somalia: ANSP 163300 View Materials (1, 450), Ras Hafun (10°17’N, 51°09’E) GoogleMaps   . Pakistan: ANSP 172850 View Materials (3, 50–175), ANSP 172851 View Materials (7, 72.6–111.2), ANSP 172853 View Materials (1, 113) and ANSP 206162 View Materials (1, 154), Sonmiani Bay near Hab River mouth (24°53’N, 66°41’E) GoogleMaps   . India: ANSP 152962 View Materials (1, 266), ANSP 153031 View Materials (3, 152–171), ANSP 158305 View Materials (1, 191) and CAS uncat. (7, 177-284) Porto Nova (11°30’N, 79°45’E) GoogleMaps   ; CAS-SU 69911 View Materials (2, 145–154), Orissa State, Puri (19°49’S, 85°54’E) GoogleMaps   . Sri Lanka: ANSP 148732 View Materials (12, 303–475), ANSP   150961 (1, 366 SL), ANSP 158304 View Materials (1, 130), ANSP 158499 View Materials (5, 188–221), BPBM 27740 View Materials (1, 280), CAS 16478 View Materials (2, 229–231), CAS 244377 View Materials (1, 407), CAS uncat. (18, 304–481), sta. FJS 69–59   ; CAS uncat. (5, 289–483), sta. S-V 69–75; CAS uncat. (5, 337–446), sta. S- V 113; CAS uncat. (1, 371, sta. PCH 69–207; CAS uncat. (2, 334–359), sta. TI 69–309   ; CAS uncat. (1, 310), sta. TI 70–302   . Myanmar: CAS-SU 39573 View Materials (1, 161), Southern Mosco Group (14°07’N, 97°14’E) GoogleMaps   . Indonesia: CSIRO H 8369-01 View Materials (1, 415), W. Java, Pelabuhanratu (7°2’N, 106°32’E) GoogleMaps   . Western Australia: ANSP 153944 View Materials (2, 497–558) Port Quobba (24°29’S, 113°25’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.26675–007 (1, 172), Dirk Hartog Island (26°08’S, 113°10’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.5595–001 (1, 231), Yanchep (31°33’S, 115°37’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.24543 (1, 227), Fremantle (32°03’S, 115°44’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.702 (1, 279), Garden Island (32°12’S, 115°40’E) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. A species of Trachinotus   in which adults have 3–5 silvery gray (in fresh specimens) oval or vertically oblong spots above or slightly touching lateral line (spots usually absent in specimens <15 cm FL); only the first spot positioned above the pectoral fin and several of the larger spots much larger than eye diameter; dorsal fin VI- or VII-I, 22–24; anal-fin II-I, 19–22, rarely 22; vomerine tooth patch round or triangular-shaped and palatine tooth patch relatively short ( Fig. 2A View TABLE 2 , Table 2 View TABLE 2 ). Selected mensural data mostly for specimens> 200 mm FL are given in Table 8 View TABLE 8 and selected measurements are plotted in Figs. 6–8 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 .

Comparisons. Trachinotus botla   is superficially similar to the allopatric T. coppingeri   but adults differ in having one large spot above the pectoral fin (vs. two spots above lateral line); segmented anal-fin rays 19–22, rarely 22 (vs. 22–24 rays); vomerine tooth patch round or oval-shaped (vs. vomerine tooth patch frequently chevron-shaped, Table 2 View TABLE 2 ); and ratio of pelvic-fin length to pectoral-fin length greater than in the three other species ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 ). Adults of Trachinotus botla   differ most noticeably from both T. baillonii   and T. macrospilus   in having much larger spots on the sides, the largest about equal to or larger than eye diameter (vs. smaller than or only a little larger than iris diameter), and in fresh specimens the spots are silvery gray (vs. black).

Size. Largest specimen examined 56 cm FL, 75 cm TL. The Australian Anglers Association (WA Division) reported a maximum weight of 3.5 kg for Trachinotus botla   based on a fish from Quabbo, Western Australia, caught in August 1983.

Ecology and life-history. In a study of the biology and life history of Trachinotus botla   in South Africa, Parker and Booth (2015:251) stated “it appears to be the only ‘permanent’ surf zone carangid species that completes its entire life cycle inshore.” Based on age determinations from otoliths, these investigators determined that Trachinotus botla   is a fast-growing and short-lived species. Fish attained 132 mm FL within two months and the oldest male and female were both six years old and measured 434- and 495-mm FL respectively. Age at 50% sexual maturity was calculated as 247 mm FL. Spawning season was between November and February. Small fish were restricted to shallow areas of the inshore surf zone and fed predominantly on copepods, small teleosts, and mole crabs. Larger fish fed on mussels, gastropods, and crab megalopae in deeper areas of the surf zone. In South Africa 45% of Trachinotus botla   10–35 cm FL had a large parasitic isopod, Cymothoa borbonica Schioedte and Meinert   , attached to the tongue ( Parker and Booth, 2013). Although the isopod restricts the mouth cavity, damages the basihyal (tongue), and causes a decrease in growth rates, parasitized fish seem to feed effectively.

Distribution. ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ) South Africa (Algoa Bay), to Somalia, Madagascar, Gulf of Oman to Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, and south to Indonesia (West Java, Pelabuhanratu) and Western Australia. All records of T. botla   from Papua New Guinea and New Britain ( Munro, 1956, 1967) apparently are based on misidentifications of T. baillonii   ; however, Munro’s (1967, pl. 26, fig. 393) drawing of Trachinotus russelli   appears to be a slight modification of previously published ones of T. coppingeri   based on New South Wales specimens. The four “Fairwind” specimens available from New Britain ( CSIRO C176, Jacquinot Bay and C1053, Pulie) and Papua New Guinea ( CSIRO C241, Woodlark Island) and ( CSIRO C868, Daugo Island) collected during 1948 and 1950 are all T. baillonii   .

Etymology. The specific epithet botla   is based on the common name used by native people in India for fishes during the early 1800s.

Nomenclatural history. Shaw’s (1803) Scomber botla   , a composite species, was based primarily on Russell’s (1803) plate 142 of “botla parah” from Vizagapatam, India, here reproduced as Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 . When an original description relates to more than one taxon the availability of a name is not affected (Article 17 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, ICZN 1999). In his brief original description Shaw referred to two of Russell’s plates, with plate 142 clearly referable to Trachinotus botla   and plate 137 to the carangid now known as Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède. In   contrast to plate 142, Shaw preceded his reference to plate 137 by a question mark indicating uncertainty about their conspecificity although his text description included characters of both genera. In the original description of Trachinotus russelii   (misspelling of Russell), Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes (1832:436) did not mention Shaw’s earlier description (perhaps unaware of it) but cited Russell’s plate 142 indicating that it was a drawing of his new species, hence adoption of the patronym. Day (1875) also recognized T. russelii   as a senior synonym, as did Weber and de Beaufort (1931:289). In a footnote the latter authors specifically rejected Shaw’s name based on the composite nature of the description; other authors followed that opinion or unquestionably adopted Cuvier’s name. In contrast, Ogilby (1915:95) concluded that Shaw’s name has priority over T. russelii Cuvier   because both descriptions were based on the same Russell figure. All Australian ichthyologists have followed Ogilby in recognizing Trachinotus botla   as a senior synonym of T. russelii   and since the 1980s most authors who published on Indo-West Pacific Trachinotus   have done likewise (see synonymy).

According to Fricke et al. (2019) no types of T. botla   are known. In view of the above nomenclatural inconsistency and following qualifying conditions of Article 75.3 of the Code ( ICZN, 1999), we designate CAS-SU 14445 as the neotype ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 ) of Scomber botla Shaw. This   342 mm FL (316 mm SL) specimen was obtained from Vizagapatam, India, by A.W. Herre in 1940 (no exact date). The specimen has dorsal fin VII-I, 22, anal fin II-I, 20, developed gill rakers 6+12, and vomerine and palatine tooth pattern type A. The two largest body spots on the left side are 33.6 and 30.2 mm in height and the eye diameter is 18.0 mm. The following measurements are given as percent FL: dorsal-fin lobe height 41.5, anal-fin lobe height 44.5, pectoral-fin length 16.7, and pelvic-fin length 10.0; ratio pectoral/pelvic = 1.7.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

SAIAB

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity

RUSI

J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology (formerly of Rhodes University)

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

WAM

Western Australian Museum

CAS-SU

California Academy of Sciences, Stanford University Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Carangidae

Genus

Trachinotus

Loc

Trachinotus botla (Shaw)

Smith-Vaniz, William F. & Walsh, Stephen J. 2019
2019
Loc

Trachinotus baillonii

, Woods 1953
1953
Loc

Palinurichthys umhlangae Smith, 1949:304

Smith, Umhlanga, KwaZulu-Natal 1949: 304
1949
Loc

Trachynotus russelli

Pellegrin 1914
1914
Loc

T. russellii

Pellegrin 1914
1914
Loc

T. velox

Ogilby 1908
1908
Loc

T. coppingeri

Gunther, Percy 1884
1884
Loc

T. coppingeri

Gunther, Percy 1884
1884
Loc

Trachinotus coppingeri

Gunther, Percy 1884
1884
Loc

Trachynotus russellii

Day 1875
1875
Loc

Trachinotus russelii

Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832
1832
Loc

Trachinotus russelii

Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832: 436
1832
Loc

Trachinotus russelli

Cuvier 1832
1832
Loc

Trachinotus russellii

Cuvier 1832
1832
Loc

Scomber botla parah

Russell 1803: 32
1803
Loc

Scomber botla Shaw, 1803:591

Shaw. This 1803: 591
1803