Trachinotus baillonii Lacepède, Lacepede

Smith-Vaniz, William F. & Walsh, Stephen J., 2019, Indo-West Pacific species of Trachinotus with spots on their sides as adults, with description of a new species endemic to the Marquesas Islands (Teleostei: Carangidae), Zootaxa 4651 (1), pp. 1-37: 11-15

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4651.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9AAC432F-D0FC-470A-8468-7B24E4D57514

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/270A87D7-FFCB-FFD2-FF05-5E3C81D2F870

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scientific name

Trachinotus baillonii Lacepède
status

 

Trachinotus baillonii Lacepède  

Smallspot pompano, Smallspotted dart, Blackspotted dart, Blackspotted swallowtail

Figures 2B View TABLE 2 , 5B View FIGURE 5 , 6–11 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 ; Tables 1–6 View TABLE 1 View TABLE 2 View TABLE 3 View TABLE 4 View TABLE 5 View TABLE 6 , 8 View TABLE 8

Caesiomorus baillonii Lacepède, 1801   :92,93, pl. 3, fig. 1 (original description, based on description and figure in Commerson manuscript [ Smith-Vaniz et al., 1979:36; locality not stated but Fort Dauphin, near Tôlanaro, Madagascar according to Fricke et al., 2019; no types known); Whitley, 1948:20 (Western Australia); Whitley, 1964:44 (listed).

Caesiomorus quadripunctatus Rüppell, 1829:90   , pl. 24, fig. 1 (original description; Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea; holotype SMF 2896); Smith, 1967:163 (listed in synonymy of T. baillonii   ).

Trachinotus oblongus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1832:437   (original description; Java, Indonesia and Puducherry, India; syntype MNHN A-6824 ( Pondicherry); Boulenger, 1888:661 ( Muscat, Oman); McCulloch, 1929:192 (checklist Australian fishes; listed in synonymy of T. botla   ); Smith-Vaniz et al., 1979:29 (listed as synonym of T. baillonii   ).

Trachynotus oblongus   . Günther, 1860:484 ( Pondicherry, Java and Sumatra).

Trachinotus quadripunctatus   . Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1832:434 (redescription); Cantor, 1849:122 (description; Sea of Penang); Günther, 1860:484 (listed in synonymy of T. baillonii   ); Wakiya, 1924:220, pl. 34, fig. 2 (Kii, Japan); Smith, 1967:164 (listed in synonymy of T. baillonii   ).

Trachynotus baillonii   . Günther, 1860:484 (in part, T. russelii   listed in synonymy; India and Malaysia); Day, 1865:98 (Malabar); Playfair, 1868:861 ( Seychelles); Playfair and Günther, 1867:64 (Aden and Zanzibar); Klunzinger, 1871:449 (Red Sea); Day, 1875, 233, pl. 51A, fig. 4 (Aden and India); Alleyne and Macleay, 1877:330 (New Guinea); Macleay, 1881:545 (Port Jackson and Torres Straits); Fourmanoir, 1957:215, pl. 13A ( Madagascar).

Trachinotus baillonii   . Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1832:431 (redescription); Boulenger, 1888:661 ( Muscat, Oman); Waite, 1903:25 (Lord Howe Island); Waite, 1904:200 (Lord Howe Island); Kendall and Goldsborough, 1911:271, pl. 2, fig. 1 (Funafuti, Ellice Islands); Oshima, 1925:407 (Taiwan); Fowler, 1928:152 (Funafuti, Bonin and Society Islands); Mc- Culloch, 1929:182 (checklist Australian fishes); Fowler, 1934a:406 ( New Hebrides and Funafuti, after Whitley); Fowler, 1938:279 (Malden, Christmas and Society islands, Bora Bora, Mangareva); Schultz, 1943:87 (Enderbury and Canton islands); Fowler, 1949:78 ( Baker Island); Smith, 1967:163, pl. 37 ( Mozambique and Seychelles); Maugé, 1967:225 (Toliara [=Tuléar], Madagascar); Klausewitz, 1967:66 (Sarso Island, Saudia Arabia); Allen et al., 1976:401 (Lord Howe Island); Schroeder, 1980:182, color fig. 265 ( Philippines); Gushiken, 1983:164 (Okinawa); Gushiken in Masuda et al., 1984:154, color pl. 137-D (Japanese Archipelago); Dor, 1984:131 (Red Sea); Masuda et al., 1984:154, pl. PL 137-D (southern Japan); Wass, 1984:15 ( Samoa); Talwar and Kacker, 1984:486 ( India); Kojima, 1985:10, fig. 3 (description of juveniles); Allen, 1985:2337, color fig. 192 (Kendrew Island, Dampier Archipelago); Smith-Vaniz, 1986:658, fig. 210.48 (Natal to Marshall Islands); Myers, 1988:144 (Marianna Islands); Paxton et al., 1989:585 (Zoological Catalogue of Australia); Winterbottom et al., 1989:35, fig. 193 (Chagos Archipelago); Manilo and Bogorodsky, 2003:S107 ( Oman, Gulf of Aden and Somali); Allen 2009:83, unnumbered color fig. ( Brunei); Francis, 1991:221, fig. 17 ( Norfolk Island, Cemetery Bay); Francis, 1993:161 ( Australia, Lord Howe and Norfolk islands); Okiyama, 1993:465-466, unnumbered figs., 9.2 and 17.2 mm SL (description of early stage); Kulbicki and Williams, 1997:15 (Ouvéa Atoll, New Caledonia); Randall, 1992:53, color fig. 111 ( Maldive Islands); Randall and Anderson, 1993:17 ( Maldive Islands); Randall, 1995:472, color fig. 470 (Gulf of Oman); Chen et al., 1997:listed in Appendix ( Spratly Islands); Lin and Shao, 1999:65, color figs. 79–80 (Taiwan); Fricke, 1999:257 ( Réunion and Mauritius); Randall and Lim, 2000 (South China Sea); Smith-Vaniz, 1999:2745, unnumbered fig. (broadly distributed Indo-West Pacific species); Hutchins, 2001:33 (Western Australia); Allen and Adrim, 2003:38 (Indian Ocean and W. Java); Durville et al., 2003:99 (Glorieuses Is., listed); Randall et al., 2003:15 ( Tonga checklist); Lobel and Lobel, 2004:71 ( Wake Atoll); Heemstra et al., 2004:3315 (Rodriques Island); Kuiter and Tonozuka, 2004:245, unnumbered color photographs; ( Maldives and Bali); Letourneur et al., 2004:211 ( Reunion Island checklist); Randall, 2005:238, unnumbered color pl. (South Pacific); Kim et al., 2005: 313, unnumbered color photo ( Korea); Senou et al., 2006:456 (Sagami Sea); Springer and Smith-Vaniz, 2008:31 (supraneural and pterygiophore insertion patterns); Fricke et al., 2009:58 ( Reunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues); Kimura et al, 2009:126, unnumbered color fig. (southern Thailand); Rahman et al., 2009:226, unnumbered color photograph ( Bangladesh); Mundy et al., 2010:29 (Howland and Baker islands); Motomura and Matsuura, 2010:117, color fig. 201 (Yaku-shima Island, southern Japan); Golani and Bogorodsky, 2010:30 (Red Sea); Allen and Erdmann, 2012:439, unnumbered color fig. (East Indies); Rainboth et al., 2012:86, pl.68, color fig. 1420 (Binh Chang Bay, Viet Nam and Gulf of Thailand); Abdussamad et al., 2013:25, color fig. 11 ( India); White et al., 2013:174, color fig. 63.44 ( Indonesia); Hussain and Jawad, 2014:254, color fig. 3 ( Iraq); Fricke et al., 2014:81 ( Papua New Guinea); Moore et al., 2014:186 (Kimberly region, Australia); Psomadakis et al., 2015:230, pl. 17, color fig. 142 ( Pakistan); Ikeda and Nakabo, 2015:401, color pl. 137-8 (Minabe, southern Japan); Stuart-Smith et al., 2015:146, unnumbered color photograph; Australia); Koeda et al., 2016:38, color fig. 173 (Yonaguni-jima Island); Joshi et al., 2016:44 (Gulf of Mannar, checklist); Fricke et al., 2018:187 ( Madagascar checklist); Golani and Fricke, 2018:86 (Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea); Jawad et al., 2018:106, fig. 6F (Arabian Gulf); Kimura et al., 2018:138, unnumbered color fig. (Ha Long Bay, northern Vietnam); Fricke et al., 2019:149 (New Ireland, Papua New Guinea).

Trachinotus bailloni   . Castelnau, 1879:352 (listed; Port Jackson); Steindachner, 1902:22 (southern Arabia and Socotra Island); Jordan and Seale, 1906:235 (listed; Samoa); Jordan and Starks, 1907:495, fig. 2 (Naha, Okinawa); Jordan and Richardson, 1909:180 (Takao, Formosa); Ogilby, 1916:149, pl. 18 (synonymy; Queensland Australia); Wakiya, 1924:219 ( Taiwan); Oshima, 1925:407 ( Philippines); McCulloch, 1929:182 (checklist of Australian fishes); Weber and de Beaufort, 1931:288 (synonymy; description; distribution); Herre, 1936:117 (Malekula Island, New Hebrides); Roxas and Agco, 1941:66, pl. 11, fig. 2 ( Philippines); Blegvad and Løppenthin, 1944:103, fig. 57 (Larak Island, Iran); Smith, 1949:223, fig. 541 (rare in South Africa, reaches to Natal); Woods, 1953:509 (Bikini Island, Eniwetok, Rongelap and Rongerik atolls and Guam); Herre, 1953:284 (synonymy; Philippines); Munro, 1955:131, pl. 22, fig. 369 ( Ceylon); Munro, 1956:184 (New Guinea); Williams, 1958:424, pl.26, fig. 26 (East Africa); Arnoult et al., 1958:67 (Aldabra); Scott, 1959:66, unnumbered fig. (Malaya); Munro, 1960:133, fig. 850 (Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland, Australia); Suzuki, 1962:151, fig. 51 (skeletal anatomy); Fourmanoir and Gueze, 1962:13 ( Réunion); Taylor, 1964:178 (Arnhem Land, northern Australia); Schultz, 1966:163 (Agfayan Point, Guam); Munro, 1967:233, pl. 26, fig. 392 (New Guinea); Smith and Smith, 1969:22, pl. 10, fig. G ( Seychelles); Lindberg and Krasyukova, 1969:196, fig. 223 (Sea of Japan); Bagnis et al., 1972:47, unnumbered color photo (misidentification, in part [upper photo = T. macrospilus   ]; Polynesia); Burgess and Axelrod, 1973:813, fig. 322 ( Maldives); Randall, 1973:189 (Society Islands); Kailola, 1975:122 (Baxter Bay and Daugo Island, Papua New Guinea); Fourmanoir and Laboute, 1976:181, unnumbered color fig. ( New Caledonia); Grant, 1978:218, unnumbered fig. (northern Queensland, Australia); Jones and Kumaran, 1980:290, fig. 246 ( Laccadive Islands); Russell, 1983:56 (Capricorn group, Great Barrier Reef); Randall, 1985:472 (Rapa and Society islands); Hutchins and Swainston, 1986:58, 130, fig. 287 (Western Australia to New South Wales); Allen and Swainston, 1988:74, color fig. 457 (northwestern Australia); Allen & Steene, 1988:170, fig. 171 ( Christmas Island, Indian Ocean); Myers, 1989:132, fig. 1j ( Micronesia); Randall et al., 1990:168, pl. V-10 (Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea); Randall et al., 1990:20 (Rapa); Allen and Smith-Vaniz, 1994:11 (Cocos-Keeling); Sadovy and Cornish, 2000:108, unnumbered color photo ( Hong Kong); Larson et al., 2013:125 (Northern Territory, Australia); Rajan et al., 2013:60 (Andaman and Nicobar Is.).

Trachinotus russelli   (not of Cuvier). Jordan and Seale, 1906:235 (listed, New Guinea; record unreliable, probably based on T. baillonii   ); Jordan and Richardson, 1909:180 ( Taiwan); Munro, 1955:131 ( Ceylon).

Trachynotus cuvieri Wakiya, 1924:220   (original description; Misaki, Japan; no types known).

Trachynotus jordani Wakiya, 1924:221   , pl. 35, fig. 1 (original description; Bonin Islands, Japanese seas; holotype FMNH 59374); Fowler, 1934a:406 (listed as synonym of T. baillonii   ).

Trachinotus botla   (not of Shaw). Fowler, 1934a:406 (Guadalcanal, Solomon Island, after Whitley).

Trachynotus bailloni   . Bleeker, 1879:18 ( Mauritius); Baissac, 1952:69 (Rodriques); Fourmanoir, 1957:215, pl. 13A ( Madagascar).

Type material examined. SMF 2896 View Materials (258 mm FL), dry mount, holotype of Caesiomorus quadripunctatus Rüppell, Massawa   , Red Sea   ; MNHN A.6824 (117 mm FL), syntype of Trachinotus oblongus Cuvier   , Pondicherry, India   , Leschenaut; FMNH 59374 View Materials (323 mm FL), holotype of Trachinotus jordani, Bonin   (= Ogasawara) Islands , Japan   .

Other material examined. 361 specimens, 15–432 mm FL: Mozambique: SAIAB 11339 View Materials (1, 283), Pinda (14°13’S, 40°46’E) GoogleMaps   . Chagos Archipelago: ANSP 152963 View Materials (3, 299–328), ANSP 153004 View Materials (4, 69–79), Diego Garcia Atoll   ; ROM 37027 View Materials (2, 271–337), ROM 37039 View Materials (2, 224–301), ROM 37040 View Materials (2, 259–275), ROM 37041 View Materials (18, 60–118)   ; USNM 265653 View Materials (4, 265–301)   . Mascarene Islands: Cargados Carajos Shoals (= St. Brandon Shoals ) (16°35’S, 59°37’E) GoogleMaps   : ROM 37027 View Materials (2, 271–337), ROM 37037 View Materials (1, 64), ROM 37039 View Materials (2, 224–301), ROM 37040 View Materials (2, 259–275), ROM 37041 View Materials (18, 63–114), USNM 229490 View Materials (2, 278–298), USNM 265653 View Materials (4, 265–301), USNM 265654 View Materials (1, 175) and USNM 444910 View Materials (2, 46–51)   . Seychelles: ANSP 148763 View Materials (1, 205) and ANSP 131949 View Materials (10, 223–329), Amirante Islands   ; ANSP 153036 View Materials (1, 215), Curieuse Island   ; ANSP 131733 View Materials (17, 36–50), ANSP 131734 View Materials (14, 15–79), ANSP 148746 View Materials (2, 101–104) and CAS 58524 View Materials (6, 95–113), Mahé Island (4°43’S, 55°28’E) GoogleMaps   ; SAIAB uncat. (1, 227), Assumption Is. (9°47’S, 46°31’E) GoogleMaps   . Mauritius: BPBM 20273 View Materials (3, 35–141) and MCZ 6071 View Materials (2, 243–257)   . Gulf of Oman: BPBM 21446 View Materials (1, 276), Muscat, Port Qaboos fish market. Pakistan: ANSP 172852 View Materials (1, 160) and ANSP 172854 View Materials (1, 82), Sonmiani Bay near Hab River mouth (24°53’N, 66°41’E) GoogleMaps   ; AMS I.40 (1, 148), Karachi (25°07’N, 63°48’E) GoogleMaps   . India: ANSP 153042 View Materials (1, 216), Porto Nova (11°49’N, 79°76’E)   ; BPBM 27614 View Materials (1, 221), Kerala State, Kovalam. Cocos- Keeling Islands : ANSP 134305 View Materials (12, 48–94)   . Sri Lanka: ANSP 148741 View Materials (4, 141–170, including 2, 141–145 C&S), ANSP 151001 (1, 320), ANSP 151101 (9, 240–345), ANSP 158301 View Materials (1, 189), ANSP 158302 View Materials (1, 226) and CAS 16479 View Materials (2, 226–237)   . Bay of Bengal : CAS 44283 View Materials (1, 218)   , SW of Ranang. Singapore: CAS-SU 18037 View Materials (1, 412)   . Myanmar: CAS-SU 39572 View Materials (2, 124–138), Southern Moscos Group. Viet Nam: CAS 32188 View Materials (18, 47–102), Binhchang Bay (12°21’40”N, 109°15’38”E) GoogleMaps   . Taiwan: FMNH 52144 View Materials (1, 280), CAS-SU 13072 View Materials (1, 252) and CAS-SU 20998 View Materials (1, 163), Takao (= Kaohsiung)   . Japan: CAS-SU 21227 View Materials (1, 164), Okinawa, Naha   ; FMNH 59496 View Materials (1, 170), Kii   ; UMMZ 181499 View Materials (1, 34 SL), Nagasaki   ; FMNH 59374 View Materials (1, 325) and USNM 5703 View Materials (4, 91–166), Ogasawara Islands. Marcus Island : BPBM 7048 View Materials (1, 198)   . Thailand: CAS 16367 View Materials (3, 308–337) and CAS 32196 View Materials (1, 131), Gulf of Thailand (10°25’51”N, 99°15’46”E) GoogleMaps   . Indonesia: ANSP 153377 View Materials (1, 203) and BPBM 29911 View Materials (1, 204), Lombok (08°06’S, 116°00’E) GoogleMaps   ; USNM 191874 View Materials (1, 84)   , between Gillolo and Makyan Ids.; USNM 383045 View Materials (1, 72), Moluccas, near Ambon (03°37’S, 128°14’E) GoogleMaps   . Philippines: CAS 49636 View Materials (1, 268)   . Manila Bay   ; CAS-SU 13606 View Materials (1, 265), Dumaguete   ; USNM 56203 View Materials (1, 167), Mindano , Zamboanga   ; USNM 168319–20 View Materials (2, 238–248), Baganga Bay   ; USNM 168321 View Materials (1, 248), Cotabato Market   ; USNM 191878 View Materials (3, 119–151), Masbate Island   ; USNM 191879 View Materials (1, 145), Panay, Nogas Island   ; USNM 195238 View Materials (2, 216–232), Matnog Bay   ; USNM 195239 View Materials (1, 203), Pandanon Island   ; USNM 195240 View Materials (1, 185), Ticao Island   ; USNM 438080 View Materials (1, 200), Auroa Prov., Dinadiawa City Market (15°02’S, 121°36’E) GoogleMaps   ; USNM 345997 View Materials (1, 347), Iloilo City fish Mkt. Fiji: ANSP 149651 View Materials (2, 258–260), near Suva. Western Australia: WAM P.29183–001 (1, 293), Coulomb Point (17°21’S, 122°09’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.24349–001 (1, 239), Kendrew Islands (20°29’N, 116°32’E) GoogleMaps   ; NTM S.10813–002 (11, 77–142), Dampier Archipelago, Rosemary Island (20°29’S, 133°36’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.23968–9 (2, 112–148); WAM P.5573 (1, 189), Perth vicinity   ; WAM P.3093–001 (1, 195), Bunbury (33°20’S, 116°36’E) GoogleMaps   ; AMS I.6996 (1, 99), Mandurah (32°32’S, 115°43’E) GoogleMaps   . N orthern Australia: AMS IA.1642 (1, 280), AMS IA.2564 (1, 240) and QM I.3978 (1, 223), Gulf of Carpentaria, Pellew Group (15°33’S, 136°47’E) GoogleMaps   ; USNM 173951 View Materials (1, 284), Gulf of Carpentaria, Groote Eylandt (13°49’S, 136°38’E) GoogleMaps   ; NTM S.10588–001 (5, 200–292), New Year Island (10°54’S, 133°02’E) GoogleMaps   ; NTM S.11287–001 (1, 207), East Woody Island. Eastern Australia: AMS I.11895 (1, 241), Torres Strait, Murray Island (09°56’S, 144°04’E) GoogleMaps   ; QM I.11242 (1, 111), north Cairns, Turtle Bay   ; AMS I.13954 (1, 292), AMS I.19448–017 (1, 152) and QM I.19497 (1, 210), Queensland, Lizard Island (14°40’S, 115°11’E) GoogleMaps   ; QM I.5661 (1, 124), Townsville   ; CAS-SU 20581 View Materials (1, 175), Maryborough   ; AMS IA.2698 (1, 179), Michaelimas Cay (16°42’S, 146°10’E) GoogleMaps   ; QM I.20079 (1, 110), Queensland, Russell River (17°22’S, 145°58’E) GoogleMaps   ; USNM 176828 View Materials (2, 280–289), Great Barrier Reef   ; QM I.11243 (1, 141), Magnetic Island (19°08’S, 145°28’E) GoogleMaps   ; AMS IB.6358 (1, 314), Queensland, Cleveland bay (19°13’S, 146°55’E) GoogleMaps   ; WAM P.8900–02 (3, 155–206), Flinders Reef (26°58’S, 153°29’E) GoogleMaps   ; AMS I.22862 (1, 432), Coffs Harbour (30°18’S, 153°08’E) GoogleMaps   ; USNM 47836 View Materials (1, 217), Port Jackson ( Sydney Harbour ) (33°51’S, 151°15’E) GoogleMaps   . Papua New Guinea: CSIRO C241 View Materials (1, 207), Woodlark Island (09°6’S, 152°50’E) GoogleMaps   ; CSIRO C868 View Materials (1, 276), Port Moresby, Daugo Island. New Britain: CSIRO C176 View Materials (1, 248), Jacquinot Bay   ; CSIRO C1053 View Materials (1, 297), Pulie River   ; CAS-SU 28209 View Materials (1, 108), Rabaul   ; CAS-SU 64420 View Materials (1, 186), Atliklikun Bay   ; AMS IB.1522 (1, 189), Bismark Archipelago. Solomon Islands: AMS I.15113 (1, 255), Guadalcanal   ; ANSP 153026 View Materials (1, 67), Bougainville. Vanuata ( New Hebrides Is. ): USNM 356227 View Materials (1, 125)   ; AMS I.11291 (1, 191) and CAS-SU 25190 View Materials (1, 230), Malekula Island (16°22’S, 167°31’E) GoogleMaps   . Palau: CAS 32179 View Materials (12, 50–156), Augulpelu Reef (07°17’N, 134°31’E) GoogleMaps   . Caroline Islands: CAS 32078 View Materials (2, 191–198), CAS 32079 View Materials (2, 153–186) and CAS 32710 View Materials (2, 152–186), Ifaluk Atoll (07°14’N, 144°27’E) GoogleMaps   . Wake Island: CAS 24035 View Materials (1, 343), (19°18’N, 186°38’E)   . Tuvalu (Ellice Islands): USNM 66063 View Materials (1, 107)   ; USNM 66064 View Materials (1, 190)   ; AMS I.3563 (1, 83), Funafuti Atoll (08°32’S, 179°07’E) GoogleMaps   . Marshall Islands: USNM 142035 View Materials (9, 44–143) and UW 11063 (4, 80–121), Bikini Atoll   ; CAS 96485 View Materials (2, 176–237), BPBM 12206 View Materials (1, 196) and UF 42442 (4, 79–106), Eniwetok Atoll   ; USNM 142034 View Materials (2, 258–296) and UW 13397 (2, 37–78), Rongelap Atoll. Kiribati (Gilbert Islands): BPBM 7634 View Materials (1, 206), Fanning Island (03°52’N, 159°20’W) GoogleMaps   . Baker and Howland Is.: ANSP 148764 View Materials (2, 306–334), Baker Island (0°11’41”N, 176°29’W) GoogleMaps   ; ANSP 153023 View Materials (2, 56–59), Howland Island (0°48’S, 176°38’W) GoogleMaps   . Phoenix Islands: ANSP 158303 View Materials (3, 58–67), CAS 40466 View Materials (1, 228) and USNM 115322 View Materials (3, 41–78), Canton Island (02°50’S, 171°40’W) GoogleMaps   ; ANSP 148759 View Materials (5, 230–342), McKean Island (03°59’S, 174°13’W) GoogleMaps   ; Niue: NMNZ P.14444 (1, 295), (19°04’S, 169°52’W) GoogleMaps   . Cook Island: NMNZ 14445 View Materials (1, 354), Aitutaki (18°52’S, 159°45’W) GoogleMaps   . Kiritimati ( Christmas Island): ANSP 105573 View Materials (1, 182), (01°52’S, 157°20’W) GoogleMaps   . Line Islands: ANSP 153045 View Materials (6, 111–179) and BPBM 3890 View Materials (1, 246), Malden Island (04°01’S, 154°56’W) GoogleMaps   ; ANSP 148762 View Materials (2, 317–234), Vostok Island (10°06’S, 152°23’W) GoogleMaps   . Society Islands : MCZ 17088 View Materials (2, 316–340), no precise locality   ; USNM 392381 View Materials (1, 219), Moorea. Rapa (27°36’S, 144°21’W) GoogleMaps   : BPBM 13066 View Materials (1, 325)   . Gambier Archipelago: AMNH 8264 View Materials (1, 207), Mangareva (32°15’S, 134°56’W) GoogleMaps   ; USNM 400969 View Materials (1, 216), Kouaku Island (32°13’S, 134°52’W) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. A species of Trachinotus   in which adults have 3–7 black spots with well-defined margins on lateral line (spots usually absent in specimens <10–13 cm FL), the largest spot usually smaller than iris diameter (larger than iris diameter in T. macrospilus   and equal to or larger than eye diameter in T. botla   and T. coppingeri   ), and adults usually have no large spot positioned above the pectoral fin although small individuals may have 1 or 2 very small spots (adults of T. botla   and coppingeri   have 1 or 2 large spots above the pectoral fin). Dorsal fin VI-I, 20–25; anal-fin II-I, 20–24; vomerine tooth patch usually chevron shaped and palatine tooth patch relatively long ( Fig. 2B View TABLE 2 , Table 2 View TABLE 2 ). Selected mensural data for specimens ≥ 200 mm FL are given in Table 8 View TABLE 8 and selected measurements are plotted ( Figs. 6–8 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8 ).

Comparisons. Trachinotus baillonii   is superficially similar to the allopatric T. macrospilus   but has smaller spots on its side ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ) (usually smaller than iris diameter vs. larger than iris diameter, and in T. botla   and T. coppingeri   the largest spot equal to or larger than eye diameter), and the heights of the dorsal- and anal-fin lobes are usually longer ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ). Adults usually have no large spots above the pectoral fin, although 1 or 2 faint small spots are often present in smaller specimens of T. baillonii   (vs. 1 or 2 large spots above the pectoral fin in T. botla   and T. coppingeri   ).

Size. Largest specimen examined 43 cm FL, 53 cm TL and about 0.9 kg.

Ecology. According to Kuiter and Tonozuka (2004:245), “juveniles of Trachinotus baillonii   form schools in sheltered bays. Adults are usually seen in pairs or small groups in surface waters, patrolling reef edges or beaches.”

Distribution. ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ) Red Sea, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to the northern Line and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan and Korea, and south to Australia, Lord Howe, Norfolk Island, Tonga and Rapa.

Etymology. Named for the French botanist and zoologist Louis Antoine François Baillon (1778–1851).

Remarks. In his account of Trachinotus baillonii, Woods (1953:510)   correctly noted that “ Wakiya’s (1924) attempt to separate the species T. quadripunctatus Rüppell   , T. cuvieri Wakiya   , and T. jordani Wakiya   is based on nothing more than normal variation within this species, in view of (1) the variation in spots along the sides …; (2) the fact that the lobes of the dorsal, anal, and caudal fins increase in length with size, while the paired fins apparently do not increase in the same proportion; (3) the variation in nostril size in our series (the size of the posterior nostril varies in relation to that of the anterior, while one specimen with a much larger posterior nostril has the lower jaw slightly protruding).” Kendall and Goldsborough (1911) also discussed the confused application of names in the literature, and in their key to species recognized T. quadripunctatus   and T. oblongus   (the latter a misidentification of T. macrospilus   , see Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ) as valid species distinct from T. baillonii   but failed to appreciate that absence or presence of spots changes with growth while spot size in adults is relatively consistent. One specimen from the Gulf of Oman ( BPBM 21446) is exceptional in having five spots on the left side and none on the right side.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ROM

Royal Ontario Museum

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

SAIAB

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

WAM

Western Australian Museum

NTM

Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences

QM

Queensland Museum

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

NMNZ

Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

BPBM

Bishop Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Perciformes

Family

Carangidae

Genus

Trachinotus

Loc

Trachinotus baillonii Lacepède

Smith-Vaniz, William F. & Walsh, Stephen J. 2019
2019
Loc

T. macrospilus

Smith-Vaniz & Walsh 2019
2019
Loc

Trachynotus cuvieri

Wakiya 1924: 220
1924
Loc

Trachynotus jordani

Wakiya 1924: 221
1924
Loc

Trachinotus oblongus

Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832: 437
1832
Loc

T. russelii

Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832
1832
Loc

Trachinotus russelli

Cuvier 1832
1832
Loc

Caesiomorus quadripunctatus Rüppell, 1829:90

Ruppell, Massawa 1829: 90
1829
Loc

Caesiomorus baillonii Lacepède, 1801

Lacepede 1801
1801
Loc

T. baillonii

Lacepede 1801
1801
Loc

T. baillonii

Lacepede 1801
1801
Loc

T. baillonii

Lacepede 1801
1801
Loc

T. baillonii

Lacepede 1801
1801