Stephanopis nigra O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869, O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869

Machado, Miguel, Teixeira, Renato Augusto & Milledge, Graham A., 2019, On the Australian Bark Crab Spider Genus Stephanopis: Taxonomic Review and Description of Seven New Species (Araneae: Thomisidae: Stephanopinae), Records of the Australian Museum 71 (6), pp. 217-276: 261-264

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3853/j.2201-4349.71.2019.1698

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7EDBAB7F-0E3B-47D7-AA29-0906728ADA05

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/26714D71-FF9D-FFD9-062F-FA1CFEEEF879

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Stephanopis nigra O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869
status

 

Stephanopis nigra O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869  

Figs 37–39 View Figure 37 View Figure 38 View Figure 39

Stephanopis nigra O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869: 62   , pl. 5, fig. 40. (1 female from northern Australia, dried, pinned and deposited in the Hope Collection , OUMNH, not located, lost).

Stephanopis tuberculata Bradley, 1871: 235   . (syntypes, 2 adult females and 1 juvenile from Nepean Towers   GoogleMaps , Sydney, [34°11'S 150°42'E, New South Wales, Australia], OUMNH 12, examined). New synonym.

Neotype ♀, AMS KS.109395, 1♀, Royal NP ( Uloola Falls Campground ), Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 34°06'54"S 151°02'06"E, N. Camps, 25 April 1954, (designated here). GoogleMaps  

Generally, body colouration is a useful and limiting characteristic to distinguish S. nigra   from its closest species, S. altifrons   . While S. altifrons   are usually brownish, dark-yellow or green due to the attachment of organic particles on their tegument, S. nigra   present darker colours like grey and mostly black (in Latin, nigra   ). This might be associated with the kind of substrate on which they hunt. Further investigations are needed to check if there is a specific relationship between plant and spider to corroborate such a hypothesis.

Although the holotype of S. nigra   could not be found after several attempts to find it in European and Australian collections, the original description makes clear the striking resemblance of this species with S. altifrons   , highlighting, however, its more pronounced tubercles and the predominant black body colouration. These same characteristics are listed to describe S. tuberculata   , which is also similarly compared to S. nigra   by Bradley (1871). The examination of the paratypes of S. tuberculata   matches perfectly with the features mentioned in the original description made by Bradley (1871), therefore we consider this species to be synonymous with S. nigra   , and designate a neotype for it. The neotype, however, was not based on one of these syntypes because they are not from the same type locality. The specimen elected as neotype matches very closely with the features listed in the original description and the diagnostic characters mentioned by Pickard-Cambridge (1869).

Other material examined. Queensland: AMS KS.81284, 1♀, Wolfram , 17°05'S 144°57'E, N.C. Coleman, 15 June 1970 GoogleMaps   ; QM S80300 View Materials , 1♀, Gemini Mountains , 22°28'6.10"S 147°52'30.03"E, C.J. Burwell, 6 March 2006 GoogleMaps   ; QM S55042 View Materials , 1♀, Wide Bay-Burnett , E. Ford, 25 April 2001   ; QM S104670, 1♀, Kroombit Tops NP, 24°22'37.75"S 151°2'28.73"E, Thompson & Yeates, 22–26 February 1982 GoogleMaps   ; KS.109397, 1♀, Condamine , 26°56'S 150°06'E, N. Geary, 27 March 1937 GoogleMaps   ; QM S14587 View Materials , 1♂, Lake Broadwater Cottage ( Southwest of Dalby ), 27°21'S 151°6'E, J. Gallon, 9 December 1987 GoogleMaps   ; QM S65897 View Materials , 1♂, Ransome Reserve , 27°29'20.4"S 153°11'3.12"E GoogleMaps   , Queensland Museum Party , 27 November 2003   ; QM S65499 View Materials , 1♂, Carindale ( Belmont Hills Bushlands ), 27°30'28.224"S 153°7'3"E, 3 November 2003 GoogleMaps   . New South Wales: AMS KS.65781, 1♂, Irishman State Forest , 30°33'43"S 152°42'12"E, G. Milledge & H. Smith, 25 November 1999 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.75591, 1♂, Oaky Creek Nature Reserve , 31°07'22"S 150°37'29"E, H. Smith, 8 November 2001 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.10170, 1♂, Bonny Hills , 31°36'S 152°51'E, M. Gray & C. Horseman, 9 December 1981 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.109394, 1♂, 1♀, Tubrabucca ( Barrington Tops ), 32°05'S 151°30'E, A.S. Smithers, 30 December 1961 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.81979, 1♂, Munmorah NP, 33°13'S 151°34'E, M. Gray, 12 November 2002 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.81289, 1♀, Mooney , 33°31'S 151°12'E, R. Mascord, November 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.108738, 1♀, Pittwater , 33°38'S 151°18'E, J. Child, 2 March 1966 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.108742, 1♀, R. Mascord, 5 April 1966   ; AMS KS.121440, 1♀, Medlow Bath , 33°41'S 150°17'E, 28 June 1946 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.50556, 1♂, Heathcote NP, 34°05'S 151°E, M. R. Gray, February 1997 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.50557, 2 females same data GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.108727, 1♀, Sydney ( Waterfall ), 34°08'S 151°00'E, R. Mascord, 3 September 1968 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.119679, 1♂, Coastal Reserve ( Tathra ), 36°43'55"S 149°59'12"E, G. Milledge & H. Smith, 24 December 2012 GoogleMaps   . Tasmania: AMS KS.31437, 1♀, Cascades , 41°10'S 147°49'E, V. V. Hickman, 14 June 1948 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31405, 1♂, 1♀, Punch Bowl , 41°27'S 147°10'E, V. V. Hickman, 17 January 1925 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31406, 1♂, 1♀, Glen Dhu , 11 January 1930   ; AMS KS.31416, 1♀, Glen Dhu , August 1929   ; AMS KS.31414, 1♀, Trevallyn , 1926   ; AMS KS.31440, 1♀, Trevallyn , May 1931   ; AMS KS.31481, 1♂, same data except 28 May 1931   ; AMS KS.31411, 2♂♂, Risdon , 42°49'S 147°21'E, V. V. Hickman, 8 January 1948 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31392, 1♀, Queens Domain , 42°52'S 147°19'E, V. V. Hickman, 13 April 1968 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31479, 1♀, same data except September 1956 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31393, 1♀, same data except 18 April 1968 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31439, 1♀, 1same data except 7 June 1963 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31448, 1♀, same data except 16 November 1967 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31473, 1♀, same data except 22 September 1958 GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS.31480, 1♀, same data except 20 December 1947 GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. The morphological differences between S. nigra   and S. altifrons   are few and it is almost impossible to distinguish them by looking solely to their dorsal habitus. Both species present a high cephalic prominence, high clypeus, and an obovate opisthosoma bearing posterior tubercles with specialized setae. However, females and males of S. nigra   can be recognized by their more rugose aspect due to stouter setiferous tubercles on the prosoma and legs ( Figs 37A View Figure 37 and 38A View Figure 38 ). Unlike in S. altifrons   , the females of S. nigra   present CO oriented horizontally ( Fig. 37C View Figure 37 ), glandularheads median-positioned and anterior chambers rounded, hyaline, thin and membranous ( Fig. 37D View Figure 37 ). Males can only be distinguished from those of S. altifrons   by their palpi, which possess a wider tegulum, wider embolus ( Fig. 38C View Figure 38 ) and unequal size of the RTA and RTAvbr: in males of S. altifrons   the size of the conical apophysis and its accessory branch is almost equivalent (being the RTAvbr slightly stouter than the RTA). In S. nigra   the RTA is bigger and laminar ( Fig. 38D View Figure 38 ). Also, the Pcym curves ventrally way above the apophysis instead of close to the tip of the RTAvbr ( Fig. 38A View Figure 38 ).

Description. Female (AMS KS.109395): Anterior eye row strongly recurved ( Fig. 37B View Figure 37 ) and posterior row procurved ( Fig. 37B View Figure 37 ). Prosoma, legs and opisthosoma predominantly

264 Records of the Australian Museum (2019) Vol. 71 dark-brown/black; lateral surfaces of all legs dark-yellow; anterior tarsi (I and II) reddish and anterior tibiae ventrally armed with four pairs of macrosetae ( Fig. 37A View Figure 37 ).

Measurements: eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.09, ALE 0.20, PME 0.12, PLE 0.09, AME–AME 0.16, AME–ALE 0.10, PME–PME 0.23, PME–PLE 0.15, MOQ length 0.40, width 0.35; leg formula: 1-2-3-4: leg I—femur 3.67/ patella 2.50/ tibia 3.16/ metatarsus 2.35/ tarsus 1.36/ total 13.04; II—3.22/ 2.44/ 2.58/ 1.96/ 1.24 11.44; III—2.66/ 1.32/ 2.26/ 1.79/ 0.99/ 9.02; IV—2.73/ 1.11/ 2.05/ 1.83/ 0.90/ 8.62. Total body length 9.35; prosoma length 4.72, width 4.04; opisthosoma length 4.63; clypeus height 0.82; sternum length 1.97, width 1.69; gnathocoxae length 1.02, width 0.46; labium length 0.65, width 0.75.

Male (AMS KS.65781): Prosoma predominantly darkbrown with yellow spots on the sides right behind the cephalic area, and median portion of the posterior slope ( Fig. 38A and B View Figure 38 ). Eye arrangement as in female. Femora I and II dark-brown; patellae, tibiae, tarsi and metatarsi of all legs brown with yellow spots; femora III and IV mainly yellow on its proximal portion. Opisthosoma dark-brown, darker at the area of the dorsal muscular sigilla; anterior border concave and posterior rounded, with many setiferous tubercles ( Fig. 38D View Figure 38 ).

Measurements: eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.17, PME 0.11, PLE 0.11, AME–AME 0.09, AME–ALE 0.07, PME–PME 0.14, PME–PLE 0.07, MOQ length 0.42, width 0.32; leg formula: 1-2-3-4: leg I—femur 2.51/ patella 1.40/ tibia 2.10/ metatarsus 1.68/ tarsus 0.89/ total 8.58; II—2.21/ 1.20/ 1.76/ 1.52/ 0.88 7.57; III—1.77/ 0.78/ 1.79/ 1.35/ 0.68/ 6.37; IV—1.75/ 0.70/ 1.36/ 1.33/ 0.67/ 5.81. Total body length 6.06; prosoma length 2.93, width 2.44; opisthosoma length 3.13; clypeus height 0.46; sternum length 1.17, width 1.26; gnathocoxae length 0.64, width 0.30; labium length 0.31, width 0.43.

Distribution. Queensland, New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia ( Fig. 42 View Figure 42 ).

QM

Queensland Museum

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Thomisidae

Genus

Stephanopis

Loc

Stephanopis nigra O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869

Machado, Miguel, Teixeira, Renato Augusto & Milledge, Graham A. 2019
2019
Loc

Stephanopis tuberculata

Bradley, H. B. 1871: 235
1871
Loc

Stephanopis nigra O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1869: 62

Pickard-Cambridge, O. 1869: 62
1869