Bombus prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880

Williams, Paul H., Altanchimeg, Dorjsuren, Byvaltsev, Alexandr, Jonghe, Roland De, Jaffar, Saleem, Japoshvili, George, Kahono, Sih, Liang, Huan, Mei, Maurizio, Monfared, Alireza, Nidup, Tshering, Raina, Rifat, Ren, Zongxin, Thanoosing, Chawatat, Zhao, Yanhui & Orr, Michael C., 2020, Widespread polytypic species or complexes of local species? Revising bumblebees of the subgenus Melanobombus world-wide (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus), European Journal of Taxonomy 719, pp. 1-120 : 56-58

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.719.1107

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A4500016-C219-4353-B81C-5E0BB520547F

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/252087CA-1F75-9500-FD87-FC1BDF09FAC6

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Bombus prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880
status

stat. rev.

Bombus prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880 stat. rev.

Figs 3 View Figs 1‒6 , 13 View Figs 12‒13 , 64–70 View Figs 64–102 , 187 View Figs 181‒189

Bombus Prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880: 342 .

Bombus rufocinctus Morawitz, 1880: 343 (non Cresson, 1863: 106 = B. rufocinctus Cresson). syn. nov.

Bombus chinensis von Dalla Torre, 1890 [Jun. 25]: 139 (non Morawitz, 1890 [April 30]: 352), replacement name for rufocinctus Morawitz, 1880: 343. syn. nov.

Bombus prshewalskii – von Dalla Torre 1896: 548, incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bombus przewalskii – Friese 1918: 84, incorrect subsequent spelling.

Kozlovibombus przewilskii – Skorikov 1933a: 245, incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bombus rufofasciatus (part) – Williams 1991: 105; 1998: 133 (non Smith, 1852a: 48).

Bombus prshewalskyi was described by Morawitz (1880) without reference to Smith’s (1852a) closely related taxon rufofasciatus, apparently without knowledge of it. Bombus prshewalskyi is listed as a species (as Kozlovibombus przewalskii ) separate from B. rufofasciatus by Skorikov (1923), although the latter was listed by him as “ Bombi incertae sedis ”. The two were synonymised by Richards (1930). Here, B. prshewalskyi is revised as an eastern species separate from the western B. rufofasciatus s. str. because of their unique and strongly divergent species coalescents in the COI gene ( Fig. 10 View Fig ), corroborated by morphology. These morphological differences between the two are subtle, but do appear to support that the two taxa are separate species within a morphologically more distinctive complex of rufofasciatus s. str. + prshewalskyi.

Our PTP analysis ( Fig. 10 View Fig ) supports relatively strongly two coalescents in the COI gene for the west Himalayan B. rufofasciatus s. str. and B. prshewalskyi of the eastern QTP. The two coalescent groups differ in COI barcode sequences for at least 22 diagnostic nucleotide positions (3.3% of the barcode region, although some sequences are incomplete). These differences are all synonymous, making no difference to the amino acid sequences at translation. In contrast, examination of sequences for the slower-evolving PEPCK gene (although it also includes faster-evolving intron regions) shows no diagnostic nucleotide changes.

From morphology, B. prshewalskyi has a slightly darker colour pattern of the hair than B. rufofasciatus s. str. for the females (larger workers and queens), with the white bands appearing dark greyish because of many black hairs intermixed, especially on the scutellum, and with black hair more extensive on the body generally. T2 has yellow hair conspicuously replaced by black posteriorly.

Current restrictions on collecting and sequencing in the areas where the two candidate species are most likely to occur in proximity ( Fig. 13 View Figs 12‒13 ) make clarifying their status difficult. However, more evidence is needed to increase confidence in any interpretation of the status of the candidate species rufofasciatus s. str. and prshewalskyi and it remains possible that with more sampling from the Himalaya the two taxa could still prove to be parts of a single broader species, B. rufofasciatus s. lat. Speciation between B. rufofasciatus s. str. and B. prshewalskyi may have arisen through vicariance between populations of the western and eastern Himalaya caused by a period of altered climate (cf. B. miniatus / B. eurythorax).

Females show size-dependent dimorphism in the colour pattern of the hair: large queens have T2 predominantly black and T4 white; whereas the workers (which are smaller) have T2 extensively yellow and T4 red. Males have a similar colour pattern to the workers.

Diagnosis

Females ( Fig. 3 View Figs 1‒6 )

Queens medium-sized body length 19–23 mm, workers 10–15 mm. Can be distinguished by their combination of the hair of T5 white and the hair on the side of the thorax white only in the dorsal half (cf. B. ladakhensis), closely similar to B. rufofasciatus but tending to have T2 with less yellow hair and the scutellum with more black hair.

Males

Body length 13–17 mm. Can be distinguished reliably at present only by their COI sequence, but tending to have T2 with less yellow hair and the scutellum with more black hair (cf. B. rufofasciatus). Genitalia ( Fig. 187 View Figs 181‒189 ) with the gonostylus much reduced, less than a quarter as long on its outer side as broad, with the distal edge concave and the inner distal corner with two almost equally pronounced adjacent acute teeth (cf. other rufofasciatus -group species with the exceptions of some B. friseanus, B. pyrosoma); volsella with the inner distal corner produced as a narrow curved hook ( cf. rufipes -group, B. simillimus, lapidarius -group, sichelii -group, keriensis -group); antenna short and eye enlarged relative to female eye.

Material examined

Syntypes

CHINA • 1 ♀ (worker, not a queen), 1 ♂ ( Williams 1991:10), syntypes of Bombus prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880; “Gan-su” [= Gansu in a much broader sense than currently: the specimen is probably from modern Qinghai]; N. Przhevalsky leg.; ZIN (not seen but identity not in doubt).

Material sequenced (57 specimens)

CHINA – Gansu Province • 1 ♀ (worker); Gahai ; 34.1743° N, 102.5577° E; 28 Aug. 2009; P. Williams leg.; BOLD seq: 6876H09; PW: ML1 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Hezuo ; 34.9027° N, 102.8445° E; 27 Aug. 2009; P. Williams leg.; BOLD seq: 1555E03; PW: ML251 GoogleMaps . – Sichuan Province • 4 specs; Hongyuan ; 32.3282° N, 102.4543° E; 2017; YD seq: DYX9.1, DYX56.2, DYX22.2, DYX32.2; YD: ML424 to ML427 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Hailuogou ; 29.89546° N, 102.01324° E; 7 Aug. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: GGSM102001; KIB: ML555 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Que’er shan; 31.89688° N, 99.14853° E; 4Aug. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: QESM202003; KIB: ML560 GoogleMaps . – Yunnan Province • 1 ♀ (worker); Lijiang ; 27.0156° N, 100.1714° E; 27 Aug. 2012; Y. Zhao leg.; KIB seq: 402646105; KIB: ML366 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; 21 Sep. 2012; Y. Zhao leg.; KIB seq: 402648064; KIB: ML367 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Baima Snow Mountain ; 28.34827° N, 99.05771° E; 17 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: BMXSM102034; KIB: ML548 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Baima Snow Mountain ; 28.37252° N, 98.99982° E; 16 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: BMXSH101052; KIB: ML549 GoogleMaps 26 ♀♀, 8 ♂♂; Baima Snow Mountain ; 28.3373° N, 99.0771° E; 14–17 Aug. 2019; M. Orr leg.; IOZ seq: 14F2 to 14F7, 14F9, 14F11 to 14F16, 14F18, 14M1 to 14M5, 16F1, 16M1, 16M2, 16M4, 17F1 to 17F4, 17M1, OR4, OR6 to OR8, OR14, OR16, OR19, OR21, OR25; IOZ: ML599 to ML632 GoogleMaps . – Xizang Province • 1 ♀ (worker); Anjiulashan ; 29.6509° N, 96.71712° E; 23 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: AJLSM103002; KIB: ML550 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Galonglashan ; 29.78346° N, 95.69765° E; 24 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: GLLSM201092; KIB: ML551 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; KIB seq: GLLSM201104; KIB: ML552 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (queen); same collection data as for preceding; KIB seq: GLLSM101006; KIB ML553 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (queen); Milashan ; 29.85301° N, 92.33378° E; 27 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: MLSH101029; KIB: ML554 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Honglashan ; 29.92411° N, 92.77629° E; 19 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: HLSM101103; KIB: ML556 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Dangxiong County; 30.21253° N, 90.62821° E; 30 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: DXH101006; KIB: ML557 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Zhujiaolashan; 31.10878° N, 96.88469° E; 2 Aug. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: ZJLSM 101045; KIB: ML558 ; GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Ailashan ; 31.61421° N, 98.48028° E; 1 Aug. 2018, Z. Ren leg.; KIB-ALSM 102002 ( KIB ML559 ) GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Milashan ; 29.8530° N, 92.3338° E; 27 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: MLSH109001; KIB: ML578 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Galongashan ; 29.7669° N, 95.6991° E; 24 Jul. 2018; Z. Ren leg.; KIB seq: GLLSM104005; KIB: ML579 GoogleMaps .

Global distribution

(Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau and East Himalayan species) Himalaya: INDIA: Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh. East Asia: CHINA: Xizang, Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan. – Southeast Asia: BURMA. ( AMNH, IAR, IOZ, KIB, KIZ, MNHN, NHMUK, NME, NMS, PW, SEHU, UAP, YD, ZIN.) The species is widely distributed within its range and often abundant.

Behaviour

A colony of this species has been found underground in a meadow at 3900 m a.s.l. in Yunnan ( ZR unpublished). Food-plant generalists ( Williams et al. 2009; An et al. 2014). Male mate-searching behaviour appears to resemble the true territoriality of B. rufofasciatus with collisions between males in flight and replacement in perch occupancy ( PW pers. obs.).

ZIN

Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum

PW

Paleontological Collections

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

KIZ

Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

NME

Sammlung des Naturkundemseum Erfurt

NMS

National Museum of Scotland - Natural Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Loc

Bombus prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880

Williams, Paul H., Altanchimeg, Dorjsuren, Byvaltsev, Alexandr, Jonghe, Roland De, Jaffar, Saleem, Japoshvili, George, Kahono, Sih, Liang, Huan, Mei, Maurizio, Monfared, Alireza, Nidup, Tshering, Raina, Rifat, Ren, Zongxin, Thanoosing, Chawatat, Zhao, Yanhui & Orr, Michael C. 2020
2020
Loc

Bombus rufofasciatus

Williams P. H. 1998: 133
Williams P. H. 1991: 105
Smith F. 1852: 48
1991
Loc

Kozlovibombus przewilskii

Skorikov A. S. 1933: 245
1933
Loc

Bombus prshewalskii

von Dalla Torre K. W. 1896: 548
1896
Loc

Bombus Prshewalskyi Morawitz, 1880: 342

Morawitz F. F. 1880: 342
1880
Loc

Bombus rufocinctus

Morawitz F. F. 1880: 343
Cresson E. T. 1863: 106
1880
Loc

Bombus chinensis

Morawitz F. F. 1880: 343
1880