Bombus festivus Smith, 1861

Williams, Paul H., Altanchimeg, Dorjsuren, Byvaltsev, Alexandr, Jonghe, Roland De, Jaffar, Saleem, Japoshvili, George, Kahono, Sih, Liang, Huan, Mei, Maurizio, Monfared, Alireza, Nidup, Tshering, Raina, Rifat, Ren, Zongxin, Thanoosing, Chawatat, Zhao, Yanhui & Orr, Michael C., 2020, Widespread polytypic species or complexes of local species? Revising bumblebees of the subgenus Melanobombus world-wide (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus), European Journal of Taxonomy 719, pp. 1-120 : 49-51

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.719.1107

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A4500016-C219-4353-B81C-5E0BB520547F

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4335600

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/252087CA-1F72-950B-FDEC-F8E8DD17FB70

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Bombus festivus Smith, 1861
status

 

Bombus festivus Smith, 1861

Figs 12 View Figs 12‒13 , 38–45 View Figs 25–63 , 183 View Figs 181‒189

Bombus festivus Smith, 1861: 152.

Bombus atrocinctus Smith, 1870: 193.

Bombus terminalis Smith, 1870: 193.

Bombus melaleucus subsp. discolor Friese, 1905: 514 .

Bombus handel-mazettii Pittioni, 1939a: 260.

Bombus calidiformis Pittioni, 1939a: 262.

Bombus festivus has a distinctive morphology and has been placed in a separate subgenus, Festivobombus ( Tkalců 1972) or Atrocinctobombus ( Skorikov 1933a: name published without description). A close relationship with other species of the subgenus Melanobombus was supported by an analysis of five genes by Cameron et al. (2007) and these subgenera were synonymised by Williams et al. (2008).

Our PTP analysis ( Fig. 10 View Fig ) of coalescents in the COI gene within the festivus- group supports a single species B. festivus, corroborated by differences in morphology (see the Diagnosis).

Females show pronounced size-dependent dimorphism in the colour pattern of the hair: large queens have the thoracic dorsum black with a large white patch in the middle (taxon festivus s. str.); whereas workers (which are smaller) and males have the thoracic dorsum extensively orange-brown (taxa atrocinctus and terminalis). That these castes and sexes are conspecific has been confirmed from examining variation within a colony in Nepal ( Ito et al. 1984).

Diagnosis

Females

Queens large body length 22–26 mm, workers 12–17 mm. Can be distinguished by the hair of the thoracic dorsum either black with a large central white spot (queen) or extensively brown (worker), the wings dark brown, and both castes have the hind tibia with the distal posterior corner produced as a short spine (cf. B. hypnorum ( Linnaeus, 1758), B. abnormis ( Tkalců, 1968)).

Males

Body length 13–16 mm. Can be distinguished by the hair of the thoracic dorsum extensively brown, similarly coloured to the worker. Genitalia ( Fig. 183 View Figs 181‒189 ) with the gonostylus relatively undifferentiated, although the proximal inner projection is only weakly projecting towards the body midline and more strongly extending ventrally and distally beneath and parallel to the inner edge of the main body of the gonostylus as a shelf (similar to some Pyrobombus but more distinctly pronounced, cf. B. hypnorum, B. abnormis); volsella with a pronounced inner distal corner forming a narrow hook ( cf. rufipes -group, lapidarius -group, sichelii -group, keriensis -group); penis valve head with the outer flange only weakly expanded (cf. non- festivus -group); eye unenlarged relative to female eye.

Material examined

Lectotype

INDIA • ♀ (queen), lectotype of Bombus festivus Smith, 1861 by designation of Tkalců (1974a); “N.[orth] W.[est]”; NHMUK (examined PW).

Material sequenced (18 specimens)

NEPAL • 1 ♀ (worker); Bheri, Dilikot ; 29.029° N, 81.749° E; 28 May 1995; M. Hartmann leg.; BOLD seq: 1551H10; NME: ML198 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); no data; BOLD seq: 6876H08; PW: ML197 .

BHUTAN • 1 ♀ (queen); Thimphu, Lungtenphu ; 27.4574° N, 89.6655° E; 17 Mar. 1996; H. Feijen leg.; BOLD seq: 6880H01; RMNH: ML505 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♂; Wangli , Pele-La; 27.5498° N, 90.2157° E; 16 Sep. 1994; G. Schulten leg.; BOLD seq: 6880H03; RMNH: ML507 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (queen); Thimphu, Phajoding Gompa ; 27.479° N, 89.595° E; 25 Apr. 2018; J. Smit leg.; RMNH seq: 1092453; RMNH: ML570 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (queen); same collection data as for preceding; RMNH seq: 1092451; RMNH: ML572 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (queen); Wangdue Phodrang, Sephu ; 27.53° N, 90.245° E; 3 May 2018; J. Smit leg.; RMNH seq: 1092504; RMNH: ML571 View Materials GoogleMaps .

CHINA – Yunnan Province • 1 ♂; Dali ; 25.75° N, 100.1° E; 8 Jul. 1996; C. Hauser leg.; BOLD seq: 1552A01; SMNS: ML181 View Materials GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); Lijiang ; 27.0020° N, 100.182° E; 13 Jul. 2017; A. Moss leg.; BOLD seq: 1555C09; PW: ML240 GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (worker); Lijiang ; 27.0156° N, 100.1714° E; 23 Jun. 2017; H. Liang leg.; KIB seq: 15; KIB: ML360 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; 11 Aug. 2016; KIB seq:16; KIB: ML361 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; 1 Aug. 2016; KIB seq: 17; KIB: ML362 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; 11 Aug. 2016; KIB seq:18; KIB: ML363 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; KIB seq: 19; KIB: ML364 GoogleMaps 1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; 19 Jul. 2017; H. Liang leg.; KIB seq: 20; KIB: ML365 GoogleMaps 1 ♀; Baima Snow Mountain ; 28.3373° N, 99.0771°E; 14 Aug. 2019; M. Orr leg.; IOZ seq: 14F5; IOZ: ML583 GoogleMaps . – Sichuan Province • 1 ♂; Luojishan ; 27.5811° N, 102.4028° E; 11 Aug. 2005; P. Williams leg.; BOLD seq: 1555E06; PW: ML254 GoogleMaps 1 ♀ (worker); same collection data as for preceding; BOLD seq: 1555E07; PW: ML255 GoogleMaps .

Global distribution

(Himalayan, Hengduan, and west Chinese mountain species) East Asia: CHINA: Xizang, Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Hubei, Guizhou, Guangxi. – Himalaya: INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Darjiling Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh; NEPAL, BHUTAN. – Southeast Asia: BURMA, VIETNAM. ( AMNH, IAR, INHS, IOZ, KIB, KIZ, NHMUK, NME, NMS, PW, RMNH, SC, SEHU, SMNS, USNM, ZMUM.) The species is widely distributed and often abundant.

Behaviour

A colony of this species has been described from Nepal ( Ito et al. 1984). Food-plant generalists ( Williams et al. 2009; An et al. 2014). The male mate-searching behaviour is expected to resemble the patrolling of B. keriensis.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

PW

Paleontological Collections

NME

Sammlung des Naturkundemseum Erfurt

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

SMNS

Staatliches Museum fuer Naturkund Stuttgart

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

KIZ

Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

NMS

National Museum of Scotland - Natural Sciences

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ZMUM

Zoological Museum, University of Amoy

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Loc

Bombus festivus Smith, 1861

Williams, Paul H., Altanchimeg, Dorjsuren, Byvaltsev, Alexandr, Jonghe, Roland De, Jaffar, Saleem, Japoshvili, George, Kahono, Sih, Liang, Huan, Mei, Maurizio, Monfared, Alireza, Nidup, Tshering, Raina, Rifat, Ren, Zongxin, Thanoosing, Chawatat, Zhao, Yanhui & Orr, Michael C. 2020
2020
Loc

Bombus handel-mazettii

Pittioni B. 1939: 260
1939
Loc

Bombus calidiformis

Pittioni B. 1939: 262
1939
Loc

Bombus melaleucus subsp. discolor

Friese H. 1905: 514
1905
Loc

Bombus atrocinctus

Smith F. 1870: 193
1870
Loc

Bombus terminalis

Smith F. 1870: 193
1870
Loc

Bombus festivus

Smith F. 1861: 152
1861