Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ornata Smith, 1874

Villamizar, Germán, Fernández, Fernando & Vivallo, Felipe, 2020, Synopsis of the carpenter bee subgenus Xylocopa (Schonnherria) Lepeletier, 1841 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Colombia, with designation of lectotypes and the description of two new species, Zootaxa 4789 (2), pp. 301-347 : 325-326

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Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ornata Smith, 1874


Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ornata Smith, 1874

( Figures 51–54 View FIGURES 51–54 , 78 View FIGURE 78 )

Xylocopa ornata Smith, 1874: 290 .

Diagnosis. Females can be recognized by the following combination of characters: small body size (body length 15.9–16.4); integument black to dark brown with strong metallic green highlights on mesoscutellum and terga, and blue on head, mesoscutum and sterna; vertex and upper gena with fine and sparse circular punctures; yellowish hairs on labrum, dorsal surface of hind basitarsus and terga; metasoma with coarse, dense, circular to elliptical punctures and dense simple hairs of similar length on the whole disc. Females of X. ornata have also the dorsal surface of hind basitarsus with yellowish pubescence as X. ecuadorica and X. viridis , but it can be distinguished by the disposition of the pubescence on terga ( X. ornata with hairs of similar length on whole disc, while X. ecuadorica and X. viridis have tomentose plumose hairs on laterodistal margins of T2–T5).

Morphology. Female ( Figs. 51–54 View FIGURES 51–54 ). Measurements (mm): Approximate body length: 15 (14.7–16.4); head width: 5.4 (5.2–5.6); mesosoma width: 6.3 (6–6.8); metasoma width: 7 (7–7.3); forewing length: 12 (11.8–12.5). Coloration: Integument black to dark brown with strong metallic green highlights on mesoscutellum and terga, and blue on vertex, gena, clypeus, mesoscutum, and sterna. Tegula dark brown with blue highlights. Wings hyaline brown with weak blue/violet iridescence. Pubescence: Predominantly whitish except ferruginous on ventral surface of basitarsi and apex of T6; yellowish on labrum, dorsal surface of hind basitarsus and metasoma. Paraocular area and lower half of clypeus with dense plumose and simple hairs inter-mixed (0.7–1.2x OD), lower gena with long simple hairs (1–4x OD) and glabrous on vertex and upper gena. Mesosoma with plumose hairs mostly on mesepisternum and ventrally (1–3x OD), glabrous or with few hairs anteriorly and on disc of mesoscutum and mesoscutellum. Metasoma with long, decumbent, simple hairs on lateral sides (2–5x OD), longer and denser progressively towards apex; disc of T1 with short simple hairs (0.1–0.3x OD), longer on lateral sides; discs of T2–T6 covered by dense, semi erected, simple hairs of similar length (0.3–0.5x OD), shorter and sparser medially; sterna with long simple hairs, denser and longer posteriorly and towards lateral sides. Surface sculpture: Head with coarse and sparse circular punctures (2–3x puncture width), sparser on vertex and upper gena and denser on paraocular area and lower half of clypeus. Mesosoma with coarse and uniform punctures (3–4x puncture width), coarser and denser on posterior area of mesoscutellum, smooth on mesoscutal disc and mesoscutellum anteriorly; mesonotal line conspicuous of less length to half of mesoscutum, parapsidial lines inconspicuous. Metasomal terga imbricate (1–2x puncture width), sparser medially and smooth on distal margins of T2–T5, greater impunctate area progressively on last segments; sterna with fine and scattered punctures, coarser and denser distally. S tructures: Head broader than long (1.3–1.2: 1); compound eyes with similar inner margins; ratio of upper and lower interocular distances 0.8–0.9: 1; maximum interocular distance almost equal than eye length (0.9–1: 1); clypeus broader than long (2.5–2.4: 1) with the length similar to clypeocellar distance (0.7–0.8: 1); interalveolar distance similar than alveolocular distance (0.8–1: 1); interalveolar distance almost equal to alveolocellar distance (0.9–1: 1); vertex broad, lateral ocellus below supraorbital line (0.6–0.8x OD); interocellar distance almost equal to ocellocular distance (0.8–0.9: 1); frontal carina at upper level of antennal sockets with similar size than scape length (0.2–0.3x OD); length of F1 longer than the summed length of F2 and F3 and shorter than length of F2–F4 (0.8–1: 0.7–0.8: 1–1.1). Upper half of clypeus more elevated than level of paraocular area, with upper margins of the epistomal suture well differentiate in edges. Labrum broader than long with three basal protuberances, middle tubercle slightly longer. Mesoscutellum slightly rounded to flat (lateral view). Metanotum and propodeum vertical (lateral view).

Floral records. See Table 2 View TABLE 2 .

Type material. Smith (1984) did not specify the number of specimens from São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, that he used to describe this species. Following the recommendation 73F and under Art. 74.7 of the ICZN (1999), a single female belonging to the type series housed at NHMUK is here designated as the lectotype. The specimen has the following data label: Type [circular label with red margin]\ St. Paulo [circular label, Smith’s handwriting, obverse] 59 2 [Smith’s handwriting, reverse]\ Xylocopa ornata . Sm Type [Smith’s handwriting]\ B.M. TYPE HYM. [printed] 17B. 187. [handwriting]\ BMNH (E) #970316 ( NHMUK). The lectotype is coded NHMUK014022428 View Materials in the NHMUK data portal .

Type locality. BRAZIL: Amazonas: São Paulo de Olivença .

Distribution in Colombia ( Fig. 78 View FIGURE 78 ). Amazonas: Araracuara, Probably in La Pedrera, according to Dugand (1948). Caquetá: Puerto Solano, Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete. Guaviare: Reserva Natural Nukak Maku. Santander: Cimitarra. Vaupés: Acaricuará.

Material examined (n= 18♀): COLOMBIA: Amazonas : 1 female: Araracuara, Quebrada Armadillo , S0°36’, W72°23′, 100 m, 20-Feb-1992, F. Jara, LABUN006377 , 6452 ( LABUN) GoogleMaps ; 4 females: Araracuara, Quebra- da Armadillo , S0°36’, W72°23′, 100 m, 21-Feb-1992, F. Jara, LABUN006366 , LABUN006367 , LABUN006362 , LABUN006365 , 6455 , 6454 , 6451 , 6453 ( LABUN) GoogleMaps ; 1 female: Araracuara, Caño Aduche , S0°38’39”, W72°18′18”, 100 m, 29-Feb-1992, F. Jara, LABUN006380 , 6456 ( LABUN) GoogleMaps ; 1 female: Colombia, amazonica, R . Caquetá, XI – ′12. Ducke ( MPEG). Caquetá : 5 females: Puerto Solano, PNN La Serrania de Chiribiquete, Rio Cuñaré-Amú Campamento Bosque Inundable , N0°12’, W72°25′, 250 m, Captura jameo, 27-Feb-2001, M. Ospina, IAVH–E– 80302, IAVH–E–22986, IAVH–E–22990, IAVH–E–22989, IAVH–E–22985 (IAvH) GoogleMaps ; 1 female: PNN Chiribiquete, Chorro el acuario, N1°22’26”, W72°57′39”, 488 m, Bosque Kaki , Captura manual, 08-Nov-2000, E. González (IAvH). Guaviare GoogleMaps : 2 females: Cucuy , RN Nukak Maku, N2°10’41”, W71°11′25”, 250 m, Camino al Pto R GoogleMaps . Inirida , Feb–1996, F. Fernández, IAVH–E–23653, IAVH–E–23315 (IAvH). Santander : 2 females: Cimitarra, Reserva Hacienda El Paraíso , N6°27’, W74°17′, 126 m, 13-Oct-2015, S. Currea, CCH79, CCH222 ( LABUN). Vaupés GoogleMaps : 1 female: Acaricuará, Los Ángeles , N0°42’0”, W70°14′0”, 193 m, 27-Feb-2006, H. Miller, 27639 ( LABUN) GoogleMaps .

Comments. The blue highlights on head, mesoscutum, and metasomal sterna varies from weak to strong depending on the state of preservation of the specimen (i.e. strong metallic highlights in new specimens and weak highlights in old specimens). In the Boreal and South Brazilian dominion (sensu Morrone, 2014) this species is commonly found according to the material examined and records in literature, but we found a specimen from Santander (Pacific dominion), which suggests a wider distribution to the north.

Despite the number of specimens examined and collections visited, the male of X. ornata was not found and it remains unknown.


Natural History Museum, London


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi














Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ornata Smith, 1874

Villamizar, Germán, Fernández, Fernando & Vivallo, Felipe 2020

Xylocopa ornata

Smith, F. 1874: 290