Andrena, Pisanty, Gideon, Scheuchl, Erwin & Dorchin, Netta, 2016
Pisanty, Gideon, Scheuchl, Erwin & Dorchin, Netta, 2016, Eight new species of Andrena Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Andrenidae) from Israel—a Mediterranean hotspot for wild bees, Zootaxa 4189 (3), pp. 485-515: 487-490
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( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 A, C, E, G, 2A, C, E, G, 12A, 13A)
Female ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A). Body length: 5–5.5 mm.
Color. Head, mesosoma and terga black to dark brown; head, mesonotum, scutellum and metanotum sometimes with weak metallic hue. Apical half of mandible reddish-brown. Flagellomeres 3–10 reddish-orange anteriorly ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C), reddish-brown posteriorly. Legs and sterna brown. Tergal marginal zones yellowish-brown ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C). Wings transparent, veins brown ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A).
Pubescence. Head and dorsal side of mesosoma with short, yellowish-white plumose hairs ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C, G). Mandibles with simple hairs of varying length. Facial foveae hairs brown in dorsal view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G). Anterior side of mesepisternum with long, white plumose hairs. Propodeal corbicula incomplete, posterodorsal margin with long, white, strongly plumose hairs. Surface of corbicula with few long, white, simple hairs. Legs with mostly white hair. Flocculus hairs plumose; scopal hairs mostly simple. Discs of terga 1–2 almost bare, 3 and especially 4–5 with short inconspicuous hairs ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C). Terga 2–3 with weak lateral tufts of hair. Premarginal line of tergum 4 with continuous weak band of sparse golden hairs. Prepygidial fimbria golden ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C). Sterna with white hairs, longer and more plumose towards marginal zone.
Head ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C, E, G). Slightly broader than long ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C). Galea shagreened. Labral process narrow, curvedtrapezoidal. Clypeus convex, somewhat shiny, strongly shagreened except near apex, sparsely and very shallowly punctured, distance between punctures 2–4 puncture diameters, puncture size medium ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E). Facial foveae long, occupying about 1/2 of paraocular area width, slightly tapering at lower part, shallow above and deepening downwards, extending from level of lower end of lateral ocellus to slightly below lower end of antennal socket ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C, G). Flagellomere 1 slightly longer than broad, shorter than or equal to 2+3; 2–3 broader than long, 2 slightly shorter than or equal to 3; 4–5 almost square ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C). Distance of fovea from lateral ocellus 1–1.5 ocellus diameters. Ocelloccipital distance 1/2–3/4 ocellus diameter ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G).
Mesosoma ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 G, 2A). Dorsolateral angle of pronotum not to very weakly elevated. Mesonotum and scutellum strongly shagreened allover but shiny, sparsely and very shallowly punctured, distance between punctures 2–4 puncture diameters, puncture size medium ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G). Mesepisternum shagreened-alveolate. Propodeal corbicula reticulately shagreened. Propodeal triangle finely reticulated. Basal part of propodeum broad, almost horizontal ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G). Hind leg pretarsal claws with hint of minute inner tooth. Submarginal crossvein 1 reaching marginal cell 0–2 vein widths from stigma ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A). Recurrent vein 1 meeting submarginal cell 2 at 1/3– 1/2 of distance between submarginal cells 1–2. Nervulus strongly antefurcal, distance from basal vein 2.5–4.5 vein widths ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A).
Metasoma ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C). Terga shiny, shagreened and impunctate. Marginal zones 2–4 depressed. Pygidial plate concave, shagreened.
Male ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E). Body length: 4.5–5 mm.
Color. Flagellomeres 3–11 reddish-brown anteriorly, reddish-brown to brown posteriorly ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 G). Rest of body similar to female (clypeus and paraocular area black).
Pubescence. Clypeus, vertex, paraocular, supraclypeal and genal areas, mesepisternum, mesonotum, scutellum and lateral parts of propodeum with long white to golden plumose hairs. Legs with white hairs. Metasomal hair as in female.
Head ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 G). Flagellomere 1 about as long as broad, slightly longer than 3; 2–3 broader than long, 2 shorter than 3; 4–5 square. Rest of head similar to female.
Mesosoma. Similar to female, but shagreenation of mesonotum and scutellum stronger.
Metasoma. Similar to female.
Genitalia and hidden sterna ( Figs. 12 View FIGURE 12 A, 13A). Dorsal lobe of gonocoxite short and rounded. Gonostylus flat, elongate, slightly broadening apically. Penis valves long and narrow, tapering apically, apex needlelike ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 A). Sternum 8 columnar, elongate, ventral side with dense long hairs, apex broadened ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 A).
Differential diagnosis. A. israelica is characterized by the combination of a finely reticulated propodeal triangle, relatively broad and not much tapering facial foveae, and black male clypeus, which distinguishes it from most members of Aciandrena, Graecandrena and Micrandrena. Additional important features include the small body size, shiny cuticle (especially the mesonotum), convex, weakly punctured, mostly shagreened clypeus, and strongly antefurcal nervulus. The female of A. israelica closely resembles that of A. judaea n. sp., but differs from it in the following characters: head and mesosoma often with metallic hue, hairs covering facial fovea brown in dorsal view (whitish in A. judaea , Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G –H), punctation of mesonotum and especially clypeus weaker and sparser ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E –F), nervulus usually more strongly antefurcal ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A –B), and shagreening of terga 1–2 weaker ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C – D).
Flight period: February –April.
Flower records: none. The majority of specimens collected from pan traps.
Etymology. The species is named after the State of Israel, where it was collected and appears to be common. The names of the closely related species A. israelica and A. judaea allude to the neighboring biblical kingdoms of Israel and Judah, whose boundaries loosely reflect the species' currently known distributions.
Holotype: Ƌ, ISRAEL: Lakhish , 5km ENE, 18.ii.2013, T. Shapira [ SMNHTAU].
Paratypes: ISRAEL: Alonim, 17.iii, H. Bytinski-Salz (1♀)a; Bet Nir , 28.iii.2010, G. Pisanty (1♀) ; Bet Oren , 23.iii.1973, A. Freidberg (2♀)a,b; Devira, 12.iv.2009, L. Friedman (1Ƌ); Ein Avazim, S Qyriat Shemona, 6.iii.1995, R. Kasher (1♀, 1Ƌ); Elon, 8.iii.1970, H. Bytinski-Salz (2♀, 1Ƌ)a; En Harod, 5.iii.1948, H. Bytinski-Salz (1♀)a; Haifa, 17.ii.1973, A. Freidberg (6♀, 8Ƌ)a ; 26.ii.1977, A. Freidberg (1♀); HareGilboa', Merav , 420m, 11.iv.2011, A. Freidberg (1♀) ; Kohav Ya'ir , 160m, 16.ii.2010, L. Friedman (1♀) ; Kfar Menahem , 1.iii.2008, Y. Mandelik (3♀, 1Ƌ) ; 2.iii.2008, U. Roll (1♀); Kineret , 4.iii.1968, H. Bytinski-Salz (1♀, 1Ƌ)a; Lahav, 27.ii.1974, A. Freidberg (1Ƌ)a; Lakhish, 2km E, 22.ii.2012, T. Shapira (2Ƌ) ; 4.iii.2016, G. Pisanty (1♀); Lakhish , 2.5km ENE, 6.iii.2013, T. Shapira (3♀, 1Ƌ) ; 13.iv.2013, T. Shapira (3♀); Lakhish , 3km NE, 19.ii.2016, G. Pisanty (1♀, 2Ƌ) ; 26.ii.2016, G. Pisanty (1♀, 1Ƌ); 4.iii.2016, G. Pisanty (1Ƌ); Lakhish, 5km ENE, 18.ii.2013, T. Shapira (38♀, 49Ƌ); 7.iii.2013, T. Shapira (13♀, 1Ƌ); 19.iii.2013, T. Shapira (9♀, 1Ƌ); 8.iv.2013, T. Shapira (18♀); Monfort , 10.iii.1981, F. Kaplan (2♀) ; Nahal Oren , 4.iii.1975, F. Kaplan (1♀) ; Nahal ' Iyyon, 430m, 15.iii.2011, A. Freidberg (1Ƌ); Ramat Hanadiv , 13.ii.2013, T. Shapira (3♀, 1Ƌ); Tel Kazir , 5.iii.1968, H. Bytinski-Salz (1♀)a. WEST BANK: Nahal Teqoa' , 31.iii.2009, A. Freidberg & M. Guershon (8♀) [ AMNH, ES, OLML, SMNHTAU, USNM, ZSMC].
a These specimens bear a red “ Paratype ” label and a white label “ Andrena minutissima War. det. Dr. Warncke”.
b This specimen bears a red “ Holotype ” label and a white label “ Andrena minutissima War. det. Dr. Warncke”.
Other material examined: ISRAEL: Dovev, 19.iv.2015, O. Winberger (1♀, 1Ƌ); Lakhish, 2.5km ENE, 20.iii.2013, T. Shapira (1♀) ; Lakhish , 5km ENE, 8.iv.2013, T. Shapira (1♀) ; Ramat Hanadiv , 13.ii.2013, T. Shapira (1♀) ; Malkiyya , 28.iv.2015, O. Winberger (1♀) ; Ramot Naftali , 5.iv.2015, O. Winberger (2♀) .
Remarks. The subgeneric classification of A. israelica is not sufficiently clear. The species exhibits a unique combination of characters (especially those of the facial foveae and propodeal triangle), which does not conform well to any particular subgenus, and appears to fall between Aciandrena and Micrandrena. The species was originally recognized as new by Klaus Warncke, who labeled a holotype and numerous paratypes under the name A. minutissima . Warncke donated a considerable number of his intended paratypes to other collections, but was killed in a car accident in Egypt in 1993 before he could publish a proper description of this species. Consequently, A. minutissima is a nomen nudum and there may be many samples in a number of European collections, which are incorrectly labeled as types. Adding to the confusion, Osytshnjuk (1995) described a different, Eastern Palaearctic species of Andrena under the name A. minutissima . We have therefore chosen a new name for Warncke's species— A. israelica .
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