Anelosimus

Agnarsson, Ingi, 2006, A revision of the New World eximius lineage of Anelosimus (Araneae, Theridiidae) and a phylogenetic analysis using worldwide exemplars, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 146 (4), pp. 453-593: 462-470

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2006.00213.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/236D8D66-FF9D-FF84-26DB-2C66FECC64D4

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Anelosimus
status

 

ANELOSIMUS   – CLADE 30

The results corroborate the monophyly of Anelosimus   s.s. (excluding Kochiura   and Selkirkiella   , see Agnarsson, 2004), Figures 58 View Figure 58 and 59 View Figure 59 . Agnarsson (2004) found marginal support for Anelosimus   , based on a single synapomorphy: ridges on the surface of the epigynal plate (4 -1, Figs 48A, B View Figure 48 , 53B View Figure 53 ). With more species in the analysis this synapomorphy supports the subsidiary Eb clade within Anelosimus   (see Fig. 58 View Figure 58 and below). Here Anelosimus   synapomorphies are: an entire conductor (37 -1, Fig. 8C View Figure 8 ), lack of pars stridens on prosoma

Characters Ste Eno Sel Ara Are Koa Kor Ach The koh sp1 lor rup big dud vit pul nel rab nig eth may sal ana chi pac dom jab dub exi oct juc ari bae pur stu gua ele tos pan ori fra tun

FEMALE GENITALIA

001. Epigynal ventral margin: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0? 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 entire; with scape;

002. Epigynal ext.: cop. 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 openings not visible;

visible;

003. Epigynal depression: 0 – – – – – 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 narrow; wide;

004. Epigynal plate surface: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 smooth; ridged;

005. Epigynal septum: absent; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 present;

006. Copul. bursa ant. margin: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 entire; medially acute;

007. Cop. duct to spermath: 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 posterior; lat./anterior;

008. Copul. duct rel. to 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 spermath.: apart;

encircling;

009. CD term. sclerot.: as 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 other; distinctly sclerotized;

010. Sclerot.CD: ectal to the – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 spermathecae; caudal;

MALE GENITALIA

011. Tibial rim: slightly 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 asymmetric; scoop-

shaped;

012. Tibial prol.trichob.: => 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 two; one; none;

013. Cymbial ectal setae: 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 unmod.; curved towards bulb;

014. Cymbial dist. prom.: 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 entire; w/apoph.;

015. Cymbial mesal margin: 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 entire; incised; notched;

016. Cymbial tip 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 sclerotization: normal;

light;

017. Cymbial tip setae: 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 normal; thick and curved;

018. Cymbial sheath: absent; 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 present;

019. Lock placement: basal; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 distal; central;

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0 0 0 Characters Ste Eno Sel Ara Are Koa Kor Ach The koh sp1 lor rup big dud vit pul nel rab nig eth may sal ana chi pac dom jab dub exi oct juc ari bae pur stu gua ele tos pan ori fra tun

020. Lock mechanism: hook; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 hood; Theridula   ;

021. Cymbial hook orient.: 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – downwards; upwards;

022. Cymbial hook: inside 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – cymbium; ectal margin;

023. Cymbial hook tip: blunt; 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – strongly tapering;

024. Cymbial hood size: – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 narrow; broad;

025. Cymbial hood region: – – – – – – – 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 translucent; opaque;

026. Alveolus shape: suboval; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0????? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mesal extension;

027. Tegulum ectal margin: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 entire; protruded;

028. Tegular groove: absent; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 present;

029. SDT SB I: separate; 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? – 0 0 0 0 1 1 0? 1 1?? 0 0? – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 touching;

030. SDT post-SB II turn: 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? – 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 absent; present;

031. SDT SB I & II segm. 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? – 0 0 1 1 1 1 1????? 1 1? – 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 alignment: diverg.;

parallel;

032. SDT SB I & II orient.: in 0 – 0 1 1 1 1 1 1? – 1 1 1 1 1 1 1????? 1 1? – 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 plane; out of plane;

033. SDT RSB I & II: absent; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0? – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 present;

034. SDT SB III: absent; 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0????? 0 0? – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 present;

035. SDT SB IV: absent; – 0 0 1 1 – – – 0? – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –? – – – – – – – – – – – present;

036. C: simple; fan; Eno.; Arg.; 0 2 1 3 3 1 1 4 5 0 – 6 6 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Ach.; The; rup.; tan.; cup;

037. C: with a groove for – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 – 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 embolus; entire;

038. C surface: smooth; 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 heavily ridged;

039. C tip sclerotization: like 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 base; more than base;

040. Subconductor (SC): 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 absent; present;

041. SC pit upper wall: entire; – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 forms a regular oval lip

1 1 1

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8 8 8

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–? –

8 8 8

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042. SC narrowing at C base: – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 abrupt; gradual; broad

043. E base-SC relation: E – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2 2 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 hooked in; E surpasses

SC

044. T ectally: <1/2 cymbial 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cavity;> 1/2 cymbial cavity;

045. MA and sperm duct: not 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 in MA; inside MA;

046. MA-tegular connection: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 broad; narrow;

047. MA form: unbranched; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 two branches;

048. MA distal tip: entire; 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 hooded;

049. MA hood form: narrow, 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – pit-like; scoop-shaped;

050. TTA form: entire; 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 – 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 grooved; excavate;

051. TTA: bulky; prong 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 shaped

052. TTA distal tip: entire; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 – 2 0 – 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Argyrodes   ; hooked;

053. TTA hook distal branch: – – – – – – – – 0 – – – – 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 short; extending beyond;

054. TTA hook distal branch: – – – – – – – – 0 – – – – 0 0 – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 thick; thin, finger-like

055. TTA hook proximal – – – – – – – – 0 – – – – 0 0 – – – 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 branch: broad; bladelike

056. TTA surface 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 1 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 subterminally: smooth;

ridged;

057. TTA tip surface: smooth; 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 – 1 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ridged;

058. E and TTA: loosely assoc.; 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E enclosed in TTA   ;

059. E tip surface: smooth; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 denticulate;

060. E spiral curviture: gentle; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 whip like; corkscrew;

061. E tip: entire; bifid; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

062. E origin: ectoventral on 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 tegulum; retrolateral;

063. E surface: smooth; ridged; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

064. E shape: short to 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 moderate; extremely long;

065. E spiral: normal; thick, 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 much broader than tip;

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1 1 1 Characters Ste Eno Sel Ara Are Koa Kor Ach The koh sp1 lor rup big dud vit pul nel rab nig eth may sal ana chi pac dom jab dub exi oct juc ari bae pur stu gua ele tos pan ori fra tun

066. E distal rim: entire; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 deeply grooved;

067. E terminus: abrupt; with 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a distal apophysis;

068. E base: entire; lobed; 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

069. Embolus-dh connection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 grooves: absent; present;

070. Embolus-dh grooves: – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 deep; short;

071. E spiral subterminally: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 thin or filiform; thick;

rup.;

072. E spiral: entire; biparted; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ‘pars pendula’;

073. Eb orientation: towards E – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1? 0? 0 0 0 0 0 – 1 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 tip; towards tibia;

074. Eb: separates early from – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 – 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 E; E and Eb tight;

075. Eb terminally: broad; – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 narrow;

076. Eb distal portion, ectal – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 – 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 margin: level; ridged;

077. Eb form, basally: flat, in – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 – 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 ectal view; globose;

078. Eb form: separate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 apophysis; barely separate

079. E spiral tip:separated; Eb – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 2 2 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 and E tips juxtaposed

080. Eb snout: short, snug – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 with E; long, separate;

081. Eb distal portion: entire; – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 1 1 1 – 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 with apophysis; ridged;

082. E tail: lobe simple; lobe – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 – 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 bifurcate, snug with Eb

083. Extra tegular sclerite: 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 absent; present;

SOMATIC MORPHOLOGY

084. AME (M): normal; on 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 tubercle; eye region raised

085. AME size vs. ALE (M): 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 subequal; smaller;

086. Chel. posterior margin: 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 toothed; smooth;

087. Chel. post. tooth no.: – 2 0 2 2 0 0 – –? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0??? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 four+ three; two; one;

0 0 0

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1 1 1 1 1 1

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088. Chel. furrow: smooth; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 denticulate;

089. Carapace hairiness: 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0??? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 sparse or patchy;

uniform;

090. Carap. pars stridens: 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 irregular; regular ridges;

091. Interocular area: flush 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 with clypeus; projecting;

092. Clypeus: concave or flat; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 projected;

093. Ocular area setae (M): 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 sparse; in a dense field;

094. Labium-sternum 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 connection: seam; fused;

095. Sternocoxal tubercles: 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 present; absent;

096. Pedicel location: anterior; 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0? 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 medial;

097. Abd. folium: spots or 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 blotches; central band;

098. Abdomen folium: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 irregular; distinctly notched

099. Dorsal band: edge light; – 1 1 – – 0 0 – 1? 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 edge dark; Ameridion;

100. Abd. dot pigment: silver; 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 non-reflective, dull;

101. SPR form: weakly keeled; 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 strongly keeled;

102. SPR pick number: three 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 or less; four or more;

103. SPR insertion: flush with 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 abd. surface; on ridge;

104. SPR mesal pointing picks: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 absent; present;

105. SPR mp-picks angle: 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 dorsal; perp. or ventral;

106. SPR: straight; distinctly 0 0 – 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 curved; argyrodine;

107. SPR dorsal pick 0 0 – 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 spacing:normal;

compressed;

108. SPR relative to pedicel: 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lateral; dorsal;

109. SPR setae: separate; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 tight;

110. Suprapedicillate 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1????? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ventrolat. proprio.: abs.;

pres.;

0 0 0

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1? 1

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1 1 1

1 1 1 Characters Ste Eno Sel Ara Are Koa Kor Ach The koh sp1 lor rup big dud vit pul nel rab nig eth may sal ana chi pac dom jab dub exi oct juc ari bae pur stu gua ele tos pan ori fra tun

111. Epiandrous fusule:in pair 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 of sockets; in a row;

112. Epiandrous fusule pair 2 0 2 3 3 1 0 1 1? 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1? 0 0 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 number:> ten; ≤ eight;

113. Colulus: present; absent; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 invaginated;

114. Colulus size: large; small; 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

115. Colular setae: present; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 absent;

116. Colular setae number (F): 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 – – – 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 three or more; two;

117. Palpal claw dentition 0 0 1 1 1? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (female): dense; sparse;

118. Palpal tibial dorsal? 0 2 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 trichobothria (female): 4;

3; 2; 5;

119. Femur I relative to II: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 subequal; robust, larger;

120. Leg IV rel. length (M): 1 1 1 0 0 0 0? 1? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 third; second; longest;

121. Leg IV rel. length (F): 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1? 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 third; second; longest;

122. Femur vs. metat.: metat. 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 longer; metat. shorter;

123. Metat. vs. tibia: metat.?????????? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 longer; metat. shorter;

124. Metatarsal ventral 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 macrosetae: normal;

thick;

125. Metatarsus vs. tibia?????????? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 length (male): longer;

shorter;

126. Metatarsal ventral 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 macrosetae: normal;

thick;

127. Tarsus IV comb: simple, 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 straight; curved hooks;

128. Tarsal organ size: small 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (normal); enlarged;

129. Tarsus IV central claw vs. 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1? 1 1?? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lat. (M): short; longer;

130. Tarsus IV central claw 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0?? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (F): normal; long; minute;

SPINNERETS

131. Spinneret insert.: normal; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 abd. extend. beyond;

0 0 0

1 1 0

1 1 1

– – – 0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0 0

0 0 0

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 0 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0

1? 1

1 1 1

– – – 0 0 0

1 1 1

0 0 0

0? 0

0? 0

0? 0

1? 1

1? 1

1? 1

1? 1

1? 1

1? 1

0 0 0

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 0

0 0 0

132. PLS FL spigot: = PLS CY; 0 0 1 – – 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1?????? 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 longer than PLS CY;

133. CY spigot bases: =<0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0?? 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ampullates; huge;

134. CY shaft surface: smooth; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0?? 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 grooved;

135. PLS AC spigot number: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0?? 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5+ four or less;

136. PLS FL spigot: present; 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0? 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 absent;

137. PLS posterior AG spigot 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1? 0 0?? 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 shape: normal; flat;

138. PLS theridiid AG 0 0 – 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1? 1 1?? 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 position: parallel; end to end;

139. PMS mAP spigot shaft: 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1? 1 1?? 1 1? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 short;> CY shafts;

BEHAVIOUR

140. Web form: sheet; cobweb; 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1?? 2 2?? 1????? 0 0 0 0? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 mesh web; dry line-web;

141. Knock-down lines: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0?? 0 0?? 0????? 1 1 1 1? 1 1 1 1?? 1 1 1 1 1 absent; present;

142. Sticky silk in web: 0 0 1???? 0 0?? 1 1???????? 1 1???? 0 0 1? 1 1 1? 1 1 present; absent;

143. Egg sac: spherical to? 0 0 1 1?? 0 0?? 0 0?? 0??????? 0?? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? lenticular; stalked;

144. Egg case: round; knob.;? 0 0 1 1?? 0 0?? 0 0?? 0??????? 0?? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? rhomb.; elong.; spiky;

145. Web construction: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 1 1 1?????? 1 1 1 1 1?? 1 1 1 1?? 1 1 1 1 1 solitary; communal;

146. Mating thread: present; 0 0??? 0? 1 1???????????????????????????? absent;

147. Adult females per nest: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 0 1 1?? 0 0?? 0 0 0 0 0?? 1 1 1 1?? 0? 1? 1 one; multiple;

[148. Behavior: solitary; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0? 1 2 2?? 0 0?? 1 1 1 1 1?? 2 1 1 2?? 1 1 2? 2 subsocial; quasisocial;]

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

0 0 0

1??

1??

? 0?

? 0?

1??

???

0 0?

1 1? 0? 0

0? 0

0? 0

0? 0

0? 0

1? 1

1? 1

1? 1

0? 0

1??

1??

0??

0??

1? 1

???

1??

2? 1

Rows represent characters and columns taxa. The first state is ‘0’, second ‘1’ etc. ‘?’ represent missing data, ‘–’ inapplicable states. Refer to ‘Character descriptions and comments’ for further information on characters. Taxon abbreviations: Ste, Steatoda   ; Eno, Enoplognatha   ; Sel, Selkirkiella   ; Ara, Argyrodes argyrodes   ; Are, Argyrodes elevatus   ; Koa, Kochiura aulica   ; Kor, Kochiura rosea   ; Ach, Achaearanea   ; The, Theridion   ; koh, A. kohi   ; lor, A. lorenzo   ; rup, A. rupununi   ; big, A. biglebowski   ; dud, A. dude   ; vit, A. vittatus   ; pul, A. pulchellus   ; nel, A. nelsoni   ; rab, A. rabus   ; nig, A. nigrescens   ; eth, A. ethicus   ; may, A. may   ; sal, A. sallee   ; ana, A. analyticus   ; chi, A. chickeringi   ; pac, A. pacificus   ; dom, A. domingo   ; jab, A. jabaquara   ; dub, A. dubiosus   ; exi, A. eximius   ; oct, A. octavius   ; juc, A. jucundus   ; ari, A. arizona   ; bae, A. baeza   ; pur, A. puravida   ; stu, A. studiosus   ; gua, A. guacamayos   ; ele, A. elevatus   ; tos, A. tosum   ; pan, A. pantanal   ; ori, A. oritoyacum   ; fra, A. fraternus   ; tun, A. tungurahua   . Abbreviations sp. 1–7 refer to undescribed Anelosimus spp.   numbered as in the text and figures.

(90 -0, Figs 14G View Figure 14 , 15A View Figure 15 ), three palpal tibial trichobothria (118 -1, Fig. 15G View Figure 15 ), robust femur I (119 -1, Fig. 55G View Figure 55 ) and communal (subsocial) behaviour (145 -1). The clade excluding Anelosimus sp. 1   (this undescribed species differs so much in genitalia from other species that it substantially changes the diagnosis of the Anelosimus   and may, for the sake of clarity, later be placed in a new genus) is supported by: elongate (wide) epigynal plate (3 -1, Figs 19C, D View Figure 19 , 44C, D, I, K View Figure 44 ), incised cymbial mesal margin (15 -1, see e.g. Agnarsson, 2004, fig. 22A), terminally ridged theridiid tegular apophysis (57 -1, Fig. 55D View Figure 55 ), lobed embolus tail (68 -1, Fig. 28B View Figure 28 ), abdomen pattern (98 -1, Figs 27H–M View Figure 27 , 49E View Figure 49 ), and absence of sticky silk in web (142 -1, but see Discussion on character 142).