Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835

Boudinot, Brendon E., Richter, Adrian K., Hammel, Jörg U., Szwedo, Jacek, Bojarski, Błażej & Perrichot, Vincent, 2022, Genomic-Phenomic Reciprocal Illumination: Desyopone hereon gen. et sp. nov., an Exceptional Aneuretine-like Fossil Ant from Ethiopian Amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Ponerinae), Insects 73 (796), pp. 1-19 : 8

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https://doi.org/ 10.3390/insects13090796



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Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835


Tribe Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835 .

Type genus. Ponera Latreille, 1804 .

Male diagnosis. In addition to the ponerine plesiomorphies, male Ponerini are distinguished by the following: (1) mandibles vestigial, with an enlarged mandalus, and being variably lobate, spatulate, spiniform, or nub-like (no exceptions known) [synapomorphy, homoplastic among Formicidae ]; (2) face between antennal toruli not distinctly raised, thus toruli directed more-or-less dorsally; if the intertorular region is raised, then this region is grooved in appearance due to impression of the supraclypeal area (=frontal triangle) ( Plectroctena and Psalidomyrmex with medial torular arches raised, but not face; Hagensia , Megaponera , Ophthalmopone , Simopelta , some Euponera , and some Odontomachus with intertorular region raised) [plesiomorphy]; (3) antennal toruli usually distant from posterior clypeal margin (some Brachyponera , many Leptogenys , Megaponera , and Ophthalmopone have toruli that are close to the clypeal margin) [plesiomorphy]; (4) meso- and metatibiae with two, one, or no spurs; (5) jugal lobe present or absent; (6) helcium distinctly infraaxial, i.e., situated well below the midheight of abdominal segment III ( Simopelta is an exception due to softening and reduction in size of the metasoma) [synapomorphy, homoplastic among Formicidae ]; (7) abdominal segment IV with or without cinctus; (8) cuticle usually not pruinose, being shiny and variably sculptured ( Belonopelta , Hagensia , Megaponera , and Ophthalmopone are exceptions) [plesiomorphy].

Remarks. Definitive infraaxiality in males, i.e., with abdominal tergum III rising high above the petiole, is a strong diagnostic condition for Ponerinae , as this is an infrequent apomorphic condition at the subfamily level. It also occurs in Dolichoderinae and Formicinae, and to some extent in Myrmeciinae and various Myrmicinae. Discothyrea (Proceratiinae) may approach infraaxiality, but the third abdominal tergum is low.











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