Brachiacantha hexaspina Gonzalez , Vetrovec & Nestor-Arriola, 2021

Nestor-Arriola, Jorge Ismael, Toledo-Hernandez, Victor Hugo, Solis, Angel, Gonzalez, Guillermo & Vetrovec, Jaroslav, 2021, The Brachiacantha Dejean, 1837 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) of Central America, ZooKeys 1024, pp. 157-196 : 157

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Brachiacantha hexaspina Gonzalez , Vetrovec & Nestor-Arriola

sp. nov.

Brachiacantha hexaspina Gonzalez, Vetrovec & Nestor-Arriola sp. nov. Figures 13-20 View Figures 13–20


Male, pinned, with genitalia in a separate microvial. Original labels: “PANAMÁ: Veraguas, 12.IX.2017, Santa Fé env., Alto de Piedra-Cerro Tute, 08°30.8'N, 81°07.2'W, 850-1360 m, lower montane forest, individual collecting, Fikàček, Seidel and Sekerka, lgt." ( NMP) (1♂). GoogleMaps


Costa Rica • 1♀; Alajuela, P. N. V . Tenorio, Rio Robles, Palmital , "arriba la Caliza"; 1000-1100 m; 21 June-16 Sep.; J. A. Azofeifa leg.; malaise trap; LN296500 View Materials _426300, #87178 ( MNCR) . 1♀; Limón, Res. Biol. Hitoy Cerere, est. Hitoy Cerere ; 100 m; Oct. 1992; G. Carballo leg.; L-N 184600_643300 ( MNCR) . 1♀; Limón, Valle de la Estrella, R . B. Hitoy Cerere, send. Espavel ; 560 m; 18 Sep.-5 Oct. 2003; B. Gamboa, E. Rojas and W. Arana leg.; malaise trap; L-S 401200_569800, #75488 ( MNCR) . 1♀; Puntarenas, Golfito, Est. Agujas, Cerro Rincon ; 645-745 m; 15 Apr.-15 May 2000; A. Azofeifa leg.; malaise trap; L_S_275500_521950, #56675, sp#106 ( MNCR) .


Dorsal color yellow with two black spots in each elytron. Pro-, meso-, and metatibia with external tooth. Male with ventrites II-V emarginate and depressed, forming a longitudinal fossa on abdomen. Male genitalia with penis guide symmetrical, apically notched, penis with a strong curvature at apical 1/6 toward external side.


Holotype. Male. Length 4 mm, width 2.9 mm; body oval, slightly elongate, convex. Dorsal color yellow except pronotum with two basal, irregular light brown transparent spots, roughly round, diameter approximately 2/5 the length of pronotum; scutellar shield dark brown; elytron with two black spots: humeral spot irregular and slightly subquadrate, sub-apical spot large, twice the size of the humeral spot, subquadrate and with the basal side trilobed, closer to the lateral edge than to the suture; elytral suture and anterior margin black, lateral margin black until apical ⅓ (Fig. 13 View Figures 13–20 ). Ventral surface yellow with head and prosternum brown; meso-, metasternum and abdomen dark brown; mouthparts and antennae yellow, mandibular apex black; legs yellow, trochanters light brown. Head punctures small, separated by less than half their diameter, each puncture larger than twice an eye facet; pronotal punctures as large as head punctures, separated by half to one diameter, more compact towards the edges; elytral punctures as large as pronotum punctures, separated by two diameters, irregular lines of large and apparently black dots on the anterior margin of elytra, the basal half of the lateral margin and each side of the elytral suture, the lines are separated from the elytral margins and the elytral suture by approximately the scutellar shield length; metaventral punctures as large as elytral punctures, separated by 1½× their diameters. Clypeus straight. Carinae on prosternal process straight, larger than half prosternum, convergent to prosternal anterior border without reaching it, not joined. Protibia flanged, basal tooth large, curved, as large as protibial width; mesotibia not flanged, basal tooth as large as protibial tooth; metatibia not flanged, basal tooth shorter than protibial tooth. Basal abdominal ventrite without setal tuft. Abdomen with postcoxal line on basal ventrite slightly flattened along posterior ventrite margin, slightly recurved towards the anterior margin at the external ⅓, without reaching the lateral or anterior borders; all ventrites with short and sparse pubescence at sides, more long and less sparse from I-V; ventrite punctures variable, fine and dense, larger towards the lateral and posterior edges. Ventrites II-V emarginated and depressed at middle, ventrite VI flattened, slightly depressed centrally, posterior margin emarginated. Ventrites III-IV with a tubercle at each side of the emargination, II and V only with a slight convexity. Ventrites I and II with long, bushy pubescence at middle, III-V glabrous at the middle (Fig. 14 View Figures 13–20 ). Genitalia with penis guide longer than parameres, symmetrical, wide, basal ⅓ with almost straight sides, abruptly wide at apical ⅔, wider at apex, sides of the wide part slightly emarginated, apex slightly emarginated (Figs 15 View Figures 13–20 , 20 View Figures 13–20 ), apex sinuous in lateral view (Fig. 16 View Figures 13–20 ); parameres wide basally, narrowed to apex, apex rounded, setae rising from the apex border (Figs 16 View Figures 13–20 , 19 View Figures 13–20 ); penis curved in basal ½, bended forming a right angle at the apical 1/6, narrowed before apex, alae narrowed apically (Fig. 18 View Figures 13–20 ), basal capsule crested, heavily sclerotized, inner arm of basal capsule perpendicular to penis, long and slender with parallel sides, external arm in the direction of the tube, twice as long as wide, ending in a short projection (Fig. 17 View Figures 13–20 ).

Female. Similar to male except the abdomen characters; ventral surface with head, prosternum, metasternum and abdomen orange; legs, mouthparts, and antennae yellowish orange. Mesotibial basal tooth smaller than protibial tooth; metatibial basal tooth shorter and wider than mesotibial tooth. Genitalia not examined.


Length 3.6 to 4.6 mm. Width 2.8-3 mm.


The name derives from Greek hexa (= six) and Latin spine (= thorn), referring to the six teeth of the tibiae, long and curved like rose thorns.

Type locality.

PANAMÁ, Veraguas: Santa Fé, Alto de Piedra , 08°30.8'N, 81°07.2'W GoogleMaps .


Costa Rica and Panamá.


This species is easily identifiable by the pale dorsal coloration and the toothed pro-, meso- and metatibia. The presence of tibial spines on the middle and hind legs is a feature not previously observed in the genus. According to the groups defined by Leng (1911), this species belongs to group V, characterized by the presence of an abdominal canal that covers ventrites II-V, within which only B. cachensis Gorham has a similar design but whose male genitalia are different. Within the groups defined by Gordon et al (2014) for the South American species based on the genitalia of the male, this species does not correspond to any of them, due to the notch at the apex of the penis guide. Despite these peculiarities, the similarities in the abdominal ventrite modifications with other species from Central America, the lack of abdominal primary pores, and the presence of protibial tooth make it prudent to keep it in Brachiacantha .

Species not associated with males.


Natal Museum


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium


Museo Nacional de Costa Rica


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute