Łukowiak, Magdalena, 2015, Late Eocene siliceous sponge fauna of southern Australia: reconstruction based on loose spicules record, Zootaxa 3917 (1), pp. 1-65 : 30-31

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3917.1.1

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name



Family Petrosiidae View in CoL van Soest, 1980

The stout strongyles are common in the studied samples ( Figs. 16 View FIGURE 16 A–F). These elongated bean-shaped spicules of size ranging from 100 to about 400 µm are characteristic to haplosclerid Petrosia sp. ( Vosmaer, 1885). Also, another haplosclerid genus, Haliclona (Reniera) Schmidt, 1862 has spicules similar in morphology but the spicules studied here resemble those of Petrosia the most. Today, petrosiids are widely distributed in shallow and deeper warm-temperate to cold waters in many parts of the world ( Desqueyroux-Faúndez & Valentine 2002). There are four species of Petrosia recorded from the Australian coasts: P. (Petrosia) pigmentosa Fromont, 1991 , P. hebes Lendenfeld, 1888 , P. (Petrosia) nigricans Lindgren, 1897 , and P. (Strongylophora) strongylata Thiele, 1903 (Atlas of Living Australia). Unfortunately, the assignment of studied spicules to one of these species is not possible because of their very simple morphology.

The spicules of such shape are common in the fossil record and were described among others from the Devonian of Poland by Hurcewicz (1985, pl. 2, fig. 2; described as Reniera , but this paper is highly unreliable—see Rigby et al. 2001, and Pisera personal comm.). Such strongyles were also described from the Cretaceous (Maastrichtian & Campanian) sediments of NW Germany by Schrammen (1924, pl. 4, figs. 42–45), Early Cretaceous of N Germany by Rüst (1885), and by Hinde (1888) from the Early Carboniferous of England (described as Reniera clavata Levinsen, 1887 ; pl. 9, fig. 5).

GBIF Dataset (for parent article) Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF