Aleiodes nigristemmaticum (Enderlein, 1920)
Shaw, Scott R., Shimbori, Eduardo M. & Penteado-Dias, Angelica M., 2020, A revision of the Aleiodes bakeri (Brues) species subgroup of the A. seriatus species group with the descriptions of 18 new species from the Neotropical Region, ZooKeys 964, pp. 41-107: 41
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|Aleiodes nigristemmaticum (Enderlein, 1920)|
Rhogas nigristemmaticum Enderlein, 1920: 156.
Aleiodes nigristemmaticum : Marsh & S.R. Shaw, 1998: 400. New combination, lectotype designation, and distribution.
Lectotype, female. Mexico, Chiapas ( PASW). Examined by SRS (see Marsh and S.R. Shaw, 1998).
Non-type material examined.
In addition to the specimens studied by Marsh and S.R. Shaw (1998), which were re-examined, the following specimens were studied: 1 female, BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, Nuflo de Chavez, xi.1963 ( CNCI). 30 females, BRAZIL: Encruzilhada, 960m, light culls, xi.1972, M. Alvarenga ( CNCI). 1 female, BRAZIL: M. Gerais, Pedra Azul, xi.1972 ( CNCI). 15 females and 2 males, BRAZIL: Mato Grosso do Sul [MS], Aquidauana, 20°25'54"S, 55°39'21"W, Malaise trap, 26.x.2011, Lamas & Nihei cols. ( DCBU). 1 female, BRAZIL: Ceará [CE], Crato, Chapada do Araripe, 07°13'56"S, 39°26'16.5"W, light trap, 10.ii.2013, A.S. Soares & E.M. Shimbori cols. ( DCBU). 1 female, BRAZIL: Bahia [BA], Morro do Chapéu, Pq. Est. Morro do Chapéu, 11°24'44"S, 41°19'55"W, light trap, 19.iv.2013 ( DCBU). 6 females and 3 males, BRAZIL: Piauí [PI], Coronel José Dias, PARNA Serra da Capivara, Pedra Furada, 08°50'11"S, 42°32'55"W, light trap, 20.iii.2013, A.S. Soares & E.M. Shimbori cols. ( DCBU). 2 males, BRAZIL: Pernambuco [PE], Agrestina, Fazenda Amapá, 11-17.vi.1971, Exp[edition] ABC- MZUSP ( MZUSP). 6 females, BRAZIL: Goiás [GO], Cabeceiras (Lagoa Formosa), 24-27.x.1964, Exp[edition] Dep. Zool. ( MZUSP). 5 females, BRAZIL: São Paulo [SP], Luiz Antônio, Mogi Guaçu River, light: 1 female, 27.iii.1987, L.A. Joaquim col., 1 female, 18.ii.1988, L.A. Joaquim col., 3 females, 2.iii.1994, A.S. Soares col. ( DCBU); 1 female, BRAZIL: São Paulo [SP], Caraguatatuba, 40m, (Res. Flor.), 2.iv.1962, K. Lenko col. ( MZUSP). 1 female, COLOMBIA: Vichada PNN, El Tupparo Bosque Sabana, 5°21'N, 67°51'W, 100m, Malaise, 15-19.vii.2000, W. Villalba leg. M511 (IHCB). 1 male, CUBA: Soledad, 25.ii.1925, Geo. Salt ( CNCI). 1 male, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: La Vega Province, Bonao, 05.ix.1997, UV light, hotel courtyard, Baranowski R. ( CNCI). 1 female, REP. DOMINICANA: La Cumbre, 600m, L. Masner ( CNCI). 1 male, HONDURAS: Comayagua, along road north of Meambar, 13 December 1987, R.D. Cave, col. ( UWIM). 1 female, MEXICO: Chiapas, 16°58'N, 91°47'W, 6-9.xi.1978, J. Rawlins ( CNCI). 1 female, 2 males, VENEZUELA: Cagua Edo. Aragua, i.1974, light trap ( UWIM).
Description of non-type specimens.
Body length 5.9-7.5 mm. Fore wing length 4.8-6.3 mm.
Head. In dorsal view eye length/temple 3.0-4.0. Eye height/head width 0.39-0.44. Eye height/minimum distance between eyes 1.0-1.3. OD/POL 2.0-3.3. OD/OOL 2.0-2.8. Frons excavated. Frons lateral carina present. Occipital carina dorsally complete and nearly straight, or weakly bent mid-dorsally. Occiput in dorsal view nearly straight, not indented medially. Occipital carina ventrally meeting hypostomal carina. Mid-longitudinal crest at upper face present. Hypoclypeal depression/face width 0.33-0.36. Malar space/eye height 0.20-0.24. Face height/width 0.7-0.8. Clypeus height/width 0.7-0.8. Clypeus convex, granulate. Sculpture of head shiny granular-coriaceous. Face transversely rugose-striate at dorsal half, or mostly transversely rugose-striate, medially granular-coriaceous below crest.
Antenna. Antennal segments 51-55. Antenna/body length ~ 1.2. Scape/pedicel length 1.8-1.9. Length of first/second flagellomere 1.1-1.2. Fourth flagellomere length/apical width 1.8-2.0. Tip of apical segment of antenna nipple-shaped.
Mesosoma. Length/height 1.7-1.8. Width of mesoscutum/width of head 0.6-0.7. Mesoscutum length/width 1.0-1.2. Pronotal collar/vertex 0.6-0.9. Prescutellar sulcus with complete mid-longitudinal carina plus two or three pairs or lateral carinae more or less defined. Mesoscutum posterior border with distinct complete carina. Metanotum with mid-longitudinal carina present anteriorly. Metanotum mid-pit present, delimited by carinae. Mid-longitudinal carina of propodeum complete or nearly complete, usually irregular posteriorly. Ventral mid-line of mesopleuron set within smooth sulcus; pit at ventral mid-line absent, or weakly indicated. Notauli weakly indicated anteriorly, indistinctly crenulate. Sternaulus absent. Sculpture of mesosoma mostly granulate. Pronotum mostly rugose-costate laterally, short subventral longitudinal carina present. Mesopleuron rugose centrally and anteriorly. Subalar groove sparsely crenulate. Mid-posterior region of mesoscutum rugose, with a short mid-longitudinal carina posteriorly. Mesoscutellar trough entirely costate. Metanotum mostly smooth, with one or two pairs of lateral carinae. Propodeum rugose posteriorly, or mostly rugose.
Wings. Fore wing: Stigma length/height 3.1-3.4. Vein r/2RS 0.9-1.1. Vein r/RS+Mb 1.2-1.5. Vein 3RSa/2RS 1.3-1.6. Vein 3RSa/2M 0.76-0.85. Vein 3RSa/3RSb 0.36-0.44. Vein 1CUa/1CUb 0.8-0.9. Vein 1CUa/2CUa 1.4-1.8. Vein 1cu-a weakly inclivous, or nearly vertical. Vein 1M weakly curved basally. Vein RS+Ma distinctly curved. Vein M+CU virtually straight. Vein 1-1A very weakly sinuate apically. Vein 1a absent. Second submarginal cell trapezoidal. Subbasal cell glabrous, with two parallel rows of short setae subapically, and a narrow patch of setae just below vein 1CUa, very few scattered setae may be present medially. Basal cell mostly evenly setose, sparsely setose posteriorly, with a bare spot posteriorly. Hind wing: Vein RS bent at basal 0.3, with vein r present. Marginal cell narrowest at base. Vein M+CU/1M 1.3-1.6. Vein M+CU/r-m 1.2-1.7. Vein m-cu present, spectral. Vein m-cu position relative to vein r-m antefurcal, or nearly interstitial. Vein 2-1A absent. Basal cell evenly, rather sparsely setose, posteriorly with small bare area.
Hind legs. Femur length/width 5.3-5.6. Length of tibia/tarsi 0.9-1.0. Length of basitarsus/tarsi 2-4 0.7-0.8. Sculpture of hind coxa dorsally granulate. Tarsal claws not pectinate.
Metasoma. T1 length/apical width 1.1-1.3. T2 length/apical width 0.8-0.9. T3 length/apical width 0.5-0.7. Mid-longitudinal carina extending until basal 0.7 of T3. Metasoma sculpture T1, T2 and basal 0.7 of T3 rugose-costate, remainder terga granular-coriaceous. Ovipositor sheath/hind basitarsus 0.3-0.5. Apex of ovipositor sheaths truncate; apical point absent.
Color (Figs 69-72 View Figures 69–72 ). Body entirely pale yellow to brownish yellow (variation among specimens); antenna varying from mostly yellow to entirely dark brown, usually dark brown basally gradually lighter to apically pale yellow, but commonly darker at apex (lighter only at middle); scape yellow or honey yellow with brown lateral stripe, pedicel brown or dark brown. Wings hyaline, veins and stigma yellow, but vein r and 1M darker, stigma rarely with a nearly central infuscate dot. Legs mostly brownish yellow, usually trochanter and trochantellus slightly lighter and femur slightly darker than remainder legs; all fifth tarsomeres mostly brown, darker than remainder tarsi.
Male. Essentially as in female. Body length 5.5-7.0 mm; fore wing length 4.3-5.4 mm; antenna with 48-50 segments.
Traditionally this very common and widespread species has been recognized by the predominantly yellow body color, yellow stigma, and sharply contrasting black ocellar triangle (hence the name nigristemmaticum ) (Figs 69 View Figures 69–72 , 70 View Figures 69–72 ). The following characters are also useful for distinguishing this species from others treated in this paper: fore wing vein r approximately as long as 2RS and shorter than 3RSa, second submarginal cell trapezoidal (Fig. 71 View Figures 69–72 ); antenna brown basally, gradually lightening to light brown apically, scape and pedicel mostly honey yellow with brown lateral stripe (Fig. 69 View Figures 69–72 ); fourth flagellomere 1.8-1.9 × longer than wide; occiput not receding mid-dorsally (Fig. 70 View Figures 69–72 ); fifth tarsomeres darker than remainder of tarsi in all legs (Fig. 69 View Figures 69–72 ).
Parasitoid of Mocis latipes ( Guenée.) and Mocis spp ( Erebidae , Erebinae ), mostly feeding on grasses ( Poaceae ), including several crops. Additional details regarding biological information are given by Marsh and S.R. Shaw (1998).
USA (Florida and Mississippi); Mexico; Honduras; Cuba; Costa Rica; Venezuela; Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Dominican Republic, Panama, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, and Suriname. Its widespread distribution may be a reflection of the distribution and pest status of the host, which feeds on grasses, as well as crops such as corn and rice. This species is recorded from Florida to Southern Brazil.
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