Corythalia porphyra Bruening,
Arndt Bruning & Bruce Cutler, 1995, Description of Corythalia porphyra nov. sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), a jumping spider of a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica, Beiträge zur Araneologie 4, pp. 15-24: -1
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|Corythalia porphyra Bruening|
1. Life history
Corythalia porphyra n. sp. occurs in the lowlands of Corcovado National Park. Osa Peninsula. on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica . The habitat is a tropical lowland wet forest. It may possibly be found in other sites of tropical lowland wet forest as well. Corythalia porphyra lives exclusively in leaf litter. it was never found in higher strata of vegetation. C. porphyra was found only in the lowlands of Corcovado National Park. ridges or hills are apparently not colonized by the species. ln leaf litter mean densities are about 5 individuals/mz. but mav reach up to 12 individuals/ mz. if large amounts of appropriate dead rolled leaves where females build their nests are available. Females guard the eggs and young against predators and defend the nests and the area around it against conspecific females. Egg clutches (3 - 5 eggs) are laid successively and up to 15 clutches were counted in a single nest. Females stay with the nests for months and hunt in close vicinity to it. Eggs hatch after about two weeks. iuveniles leave the nest after another two weeks. The spiders prey mainly on collembola (40 Z). small ants are taken also (25 Z). as well as other small insects. Males wander in search of females. the distance covered may be up to 15 m per day in more or less one direction.
lf males encounter other conspecific males they display agonisticly which includes embracing. grappling and pushing. The opponents move to within a close distance of each other and begin to wave the first two pairs of legs creating a fan (fig. 1).
The frequency of waving may be up to 2 to 3 waves per second. The body is held up straight, supported by the two hind pairs of legs and the palpi hang downward. Leg waving is aided by lowering and raising of the body. The body is lowered to the ground by bending the third pair of legs. In this position the chelicerae almost touch the ground. then the body is raised explosively and the first two pairs of legs are stretched outward as much as possible when the cephalothorax reaches its highest position.
Males show a distinct courtship behaviour which is very different compared to the agonistic display. After visual contact with a female. males lift the first and often second legs as well. The femora are held against the cephalothorax and the tibiae and tarsi are bent inwards so that the tarsi approach each other (fig. 2). The palpi are lifted and retracted in front of the chelicerae and the cephalothorax is raised. Further approaches towards the female are performed by zig-zag-dancing. Females raise the front legs towards the males and vibrate the legs up and down. then turn away raising the cephalothorax to maximum height, abdomen almost touching the ground and turn around slowly in front of the male (360 °) as if to show themselves to the males (fig. 2). Female palpi are lifted as high as possible with the palpal femora held against the front edge of the cephalothorax and the palpal tibiae held straight forward in front of the ALE like horns. Copulation takes place outside or inside the nest. Outside the nest courtship is performed visually. inside the nest it is performed with vibratory signals. Cohabitation of males in nests of subadult females takes place. The species is active during all months of the year. even at the peak of the rainy season.
2.1. Naming and location of the material
The species name is created after the greek 'porphyros' which means bright red. lt refers to the bright red markings in the ocular quadrangle of the cephalothorax in both sexes which are created by red scales. This species is described in order to provide a name for use in future publications by the first author. Types are located at the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBIO). 3100 Santo Domingo. Heredia, Costa Rica. Paratypes are located at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt. Germany.
2.2. Male description
2.2.1. Cephalothorax. colour in life
Integument of carapace dark brown. postocular region covered with forward pointing red scales. area covered with the red scales marking the boundary of the postocular plateau forming a red U-like figure. legs of the red U bordered by PLE. thoracic slope abruptly beginning behind U-shaped area. descending steeply. thoracic slope without scales. submarglnal band missing. area between PLE and PME covered with yellowish to almost orange scales. equidistant between PLE two distinct areas covered with red scales. each area of about the size of PLE or slightly larger. markings of cephalothorax shown in fig. 3. and fig. 1. Side view of cephalothorax in fig. 4.
Anterior part of ocular quadrangle and region around AME and ALE densely covered with yellowish scales. clypeus covered with two transverse rows of elongated and often curved yellowish club-like scales. one of these parallel rows forming the boundary of the clypeus. the scales at the boundary of the clypeus often remarkably elongated and undulating. Elongated, often undulating. club-like yellowish scales form an eyering for AME and partly for the inner border of the ALE. average size relation AME ALE PME PLE = 1.0 0.7 0.17 0.59
Average relative length of cephalothorax width of cephalothorax = 1 0.76. Average length of cephalothorax 1.76 mm. average width of cephalothorax 1.33 mm (n = 20). Average breadth of cephalothorax at level of ALE about 3.3 times the diameter of AME. Height of cephalothorax about 0.8 to 0.9 times the width and about 0.6 times the length of cephalothorax.
Length of ocular quadrangle (distance between anterior edge of ALE and posterior edge of PLE) about 0.6 times of its width (distance between external edges of ALE). AME separated from one another by about 7% of their diameter. Diameter of AME about 0.23 times of length of cephalothorax.
2.2.2. Abdomen, colour in life
General appearance of the integument dark (subdermally). densely covered with long dark setae. anterior region dorsally covered with elongated yellow scales. the covered area resembling an ' n'. the closed side of the ' n' towards the cephalothorax. two small areas covered with yellow scales situated behind the prolongation of the legs of the ' n' In front of the spinnerets a lighter area with thin transverse bars. markings shown in fig. 3 and fig. 1.
Height of clypeus about 0.5 times the diameter of AME. bearing two rows of slender scalelike. partly undulating yellowish setae. one row runs parallel to the border of the clypeus. the other marks the edge of the latter (fig. 5). Below the AME rise a few long stout bristles pointing upwards.
Not produced. moderately robust. about 1.16 times as long as broad (at base). fang short. promarginal ridge bearing a row of stiff long undulated bristles with a single twopeaked tooth at the end of the ridge. a single tooth at the end of the retromarginal ridge. shape as in females. see fig. 10.
2.2.5. Maxillae and labium
Maxillae almost twice as long as wide. slightly convergent. flatter than maxillae of female. Outer margin at the inserting point of palpal coxa where the diameter is the widest forms a distinct edge whereas in females the margin at this point is more rounded.
Lip generally triangularly shaped. slightly longer than width at base. For comparison see maxillae and labium of female in fig. 11.
Broadly scutiform. length about 1.2 times of width. shape as shown in fig. 6
Legs 1 to 111 with conspicuous fringes of black setae on femora. patellae. tibiae and metatarsi. in leg 111 less noticeable. leg IV inconspicuous. Anterolateral. distal part of femora I to Ill bear light. reflective long setae. Femora of the legs flattened. the second and first femora the most. the fourth femora the least ﬂattened. Tarsi I to lv light. almost white. particular noticeable in tarsi I and Il. contrasting with the black appearance of the other leg parts. Short pale bristles. resembling short trichobothria but never bent at the tip. are often found together with the trichobothria. and laterally on the tibiae and metatarsi as well. Relative length of the stout legs: 3. 4. 2. 1 (3 the longest).
2.2.8. Trlchobothria and tarsal claws
Tibiae 1 and ll with 5 trichobothria. tibiae Ill and IV with 6 trichobothria. all metatarsi with 4 trichobothria in a row. Tarsi I and Il with 3 trichobothria in a row. proclaws with about 10 teeth and retroclaws with 5 teeth, same as in female. Tarsi III and IV with 3 trichobothria in a row. proclaws and retroclaws each with S teeth.
The palpi are typical for the genus Corythalia . The embolus is stout and makes an almost full turn. Femur and patella are covered dorsal-retrolateral with yellow scales in addition to long black setae. The tibial apophysis is robust and most often shows a simple spur which ends in a tip. or very rarely it is more or less bifurcated (figs. 7 and 8). A simple tip apophysis is not the result of a broken off bifurcated apophysis. The extent of the bifurcated part of the apophysis of a single individual may differ from one palp to the other.
2.3. Female description
2.3.1. Cephalothorax, colour in life
lntegument of carapace lighter brown as in males. postocular region covered with elongated. forward pointing red scales. area covered with the red scales marking the boundary of the postocular plateau forming a red U-like figure. legs of the red U bordered by PLE. thoracic slope abruptly beginning behind U-shaped area. descending steeply. thoracic slope without scales. submarginal band missing. hairlike bristles raising along boundary of postocular plateau. pointing upward. other forward pointing hairlike bristles along and directly below boundary of ocular quadrangle. ocular quadrangle with forward pointing setae. area between PLE and PME sparsely covered with yellowish scales. equidistant between PLE two distinct areas covered with red scales. each area of about the size of PLE. region around AME and ALE sparsely covered with yellowish to whitish setae. eye ring of whitish to yellowish setae around AME as well as around parts of ALE. between AME rises a stout long upward pointing curved bristles, a second bristle below AME on the clypeus. markings of cephalothorax as shown in fig. 9 and fig. 2. Average size relation AME ALE PME PLE = 1.0 0.66 0.13 0.55. Average relative length of cephalothorax width of cephalothorax = 1 0.74. Average length of cephalothorax 1.84 mm, average width of cephalothorax 1.36 mm (n = 25).
2.3.2. Abdomen, colour in life
General appearance of the integument dark (subdermally). densely covered with long dark setae. yellowish scales form a conspicious abdominal marking different to male. marking as shown in fig. 9 and fig. 2. Distally. in front of the spinnerets. there is a lighter area with thin transverse bars.
Height of clypeus about 0.4 times the diameter of AME, sparsely covered with slender scalelike whitish setae below AME. the border of clypeus bearing the same setae as well as a few longer bristles. Below AME rises a long stout bristle pointing upwards.
Not produced, moderately robust. about 1.17 times as long as broad (at base). fang short, promarginal ridge bearing a row of stiff long undulated bristles with a single two-peaked tooth at the end of ridge. retrornarginal ridge bearing a single tooth at the end of it (fig. 10).
2.3.5. Maxılllae and labium
Maxillae about twice as long as wide. slightly convergent, maxillae of female not as flat as maxillae of male. the outer margin at the inserting point of palpal coxa where the diameter is the widest more rounded than in male. shape as shown in fig. 11.
Labium generally triangularly shaped. slightly longer than width at base (fig. 11).
Broadly scutiform, length about 1.2 times of width. shape as in male (fig. ó).
Stout. without fringes. Some variation between individuals. as spines present or absent at certain positions. Relative length females: 184.108.40.206 (4 the longest).
to whether of legs in
2.3.8. Trichobothria and tarsal claws
Tibiae each with 5 trichobothria dorsally. metatarsi and tarsi with 3 trichobothria in a row.
Proclaw of tarsi I and ll with about io teeth and retroclaw with 5 teeth. all teeth becoming smaller regularly towards proximal end. proximal teeth of proclaw difficult to resolve, very close set. ln tarsi Ill and IV proclaw with 5 teeth. retroclaw with 6 teeth.
Outer appearance: Visible are two spiral ducts situated on the surface of the epigynal plate and two bean shaped bodies below and interior of the outer spirals (fig. 12).
Dissected epigyne: The inner. broad end of each of the two spirals is in each case connected with another duct which leads to a more or less beanshaped body. The two beanshaped bodies taper off on one side and end in a bent back tip (fig. 13).
3. Colour of male and female after preservation in alcohol
After some months of preservation in 70% alcohol the red and yellow scales fade and turn white. Nevertheless, the scale-markings of cephalothorax and abdomen of both females and males are still easily visible. However. in old individuals the red scales of the cephalothorax may be scraped off. But even in aged males the scales of the clypeus and around the AME and ALE remain conspicous.
4. Relationship to other species
Internal structure of the epigyne of Corythalia porphyra resembles that of Corythalia xanthoga (Crane). and less so that of Corythalia fulgipedia (Crane) . The agonistic behaviour of the males of these two species described by Crane (1948) also show similarities in that legs are raised into a fan position. Unlike _C.. porphyra males of C, xanthopa raise the third and fourth pair of legs, supporting the body with the first and second. The palpi are held close together in front of the clypeus. the clypeus is covered with yellow setae. _ Ç _. fulgipedia raises the second and third pair of legs. the body is supported by the first and the last. The palpi are held downwards. Although courthship display of these two species is different compared to that of Corythalia porphyra . it still seems that there is a close relationship among these species.
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