Ranitomeya Bauer 1988

Brown, Jason L., Twomey, Evan, Amézquita, Adolfo, Souza, Moisés Barbosa De, Caldwell, Jana- Lee P., Lötters, Stefan, May, Rudolf Von, Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto, Mejía-Vargas, Daniel, Perez-Peña, Pedro, Pepper, Mark, Poelman, Erik H., Sanchez-Rodriguez, Manuel & Summers, Kyle, 2011, A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae) 3083, Zootaxa 3083 (1), pp. 1-120: 39-40

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http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3083.1.1

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Ranitomeya Bauer 1988


Ranitomeya Bauer 1988  

Account authors: J.L. Brown, E. Twomey

Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 , 4 View FIGURE 4 , 9–45 View FIGURE 9 View FIGURE 10 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 View FIGURE 19 View FIGURE 20 View FIGURE 21 View FIGURE 22 View FIGURE 23 View FIGURE 24 View FIGURE 25 View FIGURE 26 View FIGURE 27 View FIGURE 28 View FIGURE 29 View FIGURE 30 View FIGURE 31 View FIGURE 32 View FIGURE 33 View FIGURE 34 View FIGURE 35 View FIGURE 36 View FIGURE 37 View FIGURE 38 View FIGURE 39 View FIGURE 40 View FIGURE 41 View FIGURE 42 View FIGURE 43 , Tables 2–7

Type species. Dendrobates reticulatus Boulenger, 1884   “1883”

Proposed sister group. Andinobates   gen. nov.

Definition and diagnosis. Unambiguous synapomorphies include: 5 nuclear and 16 mitochondrial synapomorphies (based upon the dataset used in this study, Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 , Tables 2 and 3); distinctive pale reticulation on limbs and venter present ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 c-i and Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 h-i). Secondary losses of this pale limb reticulation appear to have occurred in R. yavaricola   and R. summersi   , some morphs of R. fantastica   , R. imitator   and R. sirensis   . Other features include: adult SVL less than 21 mm; adults typically brightly colored, often with bright yellow, red, or green dorsal coloration (either uniform, spotted, or striped); dorsolateral stripe, if present, extending to top of thigh (vs. not reaching thigh in Andinobates   ), ventrolateral stripe and oblique lateral stripe present or absent; Distinctive, bright coloration on throat present (usually yellow, orange or red); dorsal skin texture nearly smooth to weakly granular; head narrower than body; teeth absent; vocal slits present in males; finger I greatly reduced and shorter than finger II; finger discs II–IV greatly expanded; in adults disc on finger III at least two times wider than distal end of adjacent phalanx; thenar tubercle conspicuous (commonly vestigial, occasionally absent); toe discs III–V moderately expanded; toe webbing absent; median lingual process absent; larval vent tube dextral; larval oral disc emarginated; larvae without medial gap in papillae on posterior labium (known in all species expect R. cyanovittata   and R. ventrimaculata   , Table 4); scansorial; adults use arboreal phytotelmata for reproduction and deposit eggs away from or at edge of water in phytotelmata (Table 6); tadpoles deposited individually, typically by male; small clutches (2– 6 eggs, Table 6); vertebrae 2 and 3 unfused (known in R. amazonica   , R. toraro   sp. nov., R. imitator   , R. variabilis   , R. vanzolinii   , R. fantastica   , R. reticulata   and R. sirensis   ).

Distribution. This genus occurs within Amazonian rainforests of Brazil (States: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia), Bolivia (Department: Pando), Colombia (Departments: Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo (tentative), Vaupés), Ecuador (Provinces: Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Sucumbíos), French Guiana (Arrondissements: Cayenne, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni), Guyana (District: Potaro-Siparuni) and Peru (Departments 1: Amazonas, Cusco, Huánuco, Junín, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Pasco, San Martín, Ucayali). Species within this genus occur between sea level and 1600 m, Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 .

Species included (16). Dendrobates amazonicus Schulte 1999   ; Ranitomeya benedicta Brown, Twomey, Pepper & Sanchez-Rodriguez 2008   ; Ranitomeya cyanovittata Perez-Peña, Chavez, Twomey & Brown 2010   ; Ranitomeya defleri Twomey & Brown 2009   ; Dendrobates fantasticus Boulenger 1884   “1883”; Dendrobates flavovittatus Schulte 1999   ; Dendrobates imitator Schulte 1986   with its junior synonyms Dendrobates imitator intermedius Schulte 1999   and Dendrobates imitator yurimaguensis Schulte 1999   ( Vences & Lötters 2000, Lötters et al. 2003

1. Since 2009, Peru officially reclassified ‘Departmentos’ as ‘Regiones’. At the time of writing, however, ‘region’ is infrequently used in scientific literature. Here we use Departments as a synonym of Regions.

and this paper); Dendrobates reticulatus Boulenger 1884   “1883” with its junior synonym Dendrobates tinctorius igneus Melin 1941   ; Dendrobates sirensis Aichinger 1991   with its junior synonyms Dendrobates biolat Morales 1992   and Dendrobates lamasi Morales 1992   (this paper); R. summersi Brown, Twomey, Pepper & Sanchez-Rodriguez 2008   ; Ranitomeya toraro   sp. nov. (this paper); Dendrobates uakarii Brown, Schulte & Summers 2006   ; Dendrobates vanzolinii Myers 1982   ; Dendrobates variabilis Zimmermann & Zimmermann 1988   ; Dendrobates ventrimaculatus Shreve 1935   with its junior synonym Dendrobates duellmani Schulte 1999   (this paper); Ranitomeya yavaricola Perez-Peña, Chavez, Twomey & Brown 2010   .

Remarks. Our definition of Ranitomeya   is essentially equal to the definition of Caldwell & Myers (1990) ventrimaculatus   group. The genus apparently diverged from Andinobates   approximately 14 mya during the mid-Miocene ( Santos et al. 2009).