Parhydraena toro, Perkins, 2009

Perkins, Philip D., 2009, Revisions of the genera Parhydraena Orchymont, Protozantaena Perkins, Decarthrocerus Orchymont, and Parhydraenopsis nomen novum, aquatic and humicolous beetles from Africa and Madagascar, and comparative morphology of the tribe Parhydraenini (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae), Zootaxa 2038, pp. 1-119 : 39-40

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Parhydraena toro

new species

Parhydraena toro new species

( Figs. 20, 64, 66, 95)

Type material. Holotype (male): South Africa: Western Cape Province, Kirstenbosch, Table Mountain , humus, ZA 39, 33° 58' S, 18° 25' E, xi.1960, N. Leleup. Deposited in the TMSA GoogleMaps . Paratypes (710): South Africa: Western Cape Province, Cape Town , 33° 55' S, 18° 25' E, 1897, L. Peringuey (3 SAMC) GoogleMaps ; Cape Town, Kirstenbosch Nat. Bot. Garden, Skeleton Gorge , afromontane forest on SE slope; FMHD #2004-004, berl., flood debris, stream edge, elev. 200 m, 33° 59' S, 18° 25' E, 24.i.2004, Newton, Solodovnikov, Clarke (1074) (681 FMNH) GoogleMaps ; Cape Town, Kirstenbosch , on damp cliff-face in sandy gravel, 33° 55' S, 18° 25' E, 28.ii.1954, J. Balfour-Browne (3 BMNH) GoogleMaps ; Kirstenbosch, Table Mountain , humus, ZA 39, 33° 58' S, 18° 25' E, 1–30.xi.1960, N. Leleup (10 TMSA) GoogleMaps ; Muizenberge, Waterval , humus, (ZA 51), 34° 6' S, 18° 27' E, 1–30.xii.1960, N. Leleup (2 TMSA) GoogleMaps ; Stellenbosch , 33° 54' S, 18° 51' E, 1897, Peringuey (6 SANC) GoogleMaps ; Table Mount., Orange Kloof , humus, (ZA 44), 33° 58' S, 18° 25' E, 1–30.xii.1960, N. Leleup (2 TMSA) GoogleMaps ; Table Mountain, Blinkwater Falls , under stones at base of falls, 33° 58' S, 18° 25' E, 6.i.1949, B. Malkin (1 BMNH) GoogleMaps ; Table Mountain, Blinkwater Ravine , 33° 58' S, 18° 25' E, 5.vii.1951, Brinck & Rudebeck (SSAE Stn. 351) (1 LUM) GoogleMaps ; Table Mtn., bei Kirstenbosch, Skeleton Gorge , 33° 58' S, 18° 28' E, 3.iv.1997, Hess & Heckes (1 NMW) GoogleMaps .

Differential diagnosis. Recognized among toro group species by the elytral series and intervals each with a unilinear row of large granules, the coarse, U-shaped punctures on the pronotal relief, the generally deeper pronotal impressions, and the tumid frons disc. The cuticle of this species appears quite thickened, tough, the body is very wide at the shoulders, and the comparatively simplified aedeagus is very distinct ( Figs. 64, 66).

Description. Size (length/width, mm) holotype: body (length to elytral apices) 1.92/0.90; head 0.33/0.51; pronotum 0.48/0.77, PA 0.63, PB 0.62; elytra 1.18/0.90. Color brown to dark brown, sometimes with reddish brown tint, head darkest; maxillary palpi light brown, distal mere acuminate, apex not darker. Body cuticle thick, hard.

Head with eyes rather small, in dorsal aspect 6 rather small, convex facets in longest series. Ocelli distinct round small shining, each located at base of shallow oblique interocular fovea. Frons microreticulate, dull, moderately finely punctate, ca. 1xef, interstices ca. 1–3xpd; area between interocular foveae and eye weakly concave, more markedly microreticulate than frons disc. Clypeus dull, markedly microreticulate, very finely and moderately sparsely punctate. Labrum dull, length subequal that of clypeus, apicomedially emarginate to form rounded lobe on each side; laterally fringed with short arcuate setae. Maxillary palpi very short, often concealed beneath head in dorsal view, combined lengths of meres much less than width of head (ratio ca. 16/ 36); ratios of meres 2–4 ca. 5/2/9. Mentum densely finely punctulate, microreticulate, dull, sparsely setose, submentum less densely punctate, interstices shining.

Pronotum broad, anterior margin over median 1/3 weakly emarginate and with narrow hyaline border. Anterior angles obtuse, rounded. Sides rounded, widest just before middle, behind middle gradually attenuate, very weakly sinuate. Posterior angle obtusangulate. Disc with relief moderately high, moderately densely punctate, punctures U-shaped, about 1xef, interstices effacedly microreticulate, very weakly if at all shining; impressions deep, anterior V-shaped, median part attaining midlength of pronotum, posterior broadly Ushaped, many punctures confluent, some jointly forming transverse rows of ridges. Each puncture with anterior margin extended posteriorly as narrow ridge, dividing puncture into a pair of two smaller punctures each of which smaller than eye-facet, short recumbent or decumbent seta arising from posterior extreme of dividing ridge. Deep, wide impression at anterior and posterior angles, sculpture rugose, all "punctures" confluent and markedly microreticulate, ridges large, shining.

Elytra dull or very weakly shining, broad, attenuate posteriorly, sides arcuate, margins distinct from shoulder for 5/6 of length, sutural angle more acute in female than in male. Ten-seriate punctate, punctures becoming much smaller and shallower over posterior declivity; punctures on disc ca. 2xef, interstices ca. 0.5–1xpd, each puncture with distinct granule at anterior margin; intervals ca. 1.5–2xpd, each with unilinear row of granules about equal in size to, and slightly more closely spaced than, granules of serial punctures; setae of serial punctures and intervals very similar in length and density, small, decumbent or recumbent.

Metaventrite short, with moderately shallow median elongate oval impression in basal 1/2, deepest at anterior extreme, midlongitudinal carina between anterior extreme of oval impression and mesoventral intercoxal process. Metaventrite and abdominal ventrites 1–4 hydrofuge pubescent. Ventrites 5 and 6 similar in sexes, hydrofuge pubescent in basal 1/5, remaining effacedly microreticulate, shining, with transverse band of sparse setae in posterior 1/2. Male: last ventrite asymmetrical, apex lobiform and setose; last tergite with tuft of setae on each side of apicomedian notch into which fits lobe of last ventrite. Female: last ventrite sparsely pubescent, margin rounded; last tergite with small tuft of setae on each side of very weak apicomedian emargination.

Legs short, femora stout, tarsi very short, claws very small, combined lengths of metatibia and metatarsus slightly greater than width of head (ratio ca. 41/36), ratio of lengths of metatibia/metatarsus ca. 30/11. Basal 3 pro- and mesotarsomeres, in male, with pad of suction setae.

Wings of examined specimens apparently slightly reduced: unfolded wing extending slightly beyond abdominal apex.

Aedeagus length ca. 0.55 mm, comparatively simplified, widest at trilobed apex; gonopore bearing process wide basally, tapering to fine point; parameres thin, with comparatively few setae ( Fig. 66). Spermatheca as illustrated ( Fig. 20).

Etymology. Named in reference to the broad-shouldered habitus, thick cuticle, and short horn-like maxillary palpi.

Distribution. Currently known from several localities at Table Mountain and near Cape Town ( Fig. 95).


Iziko Museums of Cape Town


Field Museum of Natural History


Transvaal Museum


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute


Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien













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