Tetragnatha jaculator Tullgren, 1910

de Souza Castanheira, Pedro & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, 2021, Redescription of Tetragnatha guatemalensis, T. laboriosa and T. jaculator, with new synonymies of genus Tetragnatha (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) in the Neotropical Region, Journal of Natural History 54 (47 - 48), pp. 3031-3057: 3047-3054

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2021.1890252

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1D1887E9-AC34-2A65-FE08-FAC0FD6C76BE

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Tetragnatha jaculator Tullgren, 1910
status

 

Tetragnatha jaculator Tullgren, 1910  

( Figures 56–82 View Figures 56–65 View Figures 66–73 View Figures 74–81 View Figure 82 )

Type data

Tetragnatha jaculator Tullgren, 1910: 150   , pl. 3, fig. 73 (38 males and females syntypes from Tanzania, Kilimanjaro region: Kibonoto [Kibongoto], Culture Zone , deposited in NHRS-GULI000069806, viii–x.1905 or 1906, Y. Sjöstedt coll., one couple examined; male syntype from Tanzania; Pare District , Kimela , deposited in ZMB 26718 View Materials , vi.1905 or 1906, Y. Sjöstedt coll., not examined)   .

Tetragnatha riveti Berland, 1913: 90   , pl. 8, figs 24–30 (10 male and 7 female syntypes from Ecuador, probably deposited in MNHN, Dr. Rivet coll., not examined) syn   . nov.

Tetragnatha argyroides Mello-Leitão, 1945: 243   , figs 20, 21 (male lectotype from Argentina, Misiones , San José, Pindapoy, deposited in MLP 16420 View Materials , xii.1941, M. Biráben coll., examined) syn. nov.

Tetragnatha lewisi Chickering, 1962: 439   , figs 41–48 (male holotype from Jamaica, St. Ann Parish , 1 mile east of Moneague, Gayle Road, deposited in MCZ 21841 View Materials , 07. xi.1957, Chickering coll., examined) syn. nov.

Diagnosis

Male chelicerae of T. jaculator   are similar to that of T. laboriosa   and T. elongata   . All three species have no AXu, and share small Gu, protruding ‘sl’, slightly basalward projected, elongated and robust ‘T’, and long Gl, as longest tooth of lower row ( Figures 32–34 View Figures 29–38 , 48, 49 View Figures 48–55 , 59–61 View Figures 56–65 , 74, 75 View Figures 74–81 ; Okuma 1992, fig. 6A, B; Castanheira et al. 2019, figs 5D–F, 7A). T. guatemalensis   is also similar, but has no Gu ( Figures 4, 5 View Figures 1–11 , 21 View Figures 21–28 ). However, T. jaculator   is easily set apart by all three species by a much shorter ‘a’. The presence of a knob-like ‘t’ separates it from T. laboriosa   and T. elongata   , where it is absent, and from T. guatemalensis   , with a large tooth-like ‘t’ ( Figures 59, 60 View Figures 56–65 , 74 View Figures 74–81 ). Furthermore, the male of T. jaculator   can be set apart from other species cited above by palp with a very slanted tegulum and flattened pleat-less conductor and embolus pressed against it ( Figures 63, 64 View Figures 56–65 , 78 View Figures 74–81 ).

In relation to females, T. jaculator   is more similar to T. vermiformis   , as both species have short and laterally bulged paturon bearing tiny teeth, without AXl, with U2 longer than Gu and set apart by a large gap, L2 longer than Gl, and short genital fold ( Figures 68–70 View Figures 66–73 , 76, 77 View Figures 74–81 ; Zhu and Zhang 2011, fig.133D–G; Castanheira et al. 2019, figs 18D–F, H, 19B). However, T. jaculator   can be easily diagnosed from T. vermiformis   by the more elongated abdomen, dorsal hump of paturon more basal and wider, presence of tiny AXu ( Figures 66, 67 View Figures 66–73 , 76 View Figures 74–81 ), Gu closer to fang ( Figures 68, 69 View Figures 66–73 , 76 View Figures 74–81 ), Gl smaller and distalward projected ( Figures 69, 70 View Figures 66–73 , 77 View Figures 74–81 ), much smaller gap between Gl and L2 ( Figures 69, 70 View Figures 66–73 , 77 View Figures 74–81 ) and genital fold shorter ( Figure 72 View Figures 66–73 ). Finally, T. jaculator   is set apart by the internal genitalia bearing two semi-circular spermathecae and a filiform CS ( Figure 73 View Figures 66–73 ; Zhu et al. 2003, fig. 73G).

Description

Male: Carapace yellow and elongated, with slightly elevated anterior part ( Figures 56, 57 View Figures 56–65 ). Labium reddish brown and longer than wide ( Figure 58 View Figures 56–65 ). Sternum triangular, yellowish brown, with a dusky contour ( Figure 58 View Figures 56–65 ). Eyes parallel and procurved, ringed in black and spaced apart ( Figure 56 View Figures 56–65 ). Legs yellow and very elongated ( Figures 56–58 View Figures 56–65 ). Chelicerae paturon thick, approximately 3.5x longer than wide and 1.5x shorter than carapace, little curved outwards, around 30° from body median line, gently curved in the upper side ( Figures 56–62 View Figures 56–65 , 74, 75 View Figures 74–81 ). ‘a’ straight, very short, slightly pointing outwards and displaced outwards from the middle portion of paturon, with its tip with a shallow excavation ( Figures 59, 60 View Figures 56–65 , 74 View Figures 74–81 ). AXu absent ( Figures 59, 60 View Figures 56–65 , 74 View Figures 74–81 ). ‘t’ reduced to a small knob ( Figures 59, 60 View Figures 56–65 , 74 View Figures 74–81 ). Upper row with seven uneven teeth (sometimes with a tiny ‘rsu’ additional teeth) ( Figures 59, 60 View Figures 56–65 , 74 View Figures 74–81 ): Gu small, slightly distalward projected and located near fang basis, apart from ‘sl’ by moderate gap; ‘sl’ larger than Gu, slightly basalward projected, with pointed tip; ‘T’ elongated, thin, almost straight, little bent upward and apart from remaining teeth by large gap; and ‘rsu’ with four teeth decreasing in size. AXl small, distalward projected and located near fang basis ( Figures 60, 61 View Figures 56–65 , 75 View Figures 74–81 ). Lower row with six teeth ( Figures 60, 61 View Figures 56–65 , 75 View Figures 74–81 ): Gl thick and elongated, projected distalward, with swollen basis; L2–L6 with almost same size and slighting bending upward, L2 a little shorter and thicker than remaining teeth. Cheliceral fang as wide as its base, bent downward, regularly tapering to its tip, and serrated from midway through, closing between teeth rows ( Figures 59–61 View Figures 56–65 , 74, 75 View Figures 74–81 ). Abdomen cylindrical, slender, around 2.2x longer than carapace, dorsally pale beige, and completely covered by guanine spots, scantier at middle line ( Figures 56, 57 View Figures 56–65 ). Venter pale brown, flattened and nude, with no patches ( Figure 58 View Figures 56–65 ). Epiandrous rounded, composed of large sclerotised medial division with two lobes bearing 5 and 6 fusules respectively ( Figure 81 View Figures 74–81 ). Palp with very short tibia, around 1.5x longer than wide, elongated cymbium, bearing wide basis, slight constriction at middle portion, apically constricted, ending in roundish tip ( Figures 63, 64 View Figures 56–65 , 78 View Figures 74–81 ); tegulum spherical, inflated, 1.7x wider than high and slanted around 60º ( Figures 63, 64 View Figures 56–65 , 78 View Figures 74–81 ); conductor flattened, cylindrical, thick, transparent, closely pressed against tegulum, but with its distal third projected beyond it, without pleats and enfolding embolus as a thin pouch for about ¾ of its length ( Figures 63, 64 View Figures 56–65 , 78, 79 View Figures 74–81 ); embolus thick, filiform, originating at middle portion of bulb, strongly curved and pressed against the rim of tegulum, almost forming a circle, with only its distal portion being projected ( Figures 63, 64 View Figures 56–65 , 78, 79 View Figures 74–81 ); paracymbium triangular and small, without transparent lobe and formed by rounded and undivided finger-like distal notch, and large and thick knob projected basalward ( Figures 65 View Figures 56–65 , 80 View Figures 74–81 ).

Total length 4.90. Carapace 1.85 long, 1.05 wide. Abdomen 3.01 long, 0.87 wide. Left chelicera 0.75 long, 0.36 wide. Leg formula I–IV–II–III. Leg I: femur 3.74, patella 0.72, tibia 4.00, metatarsus 4.16 and tarsus 1.16. Leg II: patella + tibia 2.85. Leg III: patella + tibia 1.02. Leg IV: patella + tibia 2.85.

Female: Carapace colour, endites, fovea, eyes, labium and legs as in male ( Figures 66, 67 View Figures 66–73 ). Sternum with the same shape as in male but brown ( Figure 67 View Figures 66–73 ). Chelicerae paturon with same colour as male, small, rounded, around 2,3x longer than wide and 2,2x shorter than carapace, gently curved outwards around 30° from the body median line and bearing a large and wide conspicuous, basally displaced, bulge on upper side ( Figures 66, 68–71 76, 77 View Figures 66–73 View Figures 74–81 ). AXu very small, reduced to nub near fang basis ( Figure 76 View Figures 74–81 ). Upper row with six teeth ( Figures 68, 69 View Figures 66–73 , 76 View Figures 74–81 ): Gu thick, with triangular large basis and pointing distalward, apart from U2 by moderate gap; U2–U6 decreasing in size, all distalward projected, where U6 is very reduced. AXl absent ( Figures 69, 70 View Figures 66–73 , 77 View Figures 74–81 ). Lower row with seven teeth ( Figures 69, 70 View Figures 66–73 , 77 View Figures 74–81 ): Gl small, pointed and strongly pointing distalward, apart from L2 by small gap. L2 larger than Gl, with an acute tip, pointing distalward. L2–L7 decreasing in size, pointed slightly distalward. Cheliceral fang serrated from its first third, slightly reducing its width, and closing between both teeth rows ( Figures 68–70 View Figures 66–73 , 76, 77 View Figures 74–81 ). Abdomen as in male ( Figures 66, 67 View Figures 66–73 ). Genital fold very short and triangular, with wide posterior rim, its tip with a shallow excavation and almost in level with lung plates ( Figure 72 View Figures 66–73 ). Internal genitalia composed of two rounded semi-circular spermathecae, connected to an oval uterus externus, bearing a filiform slender CS ( Figure 73 View Figures 66–73 ).

Total length 5.79. Carapace 1.77 long, 0.96 wide. Abdomen 4.12 long, 1.13 wide. Left chelicera 0.58 long, 0.32 wide. Leg formula I–IV–II–III. Leg I: femur 3.30, patella 0.61, tibia 3.30, metatarsus 3.19 and tarsus 0.98. Leg II: patella + tibia 2.09. Leg III: patella + tibia 0.87. Leg IV: patella + tibia 2.31.

Variation

Males (n = 9): total length, 4.90–6.54; females (n = 5): total length, 5.79–7.35. In males, ‘a’ may be straight and almost not excavated ( Figures 59–60 View Figures 56–65 ), with only its tip curved and excavated ( Okuma 1983, fig. 11b) or entirely curved ( Berland 1913, fig. 25; Okuma 1992, figs 10a, c).

Synonymy and notes

Tullgren (1910) described T. jaculator   based on 38 males and females from the Culture Zone in Kibongoto (Kibonoto on the original paper, NHRS-GULI000069806) and one male from Pare District ( ZMB 26718 View Materials ), both in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. In his excellent description and illustration of males, Tullgren cited a second tooth ‘very big and long’ on the chelicerae, probably referring to ‘T’ (in our nomenclature). This tooth is easily observed on his drawings, if we consider he ignored Gu on counting the teeth on the upper row ( Tullgren 1910, fig. 73a) and an ‘abnormally developed bulb’, which is probably a reference to the slanted and developed tegulum of the pedipalp ( Tullgren 1910, fig. 73b, c). About the females, this author only highlights the short and thick chelicerae. Posterior redescriptions of this species include its first record in Asia (New Guinea) by Okuma (1987) and from China by Zhu et al. (2003), with very comprehensive drawings from both authors. In the Neotropical region, the first records are from Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago by Okuma (1992).

Okuma (1987, 1992) already suggested that T. argyroides Mello-Leitão, 1945   from Argentina and T. lewisi Chickering, 1962   from Jamaica might be junior synonyms of T. jaculator   . After her hints on the synonymies, we examined photos of the male types of those species from MLP and MCZ,which clearly bear the diagnostic characters of T. jaculator   , like the slanted tegulum of the male palp and male chelicerae with reduced ‘t’, slightly basalward projected ‘sl’, long ‘T’, and long Gl. For the synonymy of T. riveti Berland, 1913   , we rely on the original illustrations by Berland (1913) because the types were not located at MNHN. Drawings depicted chelicerae with short and almost straight ‘a’ in lateral view (fig. 26), straight ‘sl’ and long ‘T’ (see Berland 1913: fig. 25) and very long Gl (see Berland 1913: fig. 24), besides the characteristic slanted tegulum (see Berland 1913: figs. 29, 30). Unfortunately, females of T. riveti   were not illustrated or described by Berland (1913), but only cited briefly in the text. Therefore, we acknowledge T. lewisi   = T. argyroides   = T. riveti   = T. jaculator   syn. nov.

Habitat notes

According to Zhu et al. (2003), this species is associated with water bodies and can be found on plants near water courses.

Distribution

Pantropical, originally described from Africa. Its current distribution includes Asia, Central America, Caribbean and three South American countries: Brazil, Ecuador and Chile ( Figure 82 View Figure 82 ).

Material examined

CUBA, Holguín: Moa, El Toldo , ♂, 16   .II   .2004, A. Sánchez leg   . ( IBSP 169932 View Materials )   . BRAZIL, Pará: Oriximiná, Lago Iripixi , ♀, 09   .VI   .2011, E. L   . C. Silva leg. ( MCTP 43311 View Materials ex 31948); Benevides , ♂, 23   .IV   .2003, D. R   . Santos-Souza leg. ( MPEG 004783 View Materials )   ; Maranhão: Caxias, Reserva Ecológica Inhamum , ♂, 26   .X   .2004, F. L   . Oliveira leg. ( IBSP 133039 View Materials )   ; Paraíba: Juazeirinho, Serra da Borborema (570 m), 23♂, 5♀, 3j, IX   .1956 ( MNRJ 7476 View Materials )   ; Pernambuco: Moreno, BonanÇa , ♀, B   . Pickel leg   . ( MNRJ 02599 View Materials )   ; Sergipe: Santo Amaro das Brotas , ♂, 4♀, 3j, 08   . X   .1978, MSS Carvalho leg. ( MZUSP 74663 View Materials ex 10556)   ; Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá , ♂, 1994, J   . Raizer leg   . ( IBSP 6471 View Materials ); Anaurilândia , 2♂, 05–11   .III   .2001, F. S   . Cunha & J. P. L. Guadanucci leg. ( IBSP 240808 View Materials ex 39358)   ; São Paulo: Porto Ferreira, Lagoa São Vicente , 9♀, 05   .IV   .1945, Schubart leg. ( MZUSP 14745 View Materials ); 3♂ ( MZUSP 74664 View Materials ex 14745); Ubatuba: Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Picinguaba, Praia da Fazenda , ♂, 26–30   .V   .2010, A. Hoffmann leg   . ( UFRJ 1621); São Bernardo do Campo, Estrada do Mar , ♂, 07   .II   .1968, P. Biasi et al. leg. ( MZUSP 74665 View Materials ex 8214)   ; Paraná: Guarapuava , ♂, 6♀, 7j, 30   . IV   .1967, P. Biasi leg   . ( MZUSP 8499 View Materials ); São Luiz do Purunã , 5♂, 7♀, 7j, 27   .IV   .1967, P. Biasi leg   . ( MZUSP 6995 View Materials )   ; Santa Catarina: KM 324, BR 116, ♂, 1j, 06   .V   .1967, P. Biasi leg   . ( MZUSP 7011 View Materials ); Criciúma, Parque Municipal José Milaneze , ♂, 15   .III   .2007, R. A   . Teixeira leg. ( IBSP 132821 View Materials )   ; Rio Grande do Sul: Capão da Canoa, Capão Novo , ♂, 1992, C   . Mazzilo leg   . ( MCTP 4609 View Materials ); Estância Velha , ♀, 08   .V   .1967, P. Biasi leg   . ( MZUSP 8513 View Materials ); Guaíba , 2♂, III   .1984, A. A   . Lise leg. ( MCTP 12770 View Materials ); Santa Maria , 2♂, 1j, 28   .II   .1990, D. Lanck leg   . ( MCTP 42632 View Materials ex 5985); ♂ ( MCTP 43314 View Materials ex 5987); 6♂, ♀, 16   .III   .1990, D. Lanck leg   . ( MCTP 5969 View Materials ); 2♂, ♀, 26   . III   .1990, D. Lanck leg   . ( MCTP 43313 View Materials ex 5973); 12♂, 2♀, 24   .II   .2005, D. Lanck leg   . ( MCTP 43312 View Materials ex 40256); ♂, 16   .IV   .2005, D. Lanck leg   . ( MCTP 19627 View Materials ); Viamão , 9♂, 24   .II   .1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg. ( MCTP 5945 View Materials )   ; Est. Exp. Fitotécnica , ♂, 25   .VIII   .1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg. ( MCTP 7570 View Materials )   ; ♂, ♀ ( MCTP 43315 View Materials ex 7578); 4♂, 12   .V   .1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg. ( MCTP 8454 View Materials )   ; ♂, ♀, 07.XI   .1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg. ( MCTP 7807 View Materials )   . ECUADOR, Tungurahua: Baños , ♂, 1943 ( CAS, sub T. riveti   )   . CHILE, Malleco: Victoria, Fundo Maria Ester (15 km W from town), 4♂, 2♀, 1j, 14   .I   .1989, M. Ramírez leg   . ( MACN 24533 View Materials )   .

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Tetragnathidae

Genus

Tetragnatha

Loc

Tetragnatha jaculator Tullgren, 1910

de Souza Castanheira, Pedro & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira 2021
2021
Loc

Tetragnatha lewisi

Chickering AM 1962: 439
1962
Loc

Tetragnatha argyroides Mello-Leitão, 1945: 243

Mello-Leitao CFD 1945: 243
1945
Loc

Tetragnatha riveti

Berland L 1913: 90
1913
Loc

Tetragnatha jaculator

Tullgren A 1910: 150
1910