Koelpinia Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 3: 755. 1776.
Zaika, Maxim A., Kilian, Norbert, Jones, Katy, Krinitsina, Anastasiya A., Nilova, Maya V., Speranskaya, Anna S. & Sukhorukov, Alexander P., 2020, Scorzonera sensu lato (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) - taxonomic reassessment in the light of new molecular phylogenetic and carpological analyses, PhytoKeys 137, pp. 1-85: 1
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|Koelpinia Pall., Reise Russ. Reich. 3: 755. 1776.|
Koelpinia linearis Pall.
Annual herbs; pollen with 15 lacunae; at least outer achenes columnar-scorpioid, surface with hooked emergences and elongated papillae looking like glandular hairs, (sometimes achenes smooth, without emergences and papillae: K. tenuissima ), without pappus, but apically with hooked, retrorse spines.
Habit, life form, subterranean parts: annual herbs with a taproot.
Leaves: subsessile, filiform to narrowly oblong, entire.
Stem, synflorescence: stem solitary or mostly branched, glabrous or with scattered simple hairs; synflorescence mostly branched, with several capitula.
Capitula: involucre glabrous to hairy, phyllaries in several series, narrowly oblong to lanceolate, outer phyllaries much shorter than inner; receptacle naked or with scattered setae; capitula with 5-12 yellow florets, much exceeding the involucre.
Pollen: echinolophate, tricolporate and each colpus divided into 2 lacunae, with 15 (6 abporal, 3 equatorial, 6 interporal) lacunae, often pollen tetracolporate in polyploids ( Blackmore 1981).
Achenes: 6-25 mm, usually columnar-scorpioid, (sub)annular ( K. macrantha ) or almost straight ( K. tenuissima and K. turanica ), with 5 or 10 more or less prominent ribs, surface often covered with emergences resembling hooked spines and glandular-like (elongated) papillae or surface almost glabrous in K. tenuissima , without carpopodium; achene wall with or without air cavities, parenchyma continuous above sclerenchyma represented by thick-walled cells, sclerenchyma continuous, its fibres orientated parallel to the fruit axis (perpendicular in emergences), tannins absent.
Pappus: bristles absent, achenes with several retrorse hooked spines (Fig. 15H View Figure 15 ).
x = 6 for K. macrantha ( Podlech and Bader 1974; Nazarova 1981) or 7 (all others species) ( Stebbins et al. 1953; Podlech and Bader 1974; Nazarova 1981), diploids to octaploids.
(1) K. chrysoglochis Rech.f.
(2) K. linearis Pall.
(3) K. macrantha C.Winkl.
(4) K. tenuissima Pavlov & Lipsch.
(5) K. turanica Vassilcz.
N Africa: DZ; EG; LY; TN. Asia-Temperate: AF; AM; AZ; BH; CN; CY; GE; IL; IQ; IR; KG; KW; KZ; LB; QA; SA; SY; TJ; TM; TR; UZ. Asia-Tropical: IN; PK. Europe: ES; RU; UA.
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