Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus ( Fabricius, 1781 ),

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z., 2018, Taxonomic revision of the South American subgenus Canthon (Goniocanthon) Pereira & Martínez, 1956 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), European Journal of Taxonomy 437, pp. 1-31: 6-10

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.437

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AF27DA05-746B-459D-AC8C-4F059EAA4146

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3793673

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/191B87A8-FF9B-3C36-FE52-FE56FB32D823

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus ( Fabricius, 1781 )
status

 

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus ( Fabricius, 1781) 

Figs 1View Fig A–C, G–H, 2, 5–6, 8

Redescription

Males

COLOUR. Dorsal and ventral surface green to blue, always with blue metallic sheen.

HEAD. Frontal surface smooth, lacking horns or tubercles. Clypeal teeth with rounded apex, with thin setae at the apex; teeth separated by a U-shaped emargination. Clypeo-genal junction slightly emarginated, rounded. Clypeo-genal suture present.

PRONOTUM. Disc simply convex, smooth, lacking microscultpure (120 × magnification). Anterior and posterior angles acute. Lateral borders effaced. Posterior border with lateral semicircular emarginations near to posterior angles.

HYPOMERON. Lacking transverse keel, surface black with chagrined microsculpture. Sparse setae present on anterior portion.

METASTERNUM. Anterior lobe distinctly convex ( Fig. 1BView Fig).

ELYTRA. Striae weakly impressed, more distinct near elytral basis. Eighth stria carinate along its basal third. Interstriae flat.

LEGS. Protibiae three-toothed, dorsal surface with two tufts of setae present on each tibial tooth. Protibial spur truncate, wider than long and apically emarginated, forming two spines. External border of protibia serrated. Profemur ventral surface black, smooth, glabrous, with a distal tooth on its anterior border. Ventral surface of meso- and metatibiae smooth ( Fig. 1AView Fig). Meso- and metatrochanter with a hair tuft near femur articulation.

ABDOMEN. Ventrites glabrous, lacking punctures and not narrowed medially.

PYGIDIUM. Convex ( Fig. 1CView Fig). Basal line delimiting pygidium from pro-pygidium.

PARAMERA. On lateral view ( Fig. 1GView Fig). Flattened; apex truncated; upper angle rounded; lower angle acute, forming a spine or tooth. On dorsal view ( Fig. 1HView Fig): membranous portion wider at central portion and narrower near apex and basis. Apex rounded.

INTERNAL SAC ( Figs 5View Fig, 9View Fig). FLP involving A, forming a central duct with spiniform apex. SA lateral to FLP + A complex. MP distal to A, semicircular, widely emarginated; FLP + A complex involved by MP. SRP with lateral prolongation.

Morphological variation

BL: 9–14 mm, PW: 6–9 mm. Colouration of dorsal surface metallic sheen may vary from green to blue metallic colouration ( Fig. 2View Fig A–B) (in both natural or artificial light). Female protibial spur as wide as long with a U-shaped emargination. Pygidium and metasternum flatter in females than in males.

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus smaragdulus ( Fabricius, 1781)  Figs 1View Fig A–C, G–H, 2 A, 6, 8

Scarabaeus smaragdulus Fabricius, 1781: 34  .

Canthon speculifer Castelnau, 1840: 68  .

Scarabaeus smaragdulus  – Fabricius 1787: 18 (catalogue). — Jablonsky & Herbst 1789: 328 (catalogue). — Olivier 1789: 158 (catalogue). — Fabricius 1792: 70 (catalogue).

Ateuchus smaragdulus  – Fabricius 1801: 58.

Coprobius smaragdulus  – Brullé 1838: 294.

Canthon smaragdulus  – Blanchard 1846: 161. — Harold 1868: 14, 75 (key). — Gemminger & Harold 1869: 994 (catalogue). — Harold 1875: 59 (catalogue). — Gillet 1911: 33 (catalogue). — Schmidt 1922: 69 (key). — Boucomont 1928: 2 (catalogue). — Staig 1931: 44 (redescription; lectotype designation). — Balthasar 1939: 203 (key). — Pessôa & Lâne 1941: 420 (species list). — Lange 1947: 307 (catalogue).

Canthon speculifer  – Harold 1868: 13, 70 (key). — Gemminger & Harold 1869: 994 (catalogue). — Harold 1875: 58 (catalogue). — Heyne & Taschenberg 1908: 61 (catalogue). — Boucomont 1928: 2 (catalogue). — Balthasar 1939: 203 (key). — Pessôa & Lâne 1941: 420 (species list). — Blackwelder 1944: 201 (catalogue). — Lange 1947: 307 (catalogue). — Gacharná 1951: 221 (catalogue). — Guérin 1953: 257 (catalogue). — Pereira & Martínez 1956: 111 (synonym of Goniocanthon smaragdulus  ).

Canthon smaragdulum  – Blackwelder 1944: 201 (catalogue). — Louzada 1998: 125 (behaviour).

Goniocanthon smaragdulus  – Pereira & Martínez 1956: 109. — Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 593 (catalogue).

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus  – Halffter & Martínez 1977: 75. — Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011: 52–53, figs 35, 44 (key).

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulum  – Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (species list).

Diagnosis

Canthon (G.) smaragdulus smaragdulus  is separated within the subgenus by the following combination of characters: ventral surface of meso- and metafemora smooth ( Fig. 1AView Fig); dorsal surface of pronotum and elytral disc with similar blue metallic sheen colouration ( Fig. 2AView Fig); metasternal anterior lobe strongly convex ( Fig. 1BView Fig); profemur with a tooth on its anterior border. Paramera in lateral view ( Fig. 1GView Fig): flattened; apex truncate; upper angle rounded; lower angle acute, forming a spine or tooth. Internal sac ( Fig. 6View Fig): FLP involving A forming a central duct with spiniform apex. SA lateral to FLP + A complex present. MP distal to A, not divided, semicircular, widely emarginated; FLP + A complex involved by MP.

Material examined

Lectotype (of Scarabaeus smaragdulus Fabricius, 1781  ; designated by Staig 1931: 44) 

BRAZIL:♁, type(round, white with red margin label) /141815 (white) /compared with modern exemplars in Brit. Mus. R.A.S. March 1925 (white handwritten in red) / Hab. in Brasilia (white with black margins) / Sc. smaragdulus, Fabr.  faog. 34 Nº127 (white with black margins) / Scarabaeus smaragdulus Fabr.  , Canthon smaragdulus Fabr.  Type (white with red margins) / LECTOTYPE, Scarabaeus smaragdulus Fabricius  , des. FZ Vaz-de-Mello 2014 (red with black margins) ( HMUG 141815).

Neotype (for Canthon speculifer Castelnau, 1840  ; here designated)

BRAZIL: ♁, Muséum Paris, Rio Castelnau (white label) / 10, 44 (round white) / Canthon smaragdulus Fabr.  (white) / NEOTYPE, Canthon speculifer Castelnau  , des. FZ Vaz-de-Mello 2014 (red with black margins) ( MNHN).

 

Non-type material (125 specimens)

BRAZIL – Mato Grosso do Sul: 1 ♁, Rio Paraná, 26 Jan. 1918 ( CEMT); 3 ♁♁, 2 ♀♀, Bodoquena, Fazenda Califórnia, 20º41′ S, 56º51′ W, Mar. 2011, L.O. Bavuti leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♁♁, 2 ♀♀, Bonito, Fazenda Brasil Bonito, 21º06′ S, 56º38′ W, human faeces, Nov. 2009, F.O. Roque leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♀♀, Bonito, Hotel Cabanas, 21º10′15″ S, 56º26′22″ W, human faeces, Dec. 2010, L.O. Bavuti leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Bonito, Fazenda Pitangueiras, 20º52′14″ S, 56º35′19″ W, human faeces, Nov. 2009, F.O. Roque leg. ( CEMT); 9 ♁♁, 18 ♀♀, Bonito, Fazenda Pitangueiras, Córrego Roda D’agua, 20º52′14″ S, 56º35′19″ W, human faeces, Nov. 2009, Entomologia-UFGD leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Bonito, Fazenda Remanso 20º47′ S, 56º43′ W, Nov. 2009, F.O. Roque leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♁♁, 1 ♀, Ivinhema, 22º31′ S, 53º53′ W, human faeces Mar. 2011, L.O. Bavuti leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Jardim, Rio da Prata, 21º25′ S, 56º27′ W, Mar. 2011, L.O. Bavuti leg. ( CEMT). – São Paulo: 1 ♁, 1 ♀, P.E. Serra do Mar, Núcleo Caraguatatuba, 23º35′27″ S, 45º25′19″ W, human faeces, 17, 13 Jan. 2012, E. Bovy leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♁♁, 1 ♀, P.E. Serra do Mar, Núcleo Picinguaba, 23º20′13″ S, 44º50′06″ W, human faeces, 14 Jan. 2012, E. Bovy ( CEMT); 5 ♀♀, same data as for preceding, but 23º20′11″ S, 44º50′03″ W ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, same data as for preceding, but 23º20′05″ S, 44º49′59″ W ( CEMT); 1 ♁, same data as for preceding, but 23º20′07″ S, 44º50′01″ W ( CEMT); 1 ♁, same data as for preceding, but 23º20′00″ S, 44º49′58″ W ( CEMT); 1 ♁, same data as for preceding, but 23º20′02″ S, 44º49′58″ W ( CEMT); 20 ♁♁, 4 ♀♀, same data as for preceding, but 23º20′13″ S, 44º50′08″ W ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Ubatuba, 23º26′00″ S, 45º5′22″ W, 12 Jan. 2000, E. Pereira Coleção, G.P. Almeida leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Campinas, Ribeirão Cachoeira, Mata, Jan. 1996, D.A. Gaspar leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♁♁, Campinas, Ribeirão Cachoeira, Mata, Fezes Alouatta  , 5 Feb. 1998, Fabri and Setz leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 2 ♀♀, Sete Barras, Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, human faeces, 24º11′45″ S, 47º55′25″ W, 30 Jan. 2012, E. Bovy leg. ( CEMT). – Paraná: 2 ♁♁, Palotina, UFPR, “Mata anexa ao campus”, Pitfall 2, 28 Dec. 2011, R.J. Simioni, S.B. Silva and E. Caron leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♁♁, 2 ♀♀, Morretes, Santuário Nhundiaquara, 25º25′32″ S, 48º53′21″ W, 100 m a.s.l., human faeces, 15 Jan. 2016, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 3 ♀♀, same data as for preceding, but 2 Mar. 2016, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT); 5 ♁♁, 1 ♀, same data as for preceding, but 27 Jan. 2016, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, same data as for preceding, but 25º27′55″ S, 48º52′47″ W, 110 m a.s.l., human faeces, 3 Mar. 2016, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Morretes, Fazenda Bom Jardim, 25º27′5″ S, 48º52′47″ W, 110 m a.s.l., human faeces, 16 Jan. 2016, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, same data as for preceding, but pig faeces, 16 Jan. 2016, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♀♀, Morretes, E.E. Embrapa, 25º27′11″ S, 48º52′57″ W, 140 m a.s.l., human faeces, 17 Dec. 2015, E.H. Raine leg. ( CEMT). – Rio: 1 ♁, 1844, Castelnau leg. ( MNHN). – Santa Catarina: 2 ♁♁, 1 ♀, Içara, 28º40′ S, 49º16′ W, pitfall isca, 2 Jan. 2014, M.M. Niero leg. ( CEMT).

ARGENTINA – Misiones: 2 ♀♀, Puerto Iguazu, Jan. 1991 ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Porto Libertad, APSA, P.P. Península, “bosque nativo adyacente a Pinar joven – 2007”, Feb. 2010, Coprotrampa, M.N. Peyras leg. ( CEMT).

PARAGUAY – Guairá: 1 ♀, General Eugenio Alejandrino Garay, 25–31 May 1992, U. Drechsel leg. ( CEMT).

Remarks and requirements for neotype designation according to Article 75 of The Code

Canthon speculifer  was described by Castelnau (1840: 68). From this description it is possible to confirm that Castelnau referred to a blue-to-green Goniocanthon  , mainly because he cited the gibbose metasternum, unique among Canthon  . Evenhuis (2012) stated that part of Castelnau’s syntype collection was incorporated into the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, and destroyed in a fire on January 24 th, 1865. Canthon speculifer  was probably among these type specimens because successive searches in European and American museums did not yield the type series of C. speculifer  . However, Castelnau had visited Brazil on a different occasion in the company of Eugêne d’Osery. They arrived in Rio Janeiro on June 17 th, 1843 to acquire information about Brazilian geography and history, as well as specimens for the French Academy of Sciences ( Papavero 1971). Among these is a historical specimen deposited at MNHN in 1844 and identified by Castelnau as C. speculifer  . This specimen, which we now propose as neotype, is not part of the syntypic series because it was collected some time after the description of C. speculifer  ; however, it was Castelnau himself who identified and labelled it only shortly after his original description, thus he probably maintained a clear vision of C. speculifer  . The comparison of the designated neotype with the lectotype of C. smaragdulus  reveals that C. speculifer  and C. smaragdulus  are synonyms. This neotype designation fixes the name C. speculifer  according to Castelnau’s original concept and allows us to establish the synonymy with C. smaragdulus  .

Distribution

Brazilian Atlantic Forest and Paraná river forest (states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro). Also in the Argentinian province of Misiones and the Paraguayan department of Guairá ( Fig. 8View Fig).

Taxonomic remarks

The lectotype of Scarabaeus smaragdulus Fabricius, 1781  was designated by Staig (1931), who illustrated a specimen of the original series calling it “the type” ( ICZN 1999: article 74.6).

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

HMUG

Hunterian Museum

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Canthon

Loc

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus ( Fabricius, 1781 )

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z. 2018
2018
Loc

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulum

Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2000: 191
2000
Loc

Canthon (Goniocanthon) smaragdulus

Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. & Edmonds W. D. & Ocampo F. & Schoolmeesters P. 2011: 52
Halffter G. & Martinez A. 1977: 75
1977
Loc

Goniocanthon smaragdulus

Vulcano M. A. & Pereira F. S. 1964: 593
Pereira F. S. & Martinez A. 1956: 109
1956
Loc

Canthon smaragdulum

Louzada J. N. C. 1998: 125
Blackwelder R. 1944: 201
1944
Loc

Canthon speculifer

Pereira F. S. & Martinez A. 1956: 111
Guerin J. 1953: 257
Gacharna G. C. 1951: 221
Lange R. B. 1947: 307
Blackwelder R. 1944: 201
Pessoa S. B. & Lane F. 1941: 420
Balthasar V. 1939: 203
Boucomont A. 1928: 2
Heyne A. & Taschenberg O. 1908: 61
Harold E. 1875: 58
Gemminger M. & Harold E. 1869: 994
Harold E. 1868: 13
1868
Loc

Canthon smaragdulus

Lange R. B. 1947: 307
Pessoa S. B. & Lane F. 1941: 420
Balthasar V. 1939: 203
Staig R. A. 1931: 44
Boucomont A. 1928: 2
Schmidt A. 1922: 69
Gillet J. J. E. 1911: 33
Harold E. 1875: 59
Gemminger M. & Harold E. 1869: 994
Harold E. 1868: 14
Blanchard E. 1846: 161
1846
Loc

Canthon speculifer

Castelnau Comte 1840: 68
1840
Loc

Coprobius smaragdulus

Brulle G. A. 1838: 294
1838
Loc

Ateuchus smaragdulus

Fabricius J. C. 1801: 58
1801
Loc

Scarabaeus smaragdulus

Fabricius J. C. 1792: 70
Jablonsky C. G. & Herbst J. F. W. 1789: 328
Olivier G. A. 1789: 158
Fabricius J. C. 1787: 18
1787
Loc

Scarabaeus smaragdulus

Fabricius J. C. 1781: 34
1781