Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868,

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z., 2018, Taxonomic revision of the South American subgenus Canthon (Goniocanthon) Pereira & Martínez, 1956 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), European Journal of Taxonomy 437, pp. 1-31: 11-14

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.437

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AF27DA05-746B-459D-AC8C-4F059EAA4146

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3793669

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/191B87A8-FF94-3C32-FE45-FA8DFDA0DFE3

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868
status

 

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868 

Figs 1View Fig D–F, I–J, 3, 7–8, 10

Redescription (male)

COLOUR. Dorsal surface with golden metallic sheen.

HEAD. Frontal surface smooth, lacking horns or tubercles. Clypeal teeth with rounded apex, with thin setae at apex and separated by a U-shaped emargination. Clypeo-genal junction slightly emarginated, rounded. Clypeo-genal suture present.

PRONOTUM. Disc simply convex, smooth, lacking microscultpure (120 × magnification). Anterior and posterior angles acute. Lateral borders effaced. Posterior border with lateral semicircular emarginations near to posterior angles.

HYPOMERON. Lacking transverse keel, surface black with chagrined microsculpture. Sparse setae present at anterior portion.

METASTERNUM. Anterior lobe slightly convex ( Fig. 1EView Fig).

ELYTRA. Striae weakly impressed, more distinct near elytral basis, 8 th stria carinate along its basal third. Interstriae flat.

LEGS. Protibiae three-toothed, dorsal surface with two tufts of setae present on each tibial tooth. Protibial spur truncated, wider than long and apically emarginated, forming two spines. External border of protibia serrated. Profemur ventral surface black, glabrous, with a distal tooth on its anterior border. Ventral face of meso- and metatibiae rugose on posterior half ( Fig. 1DView Fig). Meso- and meta-trochanter with a hair tuft near femur articulation.

ABDOMEN. Ventrites glabrous, lacking punctures and not narrowed medially.

PYGIDIUM. Convex. Basal line delimiting pygidium from pro-pygidium. Metallic sheen pattern similar to those of pronotal disc.

PARAMERA. In lateral view ( Fig. 1IView Fig): flattened; apex truncated; upper angle rounded; lower angle acute, forming a spine or tooth. On dorsal view ( Fig. 1JView Fig): membranous portion wider at central portion and narrower near apex and basis. Apex rounded.

INTERNAL SAC ( Fig. 7View Fig). FLP involving A forming a central duct with spiniform apex. SA lateral to FLP + A complex. MP distal to A, semicircular, widely emarginated; FLP + A complex involved by MP. SRP with lateral prolongation.

Morphological variation

BL: 8–16 mm, PW: 5–10 mm. Dorsal surface metallic sheen may vary between green, golden or red metallic colouration ( Fig. 3View Fig A–C). Protibial spur of females as wide as long, with apical U-shaped emargination. Pygidium and metasternal anterior lobe less protuberant in females than in males.

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868  Figs 1View Fig D–F, I–J, 3A, 8, 10

Canthon fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868: 51  .

Canthon fulgidus  – Gemminger & Harold 1869: 991 (catalogue). — Gillet 1911: 29 (catalogue). — Schmidt 1920: 118 (taxonomy); 1922: 69 (key). — Balthasar 1939: 203 (key); 1941: 342 (catalogue); 1951: 327 (catalogue). — Blackwelder 1944: 199 (catalogue). — Guérin 1953: 257 (catalogue).

Goniocanthon fulgidus  – Pereira & Martínez, 1956: 111. — Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 593 (catalogue).

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus  – Halffter & Martínez, 1977: 75. — Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (species list).

Diagnosis

In the subgenus, C. (G.) fulgidus fulgidus  is separated by the following combination of characters: meso- and metafemora ventral surface rugose on its posterior half ( Fig. 1DView Fig); dorsal surface of pronotum and elytral disc with similar golden metallic colouration ( Fig. 3AView Fig); metasternum anterior lobe weakly convex ( Fig. 1EView Fig); profemur with a tooth on its anterior border. Paramera in lateral view ( Fig. 1IView Fig): flattened; apex truncated; upper angle rounded; lower angle acute, forming a spine or tooth. Internal sac (identical to Canthon (G.) fulgidus martinezi  subsp. nov., see Fig. 7View Fig): FLP involving A forming a central duct with spiniform apex. SA lateral to FLP + A complex present. MP distal to A, not divided, semicircular, widely emarginated; FLP + A complex involved by MP.

Material examined

Lectotype (for Canthon fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868  ; here designated)

BRAZIL: ♁, Natt 12 (brown label) / C. fulgidus  det. Letraf 93 (white) / TYPUS (red) / fulgidus Redt  (white) / fulgidus  Brasil Redt. (white with black margins) / LECTOTYPE, Canthon fulgidus Redtenb.  , des F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello 2013 ( NMW).

 

Non-type material (106 specimens)

BRAZIL – Mato Grosso: 1 ♀, Apiacás, Boca da Onça, Varredura, Jan.–May 2008, N. Pinho leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Alta Floresta, Chácara Recanto das Orquídeas, 9º56′14″ S, 56º7′12″ W, 2 Apr. 2009, A. Benelli leg. ( CEMT); 17 ♁♁, 18 ♀♀, Alta Floresta, 9º53′40″ S, 56º16′35″ W and 9º53′40″ S, 56º16′34″ W, frag. 26 centro, human faeces, pitfall, Jun. 2008, E. Berenguer leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 2 ♀♀, Alta Floresta, 9º47′56″ S, 55º55′51″ W, frag. 62, human faeces, pitfall, May 2008, E. Berenguer leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♁♁, 2 ♀♀, Alta Floresta, Ceplac, pitfall, 6 Feb. 2009, V. Gonçalves leg. ( CEMT); 14 ♁♁, 3 ♀♀, same data as for preceding, but 24 May 2009 ( CEMT); 1 ♁, same data as for preceding, but 4 Dec. 2009 ( CEMT); 2 ♀♀, Paranaíta, 9º32′52″ S, 56º42′05″ W., 5 May 2009, R.A.K. Ribeiro leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Paranaíta, Trilha 3, 9º48′08″ S, 56º20′32″ W, Dec. 2013, R.E. Vicente leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♁♁, Paranaíta, Módulo Cajueiro, 9º28′32″ S, 56º28′20″ W, May 2005, H.A.B. Faria leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Paranaíta, Módulo Higino, 9º33′26″ S, 59º44′43″ W, 5 May 2009, R.A.K. Ribeiro leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 2 ♀♀, Cláudia, 11º25′16″ S, 55º18′35″ W, PPBIO-II T 1P 3, 320 m a.s.l., mistnet 1–1.5 m a.s.l., 1 Apr. 2010, F.P. Florêncio leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Cláudia, 11º26′01″ S, 55º18′26″ W, PPBIO-II T 2-P 9, 325 m a.s.l., Apr. 2010, F.P. Florêncio leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Fazenda Continental, 11º24′57″ S, 55º19′2″ W, 20 Feb. 2010, M.F. Souza leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, same data as for preceding, but, 11º35′59″ S, 55º15′55″ W ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 16 May 2008, M.L. Santos leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda. 14 Oct. 2008, E. Macena leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀ Carlinda, 15 Oct. 2008, N. Gavilan leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 16 Oct. 2008, I.B. Banheza leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 21 Oct. 2008, K. Segato leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 23 Oct. 2008, E.P.P. Cruz leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 14 Oct. 2008, G. V. Furlan leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♁♁, 1 ♀, Carlinda, 10 Oct. 2009, E. Teles leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 11 Oct. 2009, M.M.C. Pril leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♁♁, Carlinda. 12 Oct. 2009, J.S. Costa leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♁♁, Carlinda, 12 Oct. 2009, V. Nunes leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♀, Carlinda, 17 Oct. 2009, L.C. Santos leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Carlinda, 18 Oct. 2009, D.S. Soares leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Cuiabá, Recanto dos Pássaros, 15º35′49″ S, 56º2′19″ W, 8 Feb. 2009, A.K. Azevedo leg. ( CEMT).

Distribution

Brazil, state of Mato Grosso, covering Amazon-Cerrado transitions including semi-deciduous and gallery forests ( Fig. 8View Fig).

Natural history remarks

This subspecies and C. fulgidus pereirai  subsp. nov. (described later in this paper) are found in Amazonian primary and secondary forests as well as in semideciduous and gallery forests in the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia. However, both subspecies are especially abundant in várzea forest environments, where individuals of C. fulgidus  are easily found perching on larger leaves exposed to sunlight in forest understory between 0.50 m and 2.5 m high ( Fig. 10View Fig). Both males and females can wait up to 30 minutes on the same leaf, usually in the warmer hours of the day (between 10 am and 4 pm), only moving the antennae, probably trying to capture some odoriferous plume as described in Louzada (1998) for similar species. We have observed several times that, after perching, the individuals fly in the direction of some kind of primate faeces, including human. When manipulated, individuals of both subspecies release an odour of rotten or fermented fruit.

NMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Canthon

Loc

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus Redtenbacher, 1868

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z. 2018
2018
Loc

Canthon (Goniocanthon) fulgidus

Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2000: 191
Halffter G. & Martinez A. 1977: 75
1977
Loc

Goniocanthon fulgidus

Vulcano M. A. & Pereira F. S. 1964: 593
Pereira F. S. & Martinez A. 1956: 111
1956
Loc

Canthon fulgidus

Guerin J. 1953: 257
Blackwelder R. 1944: 199
Balthasar V. 1939: 203
Schmidt A. 1920: 118
Gillet J. J. E. 1911: 29
Gemminger M. & Harold E. 1869: 991
1869
Loc

Canthon fulgidus

Redtenbacher L. 1868: 51
1868