Canthon (Goniocanthon) bicolor Castelnau, 1840,

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z., 2018, Taxonomic revision of the South American subgenus Canthon (Goniocanthon) Pereira & Martínez, 1956 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), European Journal of Taxonomy 437, pp. 1-31: 17-24

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.437

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AF27DA05-746B-459D-AC8C-4F059EAA4146

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3793663

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/191B87A8-FF8E-3C26-FE67-FE6BFD52D837

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Canthon (Goniocanthon) bicolor Castelnau, 1840
status

 

Canthon (Goniocanthon) bicolor Castelnau, 1840 

Figs 4View Fig, 8View Fig

Canthon bicolor Castelnau, 1840: 69  .

Canthon bicolor  – Harold 1868: 14, 71 (key). — Gemminger & Harold 1869: 990 (catalogue). — Gillet 1911: 28 (catalogue). — Schmidt 1922: 64, 73 (key). — Balthasar 1939: 189 (key). — Blackwelder 1944: 198 (catalogue). — Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 604 (catalogue). — Halffter & Martínez 1977: 39, 70 (taxonomic remarks). — Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (species list).

Diagnosis

In the subgenus, C. (G.) bicolor Castelnau, 1840  is separated by the following combination of characters: ventral surface of meso- and metafemora smooth ( Fig. 4BView Fig); dorsal surface of pronotum and elytral disc with different colours, pronotum with light green metallic sheen and elytra with dark green metallic sheen ( Fig. 4AView Fig). Metasternal anterior lobe flat ( Fig. 4BView Fig). Profemur without teeth on anterior margin. Paramera, in lateral view ( Fig. 4FView Fig): flattened; apex semicircular; upper angle rounded; lower angle triangular. In dorsal view ( Fig. 4GView Fig). Internal sac ( Fig. 9View Fig): FLP not completely involving A forming two duct with spiniform apex. SA lateral to FLP + A complex absent. MP distal to A, divided in MP 1 and MP 2, MP 1 semicircular, MP 2 fishhook-shaped with two hook; FLP + A complex involved by MP 1.

Material examined

Lectotype (for Canthon bicolor Castelnau, 1840  ; here designated)

FRENCH GUIANA: ♀, Coprobius Bicolor DeLaporte  anim. art. p. 69 Canthon  nº 6 Cayennae Maroni D’DeLaporte (rectangular green label, border black) / G (small red label) / A. Gory coll. purchased 1849-1850 From H.L. GORY (white label) standing over: Coprobius bicolor DeLaporte, Cayennae  OX. UNI. MUS. NAT. HIST. ( OUMNH) (white label) / LECTOTYPE ♀ Canthon bicolor Cast.  des. F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2013” (red label) ( OUMNH).

 

Non-type material (248 specimens)

VENEZUELA – Bolívar: 3 ♀♀,Altiplanicie de Nuria (“El Hormiguero, Meseta de Nuria”), 500 m a.s.l., Expediction Instituto Zoologia Agricola de la Faculd de Agronomia, 13–17 Dec. 1974, Universidad Central de Venezuela leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♀♀, Sinfontes, 22 km S of El Dorado, flight interception trap, 25 Jun.–12 Jul. 1987, S. and J. Peck leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Sinfontes, 33 km S of El Dorado, 220 m a.s.l., 2–7 Aug. 1986, B. Gill leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Sinfontes, El Bochinche, Reserva Florestal Imataca, 200 m a.s.l., Expediction Instituto Zoologia Agricola de la Faculd de Agronomia, 6–13 Dec. 1974, Universidad Central de Venezuela leg. ( CMNC).

GUYANA: 2 ♁♁, 1 ♀, no locality, Mar. 1987, [local collector leg.] ( OUMNH); 1 unsexed specimen, Essequibo River, Monkey Jump, 19 Aug. 1929, Oxford University Expedition to British Guiana leg. ( BMNH).

SURINAM: 3 unsexed specimens, no more data ( BMNH); 1 ♁, no more data ( MZSP); 1 ♁, A.J. Buis and V. Balthasar leg. ( NMPC); 1 ♀, no locality or date, V. Balthasar leg. ( NMPC); 1 ♀, no locality and date, Dr. Will leg. ( ZMHB). – Paramaribo: 2 ♁♁, 1 ♀, no locality or date, S. V. Heller leg. ( ZMHB). – Commewijne: 1 ♁, 2 ♀♀, Akintosoela, 05º16′17″ N, 54º55′15″ W, 50 m a.s.l., dung trap, 2 Jul. 1999, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Akintosoela, 05º16′17″ N, 54º55′15″ W, 40 m a.s.l., flight interception

trap, 3 Jul. 1999, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC). – Marowijne: 1 ♀, Palumeu, 03º20′56″ N, 55º26′18″ W, flight interception trap, 9 Jul. 1999, Z. Falin leg. ( CMNC).

FRENCH GUIANA: 1 unsexed specimen, no locality, 1981, G. Tavakilian leg. ( MNHN); 1 ♀, “D-5 4k SE Tngmd Jct”, 24 Aug. 1995, J.E. Wappes leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, PK 45, Piste del Beligan, 7 Mar. 2003, no collector ( NMPC); 1 ♁, Cayenne, 1915, no collector ( MZSP); 1 ♁, Cayenne (“ 20km SW”), 04º48′18″ N, 52º28′41″ W, 30 m a.s.l., flight interception trap, 29 May–9 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Cayenne, Camopi, Oyapock river, Ilet Massikiri, [dung], 17 Nov. 1969, G. Halffter leg. ( CMNC); 7 ♁♁, 12 ♀♀, Cayenne, Montagne des Chevaux, 04º44′56″ N, 52º26′28″ W, 75 m a.s.l., 25 Sep. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 4 ♁♁, 1 ♀, same data as for preceding, but 27 Jan. 2013 ( CEMT); 4 ♁♁, 7 ♀♀, Cayenne, Kourou, flight interception trap, Jan. 2013, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♁♁, 1 ♀, Cayenne, La Chaumière, Apr. 1978, P. Arnaud leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♀♀, Cayenne, [Réserve naturelle nationale des] Nouragues, 04º05′ N, 52º40′ W, 155 m a.s.l., Mar. 1997, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♁♁, 1 ♀, same data as for preceding, but May 2003 ( CEMT); 5 ♁♁, 4 ♀♀, Cayenne, Paracou Field Station, 05º02′ N, 53º00′ W, 55 m a.s.l., Oct. 2003, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, 2 unsexed specimens, Cayenne, Roura (“ 8.4km SSE”), 04º40′41″ N, 52º13′25″ W, flight interception trap, 29 May–10 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♀♀, Cayenne, Roura, Montagne de Kaw, Jul. 1992, A. Chaminade leg. ( CEMT); 3 ♁♁, 7 ♀♀, Cayenne, Saint-Georges-de-l’Oyapock, 03º54′ N, 51º48′ W, 35 m a.s.l., May 2014, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT); 4 unsexed specimens, Nouveau Chantier, no date or collector ( MNHN – Le Moult collection); 1 ♁, Nouveau Chantier, no date or collector ( ZMHB – Le Moult collection); 1 specimen, Nouveau Chantier, Bas-Maroni, no date or collector ( MNHN); 6 ♁♁, 12 ♀♀, 3 unsexed specimens, Régina  (“S of Régina  ”), 30 Dec. 2006, M. Snižek leg. ( NMPC); 4 ♁♁, 3 ♀♀, Roura, Fourgassie, 15–30 Dec. 2006, M. Snižek leg. ( NMPC); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du- Maroni, no date and collector ( ZMHB – Le Moult collection); 1 unsexed specimen, Saint-Laurentdu-Maroni (“Maroni”), no date or collector ( MNHN); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (“Maroni”), no date or collector ( ZMHB); 1 ♁, 6 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (“Bas-Maroni”), no date or collector ( ISNB – Le Moult collection); 1 unsexed specimen, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, “Jun”, no collector ( ZMHB); 1 ♁, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (“Maroni”), 1915, no collector ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurentdu-Maroni (“Maroni”), Set. 1925, no collector ( MZSP); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Apr. 1976, F. Chalumeau leg. ( CEMT); 2 ♁♁, 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Apr. 1976, P. Arnaud leg. ( CEMT); 1 ♁, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Bélvédère de Saül (“Saül”), Jul. 1979, G. Nazareth leg. ( CEMT); 6 ♁♁, 3 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m a.s.l., flight interception trap, 13 May 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 7 ♁♁, 3 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Bélvédère de Saül, 03º37′22″ N, 53º12′57″ W, 326 m a.s.l., 21 Jul. 2011, SEAG leg. ( CEMT); 14 ♁♁, 18 ♀♀, 2 unsexed specimens, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni (“ 20km E of St. Laurent du Maroni”), [route] Crique Naï, 10 Dec. 2006, M. Snižek leg. ( NMPC); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7km N”), Les Eaux Claires, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, human faeces baited trap, 31 May–3 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♁, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7km N”), Les Eaux Claires, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, flight interception trap, 1–8 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♁♁, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7km N”), Les Eaux Claires, Mount La Fumée, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, flight interception trap, 1–8 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7km N”), Les Eaux Claires, Mount La Fumée, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, human faeces trap, 1–8 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 3 ♀♀, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül (“ 7km N”), Les Eaux Claires, Mount La Fumée, 03º39′46″ N, 53º13′19″ W, 300 m a.s.l., human faeces trap, 4–8 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 2 ♁♁, Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Maripasoula, Saül, Mount Galbao, 03º37′18″ N, 53º16′42″ W, 740 m a.s.l., flight interception trap, 5–7 Jun. 1997, J. Ashe and R. Brooks leg. ( CMNC); 5 ♁♁, 2 ♀♀, Sinnamary, Saint-Eugène, Barrage de Petit Saut, 04º51′ N, 53º04′ W, 90 m a.s.l., Dec. 1998, F. Feer leg. ( CEMT).

BRAZIL: 1 unsexed specimen, no more data ( MNHN); 1 ♀, illegible information (collector?) ( ZMHB). – Amapá: 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Serra do Navio, Jan. 1957, Pereira & Martínez leg. ( CMNC); 4 ♀♀, Serra do Navio, Sep. 1957, Pereira & Martínez leg. ( CMNC); 1 ♁, 2 unsexed specimens, Serra do Navio, 00º53′06″ N, 51º52′53″ W, Sep. 2000, R. Ribon leg. ( CEMT). – Pará: 6 unsexed specimens, Almeirim, Monte Dourado, Pacanari, 0º81′ S, 52º56′ W, Mar. 2006, T. Gardner and M. Hernández leg. ( BMNH); 1 ♁, 1 ♀, Almeirim, Monte Dourado, 00º50′08.89″ S, 53º02′34″ W, Mar. 2009, Schiffler et. al. leg. ( CEMT); 3 unsexed specimens, Santarém, Mar. 1990, O. Schmitt leg. ( MNHN).

Remarks on the lectotype designation

The specimen designated herein as lectotype has a label with Pierre François Marie Auguste Dejean’s handwriting indicating that François Louis Nompar de Caumont Laporte, the Comte of Castelnau, is the author of bicolor  and the collector of that specimen. We are aware that Castelnau sold or donated his collections, but there is no evidence to state that all syntypes of Castelnau were sold to a single collection or went to a single place.

Redescription

MALE. Dorsal surface pronotum and elytra disc with different colours, pronotum with light green metallic sheen and elytra with dark green metallic sheen ( Fig. 4AView Fig).

HEAD. Frontal surface smooth, lacking horns or tubercles. Clypeal teeth with rounded apex, with thin setae on apex and separated by a U-shaped emargination. Clypeo-genal junction slightly emarginated, rounded. Clypeo-genal suture present.

PRONOTUM. Disc simply convex, smooth, lacking microscultpure (120× magnification). Anterior and posterior angles acute. Lateral borders effaced. Posterior border with lateral semicircular emarginations near to posterior angles.

HYPOMERON. Lacking transverse keel, surface black with chagrined microsculpture. Sparse setae present at anterior portion.

METASTERNUM. Metasternal anterior lobe flat ( Fig. 4BView Fig).

ELYTRA. Striae weakly impressed, more distinct near elytral basis, 8 th stria carinate along its basal third. Interstriae flat.

LEGS. Protibiae three-toothed, dorsal face with two tufts of setae present on each tibial teeth. Protibial spur truncated, larger than tall and apically emarginated, forming two spines ( Fig. 4DView Fig). External border of protibia serrated. Profemur ventral face brown, glabrous, without a distal tooth on its anterior border. Ventral face of meso- and metatibiae rugose on posterior half ( Fig. 4BView Fig). Meta-trochanter having a hair tuft near femur articulation.

ABDOMEN. Ventrites glabrous, lacking punctures and not narrowed medially.

PYGIDIUM. Convex. Basal line delimiting pygidium from pro-pygidium. Metallic sheen pattern similar to that of pronotal disc.

PARAMERA. In lateral view ( Fig. 4FView Fig): flattened; apex semicircular; upper angle rounded; lower angle triangular. In dorsal view ( Fig. 4GView Fig): membranous portion wider at central portion and narrower near apex and basis. Apex rounded.

INTERNAL SAC ( Fig. 9View Fig). FLP not completely involving A forming two duct with spiniform apex. MP distal to A, divided in MP 1 and MP 2, MP 1 semicircular, MP 1 fishhook-shaped with two hook; FLP + A complex involved by MP 2. SRP with lateral prolongation.

Morphological variation

BL: 10–13 mm, PW: 7–8.5 mm. Female protibial spur as wide as long, with apical U-shaped emargination ( Fig. 4EView Fig). Pygidium convexity less protuberant in females than in males.

Distribution

North of the Amazon forest, in Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana and Brazil (state of Amapá) ( Fig. 8View Fig).

Taxonomic remarks

This is the first time in the taxonomic history of Canthon  that C. bicolor  is considered part of the subgenus Goniocanthon  . The following character combination supports this decision: metafemora not claviform, hypomeron lacking transverse keel and pygidium strongly convex, an exclusive character of Goniocanthon  among the genus. The latter character was already cited by some authors for C. bicolor  (e.g., Harold 1868; Schmidt 1922; Balthasar 1939). In a preliminary phylogenetic analysis, Medina et al. (2003) place this species close to the subgenera Goniocanthon  and Peltecanthon  , mainly due to male internal sac sclerites. The main morphological difference of C. bicolor  among Goniocanthon  is the flat metasternum anterior lobe and the MP sclerite in the internal sac, which is divided in two structures (MP1 and MP2, Fig. 9View Fig). The relationship with Peltecanthon  should be investigated with a more comprehensive phylogenetic analysis.

UNI

University of Northern Iowa

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

NMPC

National Museum Prague

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Canthon

Loc

Canthon (Goniocanthon) bicolor Castelnau, 1840

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z. 2018
2018
Loc

Canthon bicolor

Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2000: 191
Halffter G. & Martinez A. 1977: 39
Vulcano M. A. & Pereira F. S. 1964: 604
Blackwelder R. 1944: 198
Balthasar V. 1939: 189
Schmidt A. 1922: 64
Gillet J. J. E. 1911: 28
Gemminger M. & Harold E. 1869: 990
Harold E. 1868: 14
1868
Loc

Canthon bicolor

Castelnau Comte 1840: 69
1840