Hylekobolus brachiosauroides Wesener,

Wesener, Thomas, Enghoff, Henrik & Sierwald, Petra, 2009, Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of ' fire millipedes' (Diplopoda), ZooKeys 19 (19), pp. 1-128: 102-104

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http://doi.org/ 10.3897/zookeys.19.221

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scientific name

Hylekobolus brachiosauroides Wesener

sp. n.

Hylekobolus brachiosauroides Wesener  , sp. n.


Material examined: 26 ♂, 21 ♀, 6 imm. Holotype: 1 ♂ (55 mm long), FMMC W089, Vohimena Mountains , West slope, Ivorona, 114 m, rainforest, 24°50.026’ S, 46°56.943’ E, leg. Wesener et al., 23.V.2007GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 3 ♂, 4 ♀, FMMC W089, same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, ZMUC W089View Materials, same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, ZMH W089View Materials, same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, CAS W089View Materials, same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, ZSM W089View Materials, same data as holotypeGoogleMaps  .

Other material examined: 4 ♂, 4 ♀, W089, same data as holotype, voucher specimens deposited at the University AntananarivoGoogleMaps  ; 5 ♂, 4 ♀, 2 imm., FMMC W049 B, Andohahela, Isaka-Ivondro Sud , 46 m, rainforest, 24°49.690’ S, 46°51.971’ E, leg. Wesener et al., 08.VI.2007GoogleMaps  ; 5 ♂, 4 ♀, 2 imm., W049B, same data as previous, voucher specimens deposited at the University AntananarivoGoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂, 2 ♀, FMMC W099, Ambatotsirongorongo Mountain, Grand Lavasoa , rainforest, 25°5’10.23” S, 46°44’55.93” E, rainforest, leg. Wesener et al., 14.VI.2007GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 imm., W099, same data as previous, voucher specimens deposited at the University AntananarivoGoogleMaps  .

Differential diagnosis: H. brachiosauroides  differs in size and colour from the sympatric living H. albicollaris  sp. n. The posterior gonopods ( Figs 55M, OView Figure 55) of H. brachiosauroides  differ from other, same-sized Hylekobolus  species: the lateral margin carries a thick, swollen, well-rounded projection ( Fig. 55MView Figure 55), a feature only shared with H. montanus  sp. n. H. brachiosauroides  differs from H. montanus  sp. n. in the presence of a protruding apical process (x) on the posterior gonopods, a weakly protruding lateral retrorse process of the anterior gonopod ( Fig. 55NView Figure 55), and a different colour pattern.

Description. Measurements: males with 50 or 51 rings, 53–62 mm long, 4.8–5.2 mm wide. Females with 50 or 51 rings, 58–72 mm long, 5.1–6.0 mm wide.

Coloration: anterior part of head and collum, posterior part of telson and posterior margin of body rings lightly red or white ( Figs 53AView Figure 53, 55A, CView Figure 55). Legs and antennae white ( Fig. 53AView Figure 53). Anterior part of body rings, telson, posterior part of head and collum black ( Figs 53AView Figure 53, 55AView Figure 55). Eyes with 40–44 ocelli ( Fig. 55DView Figure 55).

Anterior gonopod sternite basally wide, apically elevated into a triangular lobe with a triangular, wide, well-rounded tip ( Fig. 55LView Figure 55). Mesal process of coxite wide and only slightly protruding ( Fig. 55LView Figure 55). Apical process of telopodite large and well-rounded. Retrorse margin wide, not projecting above telopodite margin ( Fig. 55NView Figure 55). Margin of apical process basally wide and projecting ( Fig. 55NView Figure 55).

Posterior gonopods telopodite bent 90° ( Fig. 55OView Figure 55). Lateral margin with a thick, swollen, well-rounded projection (w, Fig. 55MView Figure 55). Apical process (x) apically slender, basally with a widely protruding margin ( Fig. 55MView Figure 55). Membranous lobe (y) rectangular ( Fig. 55MView Figure 55). Projection of sperm canal (z) long and slender, slightly curved towards apical process ( Fig. 55MView Figure 55).

Intraspecific variation: coloration of the posterior margin of body ring varies in adults between white and reddish, while it is always white in imm..

Distribution and ecology: this species was found in the isolated Ambatotsirongorongo Mountain, the Andohahela Isaka-Ivondro corridor as well as on the western slopes of the Vohimena Mountain ( Fig. 54View Figure 54). H. brachiosauroides  could not be collected north of the Isaka-Ivondro corridor, where H. goodmani  sp. n. and H. montanus  sp. n. occur. In the eastern Vohimena slopes, H. rufus  sp. n. replaces H. brachiosauroides  . All individuals were collected inside dead logs.

Etymology: brachiosauroides  , adjective, refers to the dinosaur genus Brachiosaurus  , whose neck and head closely resemble the general shape of the posterior gonopods of this millipede.


Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen


Zoologisches Museum Hamburg


California Academy of Sciences


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology