Pseudocentrobolus Wesener,

Wesener, Thomas, Enghoff, Henrik & Sierwald, Petra, 2009, Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of ' fire millipedes' (Diplopoda), ZooKeys 19 (19), pp. 1-128: 56-62

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.19.221

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scientific name

Pseudocentrobolus Wesener

gen. n.

Pseudocentrobolus Wesener  , gen. n.

Type species: Pseudocentrobolus aureus  sp. n.

Other species included:

P. vohibasiensis  sp. n.

Diagnosis: posterior gonopods are unique, distinct ( Figs 35View Figure 35 C–F): telopodite basally with a membranous process carrying sperm canal; telopodite apically with a distinct, unique rounded disc, which is covered with numerous spine-like structures ( Figs 35B, EView Figure 35); coxite basally at sperm canal with an obligate finger-shaped process, which is not curved but straight like in Granitobolus  gen. n. Natural coloration conspicuously contrasting, with golden, black or red pattern ( Figs 31A, C, DView Figure 31, 36B). Gnathochilarium with a subdivided mentum and a single sclerotized ledge on each stipites ( Figs 32View Figure 32 D–F), like in Flagellobolus  , Riotintobolus  , Granitobolus  gen. n., Caprobolus  gen. n., Alluviobolus  gen. n., Ostinobolus  gen. n. Shares numerous characters only with species of the genus Granitobolus  gen. n.: a stout preanal process, which prominently extends beyond anal valves ( Figs 31CView Figure 31, 36B), well-developed lips on the anal valves, thick moniliform body rings which overlap each widely to the metazonite ( Fig. 31CView Figure 31), rectangular extensions ( Figs 33B, CView Figure 33) on the posterior margins of the rings and a greatly enlarged collum, which is ventrally longer than the body ring 2. The habitus and shape of the anterior gonopod ( Figs 34A, BView Figure 34) are also very similar to species of Granitobolus  gen. n.

Distribution and ecology: two species of Pseudocentrobolus  are recorded from the dry spiny and subhumid forests in Southwestern Madagascar ( Fig. 30View Figure 30). A third species, whose external characters fit very well into Pseudocentrobolus  but where no mature male could be collected, was discovered in the spiny forest of Andohahela in Southeastern Madagascar ( Fig. 30View Figure 30).

Description. Males: length up to 48 mm, diameter up to 4.5 mm. 38–40 podous rings. Females: length up to 48 mm, diameter up to 5.1 mm. 39 or 40 podous rings. Apodous rings absent in all adult specimens.

Colour (after short time in alcohol): mesozona golden ( Fig. 31AView Figure 31) or greenish (fad- ed to grey in some specimens), metazona blackish ( Fig. 31AView Figure 31) or golden ( Fig. 36BView Figure 36). Head, antennae, gonopods, legs and at least posterior part of telson golden ( Fig. 31CView Figure 31) or reddish ( Fig. 36BView Figure 36).

Head: each eye with circa 38–42 ocelli arranged in 7 or 8 vertical rows ( Figs 31DView Figure 31, 36A). Labrum with standard three irregular teeth and one row of 10–12 stout marginal setae ( Fig. 36AView Figure 36). Clypeus with two setiferous foveolae on each side. Antennae short or very short, reaching back to ring 2 or 4 ( Figs 31DView Figure 31, 36A). Relative lengths of antennomeres: 1<2=3=4=5=6 ( Fig. 32BView Figure 32). Terminal antennomere with four large sensory cones located together inside a membranous area ( Fig. 32AView Figure 32). Antennomere 5 latero-apically with four rows, antennomere 6 with two rows ( Figs 32A, CView Figure 32) of sensilla basiconica.

Gnathochilarium unusual ( Fig. 32DView Figure 32). Lamellae linguales each with two standard setae located behind one another. Stipites each with three apical setae ( Fig. 32DView Figure 32). Mentum basally subdivided by a well-developed suture ( Figs 32D, FView Figure 32). Stipites each towards mentum with a wide sclerotized ledge ( Fig. 32DView Figure 32). Palpi of gnathochilarium with numerous sensilla. Hypopharyngeal crest with a field of spine-like structures ( Fig. 32EView Figure 32). Central pads of endochilarium separated into two areas: a group of 8–10 sensilla located apically, and medial palps with numerous sensilla each, located closely towards hypopharyngeal crest ( Fig. 32GView Figure 32).

Mandible: external tooth simple, rounded; mesal tooth with three cusps ( Fig. 33AView Figure 33). Six pectinate lamellae. Mesal margin of pectinate area (intermediate area) with circa four rows of small, slender spines. Molar plate with numerous (10 or 11) transverse furrows ( Fig. 33AView Figure 33).

Collum: smooth, laterally longer than body ring 2 ( Figs 31DView Figure 31, 36A). Lobe enlarged, laterally covering antenna and part of head ( Fig. 31DView Figure 31).

Body rings: moniliform, overlapping one another up to anterior half of mesozona. Metazona of swollen appearance, width greater than those of pro- or mesozona. Transverse impressions covering mesozona ( Fig. 33BView Figure 33), metazona with irregular punctations ( Fig. 33CView Figure 33). Posterior margin of rings slightly excavated into rectangular extensions ( Fig. 33CView Figure 33). Ozopores starting at ring 6, touching suture between mesozona and metazona ( Fig. 31CView Figure 31).

Telson: anal valves with well-developed lips and micropunctation but with neither grooves nor setae. Preanal process well-rounded or sharp, extending beyond anal valves ( Fig. 31CView Figure 31). Subanal scale inconspicuous.

Legs: coxae 1 and 2 elongated and fused with sternum, podomeres from prefemur to tarsus in both sexes each with 4–10 ventral/mesal setae ( Fig. 31EView Figure 31). Length of midbody legs circa 0.6 times body diameter in both sexes ( Fig. 31FView Figure 31). Each podomere with an apical, ventral seta. Coxae 3 and beyond of rectangular shape ( Fig. 31FView Figure 31). Tarsus with a stout dorso-apical setae and a pair of stout ventro-apical ones in males, in females with three pair of setae, apical pair stout, others successively much smaller.

Male sexual characters: tarsi 3 and beyond with a tarsal pad not protruding past base of claw. Coxae 3–7 with species-specific modifications.

Anterior gonopods: median sternal projection triangular, with a wide rectangular tip ( Figs 35AView Figure 35, 49CView Figure 49). Sternite protruding almost as high as coxite and telopodite ( Fig. 35AView Figure 35). Coxite wide, smoothly rounded, laterally curving around telopodite, on posterior side visible laterally as a small, triangular sclerite ( Fig. 35BView Figure 35). Coxite anteriorly almost entirely covering telopodite ( Fig. 35AView Figure 35). Telopodite with a short, well-rounded process. Process curved laterally, not or only slightly projecting above telopodite margin ( Fig. 35BView Figure 35). Mesal margin elevated, laterally with a sharp ridge ( Fig. 35BView Figure 35).

Posterior gonopods in situ almost completely covered by anterior gonopod. Suture separating coxite and telopodite well-visible. Sternite sclerotized and well-visible ( Figs 31HView Figure 31, 34D). Finger-shaped process of coxite ( Fig. 34DView Figure 34) not curved apically, but coaxial to coxite. Coxite mesally with a single groove, basally wide, protruding into a short stem towards telopodite. Telopodite as long and as wide as coxite ( Fig. 31GView Figure 31). Telopodites arranged face-to-face with one another ( Figs 31G, HView Figure 31). A rounded disc present on apical part of telopodite ( Figs 31G, HView Figure 31), disc covered with numerous tiny sclerotized teeth ( Figs 34B, EView Figure 34), basally with a membranous process, into which sperm canal is discharging ( Figs 34A, D, EView Figure 34).

Female sexual characters: vulva simple, bivalve-like, with a small, poorly sclerotized operculum at base ( Fig. 33DView Figure 33). Anterior valve apically overlapping posterior one, both valves smooth, lacking sensory cones. Towards opening on each valve basally with two or three rows of setae ( Fig. 33DView Figure 33).

Etymology: Pseudocentrobolus  , masculine, refers to the superficial resemblance of species of this genus to some species of the South African genus Centrobolus  .












Pseudocentrobolus Wesener

Wesener, Thomas, Enghoff, Henrik & Sierwald, Petra 2009

P. vohibasiensis

Wesener & Enghoff & Sierwald 2009