Spirobolida, Cook, 1895

Wesener, Thomas, Enghoff, Henrik & Sierwald, Petra, 2009, Review of the Spirobolida on Madagascar, with descriptions of twelve new genera, including three genera of ' fire millipedes' (Diplopoda), ZooKeys 19 (19), pp. 1-128: 5-7

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3897/zookeys.19.221

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C473F9F6-1AE7-4B3F-B17F-CA1C2709010C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1772122E-7803-FFC0-FF01-3E47AB0AEEEF

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Spirobolida
status

 

Key to the Malagasy genera of Spirobolida  of the family Pachybolidae  :

1 Male coxa 5 with a process curved anteriorly and covering coxa 4................ ..................................................................... Leptogoniulus Silvestri, 1897  only L. sorornus (Butler, 1876)  , introduced to Madagascar ( Shelley and Lehtinen 1999).

– Male coxa 5 lacking processes, or if processes present, then never curved anteriorly. ...................................................................................................... 2

2 Anterior gonopod box-like, coxite and telopodite reaching similar height, lacking any processes. Collum unmodified. Preanal process absent............... ........................................................................... Trigoniulus Pocock, 1894 Only  T. corallinus (Gervais, 1847)  , introduced to Madagascar ( Shelley and Lehtinen 1999).

– Anterior gonopods not box-like, or if box-shaped, then at least telopodite with a process, a well-developed preanal process and an enlarged collum ( Fig. 31DView Figure 31).......................................................................................................... 3

3 Incisura lateralis closed. Each lamella lingualis on gnathochilarium with four or more setae, all located at apical margin. Vulva kidney shaped, both valves meet in sinuous fissure .................... Madabolus Wesener & Enghoff, 2008 See Wesener et al. 2008 

– Incisura lateralis open ( Figs 1AView Figure 1, 13AView Figure 13). Lamella lingualis each with two setae located behind one another. Vulva simple, bivalve-like ( Fig. 4View Figure 4)................... 4

4 Adult males> 95 mm long and> 7 mm wide. Usually with blood-red/black colour pattern ( Fig. 1AView Figure 1) ............................................................................. 5

– Adult males <80 mm long and <6.5 mm wide, colour never blood red/ pitchblack.................................................................................................. 8

5 Coxite of anterior gonopod with a slender, elongated process, longer than telopodite. Telopodite of posterior gonopod basally diverging into two slender branches, i.e. mesal main branch and lateral basal branch. Both branches curved towards one another, forming an ‘O’ or almost closed ‘C’. Sperm canal always on mesal main branch ................ Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897  (ten species) See Wesener et al. 2009

– Process of coxite of anterior gonopod short and wide, or, if slender, then never as long as telopodite. Telopodite of posterior gonopod not like above .......... 6

6 Telopodite of posterior gonopod large, with a blunt tip; branches or processes absent ( Fig. 2CView Figure 2). Telopodite and coxite of equal length, fused, only suture visible ( Fig. 1FView Figure 1). Telopodite of anterior gonopod with a large, triangular, retrorse process ( Fig. 1EView Figure 1). Coxite with a slender, elongated process ( Fig. 2AView Figure 2). Male tarsal pads present only to midbody legs .............. Corallobolus  gen. n. (monotypic)

– Posterior gonopod always divided into at least two branches. Telopodite and coxite clearly separated by a suture and a membranous area. Often with a stout, finger-shaped mesal coxite branch at suture between coxite and telopodite ( Fig. 6CView Figure 6). Coxite far longer than telopodite ( Fig. 6CView Figure 6). Process of anterior gonopod telopodite never retrorse ( Fig. 6BView Figure 6), process of coxite short and wide ( Fig. 6AView Figure 6). Male tarsal pads present on legs 3 and beyond ............ 7

7 Telopodite process of anterior gonopod slender basally, proximally widely swollen ( Fig. 6BView Figure 6). Telopodite of posterior gonopod is not divided into a lateral main branch and a mesal brance; no swollen area present ( Fig. 6CView Figure 6). Sperm canal running through lateral branch ( Fig. 6DView Figure 6)............................................ ............................................................ Sanguinobolus  gen. n. (monotypic)

– Telopodite process of anterior gonopod slender ( Fig. 9DView Figure 9). Telopodite of posterior gonopod divided into a mesal main branch and a lateral branch ( Fig. 9HView Figure 9). Membranous swollen area located between both branches ( Fig. 9IView Figure 9). Sperm canal running through mesal branch ( Fig. 9FView Figure 9) .................................. ............................................................. Colossobolus  gen. n. (seven species)

8 Head with an antennal groove. Antenna protruding back to only body ring 2. Head sclerite overlapping part of basal joints of mandible ( Fig. 25DView Figure 25). Mentum of gnathochilarium not subdivided by a suture ( Fig. 25EView Figure 25) .................... ................................................... Dactylobolus Golovatch & Korsós, 1992 On  Madagascar only D. bivirgatus ( Karsch, 1881)  . Species occurs also on the Comoros, Seychelles and close to Zanzibar. Probably introduced ( VandenSpiegel and Golovatch 2007)

– Antennal groove absent ( Fig. 26CView Figure 26). Antenna at least protruding back to ring 3, often longer. Especially first basal joint of mandible swollen, projecting towards head, but never above ocelli ( Fig. 26CView Figure 26). Mentum often subdivided by a suture ( Fig. 26FView Figure 26)................................................................................. 9

9 Sperm canal projecting above lateral margin of telopodite of posterior gonopod ( Fig. 22GView Figure 22).................................... Zehntnerobolus  gen. n. (monotypic)

– Sperm canal never projecting above margins of telopodite of posterior gonopod, or, if so, then never at lateral, but at mesal margin ........................... 10

10 Telopodite, coxite and sternite of anterior gonopod mesally noticeably elongated into slender processes. Mentum of gnathochilarium not subdivided ... ........................... Spiromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901  (13 species) See Wesener and Enghoff, 2009

– Telopodite, coxite and sternite of anterior gonopod never altogether elongated into slender processes. Mentum of gnathochilarium basally subdivided (with two exceptions in Riotintobolus  ) by a suture ( Fig. 26GView Figure 26)................... 11

11 Telopodite of posterior gonopod strongly elongated into a simple flagellum ( Fig. 23EView Figure 23). Telopodite of anterior gonopod not apically, but at mid-length (!) with a slender, retrorse process ( Fig. 23DView Figure 23) Flagellobolus  gen. n. (monotypic)

– Telopodite of posterior gonopod never shaped like a simple flagellum. Telopodite of anterior gonopods never at mid-length with a slender, retrorse process ..................................................................................................... 12

12 Telopodite of posterior gonopod apically always with a flag-like membranous extension ( Fig. 26MView Figure 26) ............................ Riotintobolus  gen. n. (four species)

– Posterior gonopod without a flag-like membranous extension.................. 13

13 Preanal process present, protruding ( Fig. 26BView Figure 26). Collum greatly enlarged, ventrally longer than body ring 2 ( Fig. 31AView Figure 31). Posterior margin of body rings with rectangular extensions ( Fig. 33CView Figure 33). Rings moniliform, caudal margins uplifted ( Fig. 31AView Figure 31) ................................................................................... 14

– Preanal process absent ( Fig. 39CView Figure 39). Collum of usual shape ( Fig. 39AView Figure 39). Body rings without extensions, not moniliform ( Fig. 39CView Figure 39) ............................... 15

14 Telopodite of posterior gonopods at mesal margin with a rounded disc carrying numerous small spines ( Figs 31AView Figure 31, 34A, B), and a membranous process at mid-length ( Fig. 34DView Figure 34) ................... Pseudocentrobolus  gen. n. (two species)

– Telopodite of posterior gonopods without a disc, apically with a beak-shaped process ( Fig. 37MView Figure 37), at mid-length without a process .................................... .............................................................. Granitobolus  gen. n. (two species)

15 Telopodite of anterior gonopod with a very long, thin, sabre-like process ( Fig. 41BView Figure 41). Telopodite of posterior gonopod basally divided into two long, slender branches of similar length and width, resembling a U ( Fig. 41DView Figure 41)................. .................................................................. Caprobolus  gen. n. (monotypic)

– Anterior and posterior gonopods not shaped like above ........................... 16

16 Process of anterior gonopod telopodite basally slender, apically wide and slightly swollen ( Fig. 44EView Figure 44). Posterior gonopod without a swollen membranous area. Sperm canal discharging on lateral margin ( Fig. 44HView Figure 44) ................. ................................................................ Alluviobolus  sp. n. (three species)

– Anterior gonopod apically never with a slender process. Posterior telopodite apically with a swollen membranous area ( Fig. 48JView Figure 48). Sperm canal discharging at mesal margin........................................ Ostinobolus  gen. n. (four species)