Hadronyche

Gray, Michael R., 2010, A Revision of the Australian Funnel-web Spiders (Hexathelidae: Atracinae), Records of the Australian Museum 62 (3), pp. 285-392: 295-307

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.3853/j.0067-1975.62.2010.1556

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/163F87D5-FFE1-FFB3-C705-93885536F81C

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Hadronyche
status

 

Genus Hadronyche   —Key to species

1 Large spiders (male CL 10.0–12.0). Tibia II with a large, protuberant, rounded apophysis ( Fig. 30C View Figure 30 ). PLS relatively long (PLSASL> 3×W) ( Figs. 1F View Figure 1 , 30D View Figure 30 ) .......................................................................... H. formidabilis  

—— Spiders usually smaller. Tibia II apophysis less prominent or absent. PLS often shorter ............................................................................................................... 2

2 Tibia I and metatarsus I incrassate ( Fig. 106F View Figure 106 ) ...................................................... H. adelaidensis  

—— Tibia I and metatarsus I not incrassate ........................................................................................... 3

3 Palpal patella with many spines (12–16) (Fig. 103F). Leg II unmodified ..................................................................................................................... H. flindersi  

—— Palpal patella spines absent or fewer (0–9). Leg II modified or unmodified ..................................................................................................................................... 4

4 Labium and sternum fused medially, labiosternal sigilla divided (Fig. 50A) ..................................................................................................................... H. mascordi  

—— Labium and sternum not fused, labiosternal sigilla entire ............................................................. 5

5 Caput high and wide frontally, almost bulbous, rising relatively steeply from fovea ( CH ≥ 0.5×CW) ( Figs. 53A,C View Figure 53 ; 54B). Metatarsus II unmodified ( Fig. 53E View Figure 53 ) ...................................................................................... H. nimoola  

—— Not in above combination .............................................................................................................. 6

6 Chelicerae with central tooth row short, basal ( Fig. 82D View Figure 82 ). Labium almost as long as wide (LL/LW 0.96) ( Fig. 82A View Figure 82 ) ................................................................................................................................ H. kaputarensis  

—— Not in above combination .............................................................................................................. 7

7 Embolus short, with distal flanged part set at distinct angle to shaft ( Fig. 65B,C View Figure 65 ) ......................................................................................................... H. jensenae  

—— Distal embolus not as above .......................................................................................................... 8

8 Chelicerae with central tooth row short, basal. ( Fig. 97E View Figure 97 ). Palpal middle haematodocha widely exposed ( Figs. 97H View Figure 97 , 100B View Figure 100 ). Caput strongly raised ( Fig. 97B View Figure 97 ). PMS apical segment short ( Fig. 97A View Figure 97 ) ( lamingtonensis   species group) ...................................................................................................... 9

—— Chelicerae with central tooth row typically long ( Fig. 20G View Figure 20 ), rarely short. Palpal middle haematodocha not or rarely exposed ( Fig. 48B View Figure 48 ). Caput height and PMS length variable ........................................................................................ 13

9 Cuspules on labium relatively numerous (200–225). Cheliceral margins diverge distally ( Fig. 94C View Figure 94 ) .................................................................................. H. raveni  

—— Cuspules on labium relatively sparse (40–100). Cheliceral margins subparallel ( Fig. 97E View Figure 97 ) .................................................................................................................. 10

10 Male tarsi III and IV unmodified ........................................................................ H. lamingtonensis    

—— Male tarsi III and IV swollen (“boat-shaped”) than. tarsi I and II ( Fig. 3G View Figure 3 ) ....................................................................................................................................... 11

11 Cheliceral promargin with few teeth (c. 3), in short basal row. Embolus straight ............................................................................................................... H. anzses  

—— Cheliceral promargin with several teeth (c. 6–12) in longer row (Figs. 99D, 102C). Embolus strongly curved ( Figs. 100A,B View Figure 100 ; 102D) ............................................. 12

12 Male tarsus I strongly spinose (24–43) ................................................................. H. annachristiae  

—— Male tarsus I weakly spinose (5–7) ............................................................................. H. monteithi  

13 Labium relatively short (LL/LW 0.70–0.80) (Figs. 57E, 60D). Tibia II and metatarsus II with apophyseal swellings ........................................................................... 14

—— Labium relatively long (LL/LW 0.85–1.05) ( Figs. 23A View Figure 23 , 68A). Tibia II and metatarsus II apophyses/apophyseal swellings present or absent ........................................................................................................................................... 15

14 Embolus short (BulbW/EmbL 0.80), not apically twisted ( Fig. 59B,C View Figure 59 ) ............................................................................................................................. H. modesta  

—— Embolus longer (BulbW/EmbL 0.60), twisted apically ( Fig. 62B,C View Figure 62 ) .................................................................................................................................... H. meridiana  

15 Dorsal femur I and/or II with spines ............................................................................................ 16

—— Dorsal femur I, II with no spines ................................................................................................. 23

16 Tibia II with weak, proximad, spinose apophyseal swelling (Figs. 38F; 40H,I); metatarsus II lacks apophyseal swelling ( Fig. 40K View Figure 40 ). Carapace relatively low ( CH /CL 0.40) (Fig. 38B) .................................... H. venenata   (Tasmania)

—— Not as above ................................................................................................................................. 17

17 Tibia II unmodified, with few spines (7–11); metatarsus II with small apophyseal swelling (Figs. 47G; 48H,I). Carapace relatively high ( CH /CL 0.49) (Fig. 47B) ........................................................................................ H. monaro  

—— Not as above ................................................................................................................................. 18

18 Tibia II and metatarsus II with apophyses/apophyseal swellings ................................................ 19

—— Tibia II and metatarsus II lacking apophyses/apophyseal swellings .............................................. 22

19 Embolus with strongly curved shaft ( Fig. 29B View Figure 29 ) ......................................................... H. emmalizae  

—— Embolus shaft weakly curved–straight ( Fig. 25B View Figure 25 ) ...................................................................... 20

20 Male (and female) coxae I, II with thorn-like setae anterobasally (Fig. 21H), and anterolateral sternal angles with tuft of bristle-like hair ( Fig. 20C,H View Figure 20 ) ........................................................................................................... H. cerberea    

—— Not as above ................................................................................................................................. 21

21 Tibia II with spines distributed over apophysis and distoventral tibia ( Figs. 23C View Figure 23 ; 25H,I View Figure 25 ). PLS relatively short (PLSAPW/ L 0.49) ( Fig. 23E View Figure 23 ) ............................................................................................................... H. versuta   (part)

—— Tibia II with spines grouped on apophyseal swelling, few or none on distoventral tibia ( Figs. 34G View Figure 34 ; 36H,I View Figure 36 ). PLS relatively long (PLSAPW/ L 0.33) ( Fig. 34F View Figure 34 ) ................................................................................ H. alpina   (part)

22 Tibia II and metatarsus II ventrally concave (bowed) ( Fig. 43I,K View Figure 43 ). Embolus relatively wide (EmbmidW/ L 0.12) ( Fig. 43B View Figure 43 ) .................................... H. marracoonda  

—— Tibia II and metatarsus II more or less straight, not bowed ( Fig. 46I, K View Figure 46 ). Embolus narrower (EmbmidW/ L 0.08) ( Fig. 46B View Figure 46 ) ......................................... H. tambo   (part)

23 Tibia II and metatarsus II with apophyses/apophyseal swellings ................................................ 24

—— Tibia II and metatarsus II lacking apophyses/apophyseal swellings .............................................. 25

24 Tibia II with spines distributed over apophysis and distoventral tibia ( Figs. 23C View Figure 23 ; 25H,I View Figure 25 ). PLS relatively short (PLSAPW/ L 0.49) ( Fig. 23E View Figure 23 ) ............................................................................................................... H. versuta   (part)

—— Tibia II with spines grouped on apophyseal swelling, few or none distributed onto distoventral tibia ( Figs. 34G View Figure 34 ; 36H,I View Figure 36 ). PLS longer (PLSAPW/ L 0.33) ( Fig. 34F View Figure 34 ) ..................................................................... H. alpina   (part)

25 Embolus relatively broad (EmbmidW/L 0.12–0.16); moderately to strongly twisted distally ( Fig. 86B,C View Figure 86 ) .......................................................................................... 26

—— Embolus relatively narrow (EmbmidW/L 0.06–0.09); weakly to moderately twisted distally ( Fig. 74B,C View Figure 74 ) ..................................................................................... 29

26 Embolus base strongly offset from tegulum ( Figs. 70B View Figure 70 , 81B View Figure 81 ) .................................................... 27

—— Embolus base weakly offset from tegulum ( Figs. 86B View Figure 86 , 89B View Figure 89 ) ...................................................... 28

27 Embolus shaft strongly curved proximally, distal third strongly twisted ( Fig. 81B,C View Figure 81 ). Tarsi III, IV swollen, “boat-shaped” .......................................... H. lynabrae  

—— Embolus shaft curvature and distal twisting less strongly developed ( Fig. 70B,C View Figure 70 ). Tarsi III, IV unmodified ............................................................................ H. infensa  

28 Tibia II sinuous ventrally, with ventral spines clustered in proximal half, ( Fig. 89H,I View Figure 89 ). Tarsus I spines 8–38 .......................................................................... H. walkeri  

—— Tibia II not sinuous, ventral spines more scattered ( Fig. 86H,I View Figure 86 ). Tarsus I spines often more numerous (30–63) ..................................................... H. macquariensis  

29 Embolus slender, elongate (EmbL 3.53–4.15) ( Fig. 93B View Figure 93 ) ..................................... H. levittgreggae  

—— Embolus not as long (EmbL 2.18–3.06) ...................................................................................... 30

30 Labial cuspule number moderate (149–184). Bulb shorter than palpal tibia (BulbL/TibL 0.77) ( Fig. 46A View Figure 46 ) ........................... H. tambo   (part) (Gippsland, Victoria)

—— Labial cuspules numerous (246–393) Bulb almost as long as palpal tibia (BulbL/TibL 0.86–0.89) ( Fig. 77A View Figure 77 ) .................................................................................... 31

31 Leg spines relatively few: tarsus I with 4–10, metatarsus I with 10– 16, tibia II with 3–7 spines ................................................................................................. H. orana  

—— Leg spines more numerous: tarsus I with 23–46, metatarsus I with 31–56, tibia II with 13–25 spines ...................................................................................... H. valida  

Generic and Species Descriptions Description. With characters of Atracinae   . Medium to large sized Atracinae   . Carapace longer than wide, caput only

Atrax   O.P.-Cambridge weakly raised ( CH /CW 0.35–0.36) and narrow frontally

(CFW/CL 0.55–0.62). Cheliceral paturon relatively less

Atrax   O.P.-Cambridge 1877: 26. Type species Atrax robustus   robust and narrower than in most Hadronyche spp.   (Figs. O.P.-Cambridge 1877 by monotypy. Simon, 1891: 302; 4B,D; 5B,E). Cheliceral groove narrow, V-shaped; central 1892: 175, 182, 186; 1903: 967–969. Hogg, 1901: 272; teeth in single short row confined to the basal half of the Rainbow, 1911: 121; 1913: 4; 1914: 252. Rainbow & groove, lateral marginal tooth rows run full length of groove. Pulleine, 1918: 165. Hickman, 1927: 63; 1964: 107. (Fig. 4F). Labium relatively short (LL/LW 0.70–0.75) Musgrave, 1927: 33; 1948: 77. Roewer, 1942: 207. (Fig. 4A). Sternum ovoid to narrow ovoid. Apical segment Bonnet, 1955: 772. Main, 1976: 70; 1981: 839; 1985: of posterior lateral spinnerets relatively long, digitiform 40. Gray, 1978: 121,125. Raven, 1980: 255; 1985: 55, 71; (PLSAPW 0.25–0.28) (Fig. 4G). Male femora I, II with Brignoli, 1983: 122. Gray, 1984: 441; Gray, 1988: 114.

dorsal spines (Fig. 4F). Male palp with patella width less than

Goloboff, 1993:6. Hedin & Bond, 2006: 467. Platnick,

or equal to femur width. Bulb with a long, slender, curved

2010. Euctimena   .–Rainbow 1914: 248. Type species Euctimena   embolus (EmbmidW/L 0.06–0.08) ( Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ). Male tibia II tibialis Rainbow 1914   by monotypy. First synonymized with a large mid-ventral conical apophysis, the narrow apex by Musgrave, 1927: 33. Hickman, 1964: 107. Gray, 1978: surmounted by short, peg-like spines ( Fig. 6H,I View Figure 6 ); metatarsus 125. Raven, 1980: 255. Main, 1985: 40. Gray, 1988: 114. II sinuous (proximoventrally concave) with a small mid- Poikilomorpha   .–Rainbow 1914: 264. Type species Poikilo- ventral apophysis ( Fig. 6J,K View Figure 6 ). Spermathecal sacs narrow, morpha montana Rainbow 1914   by monotypy. First elongate ( Fig. 5G View Figure 5 ). synonymized by Gray, 1978: 125. Raven, 1980: 255. Main, 1985: 40. Gray, 1988: 114. Included species. Atrax robustus   O.P.-Cambridge, A. 

sutherlandi n.sp., A. yorkmainorum   n.sp.

Diagnosis. Differs from other atracine genera by presence of a large coniform apophysis on male tibia II ( Fig. 6H,I View Figure 6 ); Distribution. Southeastern coast and highlands of Australia, and from Hadronyche   by lower caput height. from the Hunter River region , New South Wales, to eastern  

Victoria.

Comments. Burrows often with a weak or incomplete silk lining, typically sited under rocks and logs

Atrax robustus   O.P.-Cambridge Pennant Hills, 21 March 1979, Thompson; AMS KS4045,Penrith, 25August  

1979, A. Johnson; AMS KS4399, Potts Point, 5 July 1956, P. Berry Smith   ;

AMS KS4015, Pymble, 14 March 1949   ; AMS KS7466, Queenscliff, April  

Figures 4–7; Tables 2, 34 1981; AMS KS4027, Rhodes, 12 May 1930, T. White; AMS KS4921,

Riverwood, 12 April 1966, R. E. Mascord   ; AMS KS2995, Roseville, 3 June  

Atrax robustus   O.P.-Cambridge, 1877: 26. Hogg, 1901: 273. 1979,? Hidder; AMS KS4869, Rydalmere , 13 March 1974   , R. Hood   ; AMS Musgrave , 1927: 33. Nishikawa, 1976: 179. Main, 1985   : KS4070, Ryde , January 1971   ; AMS KS4007, St. Ives , 12 May 1971   ; AMS KS4083, Scotland Island, l April 1974   ; AMS KS3457, Springwood , 1978   ,

41. Gray, 1978: 122. Gray, 1987: 314. Gray, 1988: 114.

A. McLean;AMS KS4922, Stanmore, 1949,January;AMS KS4971,Telopea,

Euctimena tibialis   .–Rainbow, 1914: 249. First synonymized

25 April 1971, K.P. Reid; AMS KS2713, The Oaks   , Apr 1979, P. McIntosh;

by Musgrave, 1927: 33. AMS KS4203,The Spit, 4 July 1948, Page;AMS KS4013, Thornleigh;AMS Poikilomorpha montana   .–Rainbow, 1914: 265. KS4373, Turramurra, l April 1970; AMS KS8664, Wahroonga, 31 January Atrax montana   .–Main, 1985: 41 (Transferred from 1982,A.S. Martin;AMS KS4008,Waitara, 11 March 1949;AMS KS10782, Poikilomorpha   ). First synonymized by Gray, 1988; 114. Warrawee, 12April 1983, Ralleston;AMS KS5146,Waverley, 15 May 1973, L. Gibson; AMS KS4367, Waverton, 4 March 1971, Dr C. Browne; AMS

Types. Holotype female: BMNH 71 ( NMH). Type dry, pinned, labelled KS5131, West Pennant Hills, 19 May 1973, R. McDonald; AMS KS6148, “ New Holland ”, no other data (not seen). West Ryde, 1 January 1980, W. Bennett; AMS KS4000, Whale Beach, 21 April 1974; AMS KS4025, Willoughby, 30 July 1973, A.C. Jones; AMS  

KS3185   , Winston Hills , 21 July 1973, M.Gray   ; AMS KS3404   , AMS KS5720   ,

Other material examined. New South Wales (males): AMS KS2698,

Woonona, near Bulli, December 1960, S.H. Roberts; AMS KS4662   ,

Austinmer, 6 January 1959, N. Mitchell; AMS KS4812, Avalon Beach, 14  

Wyoming, near Gosford , 14 March 1980   ; AMS KS2670, New Lambton, near  

March 1976, Porritt; AMS KS4837   ,Avoca, 11 January 1975; AMS KS4197   ,

Newcastle, 1979, L. Hallinan; AMS KS1150   , Newcastle, 13 March 1963   ,

Balgowlah, 7 January 1960, Burch; AMS KS4946, Balmoral, 18April 1974   ,

B.C. Dyson; AMS KS4125, Wyong, 18 March 9178; AMS KS2923,

Robinson & Hoey; AMS KS4902   , Bankstown, 14 April 1965; AMS KS5137   ,

Benandarah State Forest, 22 March 1979 – 25 April 1979, C. Horseman;AMS

Baulkham Hills, 18 January 1973, M. Gray; AMS KS4080, Bayview,2 April  

KS5205, Foxground, near Gerringong, 10 April 1980, G. Wishart   ; AMS

1974, S. Thompson; AMS KS2956   , Beecroft, 25 April 1979, D. Dean; AMS  

KS5170, Ryde, 33°49'S 151°06'E, 20 May 1980, A. Brown. New South GoogleMaps  

KS3999, Belrose, 19 January 1967, Anderson   ; AMS KS1152, “The Mists”   ,

Wales (females): AMS KS4076   , Artarmon , Apr 1927, J. Stewart; AMS  

Berambing, December 1976, K.J. Street; AMS KS8376,Berowra,December  

KS4930,Ashfield, 20 December 1930, E. Hudson   ; AMS KS1826, Austinmer   ,

1981, J. Hingley; AMS KS1852, Bilgola Plateau, 26 May 1977, H. Newton   ;

23 November 1959, F.E. Havand; AMS KS1377, Avalon   , 15 May 1978, L.

AMS KS1148, Bilpin, 17 January 1930, E.M.Hunt   ; AMS KS4961, Burraneer  

Reneman; AMS KS5017   , Avoca, 20 September 1968, N. Tweedale; AMS  

Bay, 15 December 1972; AMS KS1154   , Camden, 21 February 1974, G.

KS4825, Balgowlah, 2 May 1970, G. Smith   ; AMS KS4987, Bankstown, 19  

Seymour; AMS KS4914   , Campsie, 12 February 1975, R   . N. Peck; AMS  

April 1949, E.A. Cox; AMS KS5140, Baulkham Hills   , 18 January 1973, M.

KS4915, Caringbah , 4 April 1972, M. Sinclair   ; AMS KS4773, Cardiff   , 21

Gray; AMS KS2716   , Bayview, 20 April 1979, B. Makins; AMS KS4358   ,

January 1979; AMS KS4194   , Castlecrag, May 1963, I. Webb; AMS KS4484   ,

Beecroft, February 1928, G.A. Heumann; AMS KS4903, Belmore, 25 April  

Charlestown, 1 February 1980, G. Anderson; AMS KS4372, Chatswood, 16  

1924, M. Codd; AMS KS4803   , Belrose, 19 January 1967, Anderson; AMS  

April 1972, W. Leonard; AMS KS3990, Cheltenham   , 2 April 1974, S.K.

KS1827, Bilpin, 12 April 1972   , R. McDonald   ; AMS KS7564, Birmingham  

Pearson; AMS KS14383   , Cherrybrook, l April 1984, M. Backing; AMS  

Gardens , near Newcastle, 6 December 1978, R   . Mascord ; AMS KS1674   ,

KS2957, Chester Hill, 27 May 1979, J.Paull   ; AMS KS4395, Clarevale Beach   ,

Blackheath, 24April 1948, R   . McKay; AMS KS4887   , Bowral; AMS KS8733   ,

16 January 1976, K.H. Sinfield; AMS KS4378, Clifton Gardens, 20 April  

Bundanoon, February 1982, B.Erdman; AMS KS4913,Camden, 21 February  

1972, Dr C.A.Monticone; AMS KS5013, Cobbitty, 11 March 1959, T. Down   ;

1974, G. Seymour; AMS KS4408, Berowra, 15 September 1973, J. Disney   ;

AMS KS4066, Collaroy, near Dee Why Lagoon, 14 December 1958   , A.

AMS KS3524   , Carlingford, 26 September 1979, J.Armitage; AMS KS3175   ,

Kabanoff; AMS KS5072   , Cromer, 6 April 1980, M. Duncan; AMS KS3036   ,

Castle Hill, Apr 1979, F. Pearce; AMS KS4206, Castlecrag, 17 July 1973   , J.

Denistone, 26 April 1979, M. Richison; AMS KS4001, Dundas, 1 March  

Bunce; AMS KS4242   , Chatswood, 14 November 1928, R   . Barnes; AMS

1976, B. & A.C. Oldsen; AMS KS7470   , Dural, March 1981; AMS KS2432   ,

KS4325, Cheltenham, Apr 1972, D. Levy   ; AMS KS4211, Clarevale Beach   ,

East Maitland , H. Miller; AMS KS4815, Eastwood, 30 March 1976   , D.

L. & M.Mortimer; AMS KS4030, Clifton Gardens, 21 April 1961, Bradley   ;

Griffith ; AMS KS7477   , Elizabeth Bay , 5 May 1981, D. T   . Cave ; AMS KS1153   ,

AMS KS3188   , Collaroy, February 1928, E. Osborne; AMS KS4400   ,

Engadine, 28 November 1972, S. Couglin; AMS KS1132, Epping, January  

Collaroy Plateau, July 1966, B. Tye; AMS KS4892, Colo Vale, July 1958   ,

1977, W.J. Bunton; AMS KS1143, Faulconbridge, 8 January 1973, Stewart   ;

D.H. Wallace; AMS KS4905   , Coogee, November 1926, Stokes; AMS  

AMS KS5694, Fox Valley Reserve ,near Wahroonga, 22 June 1980, B. Henke   ;

KS4233   , Cremorne, 21 June 1927, F.L. Grutzmacher; AMS KS4962   ,

AMS KS4071   , Frenchs Forest , 5 June 1972, N. Hailstone   ; AMS KS13409   ,

Galston, 2 February 1981, G. Jackson; AMS KS10976, Galston Gorge, 4  

May 1983, G. Jackson; AMS KS1156, Gladesville, 20 February 1970   ,

McElwaine; AMS KS13752   , Gordon, 22 December 1983, M. Gray; AMS  

KS4771, Gosford, 21 January 1979   , R. E. Mascord   ; AMS KS4005, Grays  

Point, 5 February 1977, P. Poppett; AMS KS4382, Greenwich/Willoughby   ;

AMS KS1160   , Hartley Vale, 8 December 1952, E.S. Miller   ; AMS KS4297   ,

Hazelbrook, 8 January 1980, S. Clark; AMS KS5071, Heathcote, 20 April  

1980, R. Witchard   ; AMS KS2323, Helensburgh, 6 January 1979, N. West   ;

AMS KS1157, Hornsby, 3 March 1976, Reed   ; AMS KS4949, Hurstville, 5  

June 1972, A. Osten; AMS KS1161, Kembla Heights, 11 November 1963   ,

G. Pearce; AMS KS8678, East Beach , Kiama area, 20 January 1982   , D.

Bennedett; AMS KS4377   , Killara, February 1972, P.Mayman; AMS KS3200   ,

Kurrajong Heights, 30 November 1969, G. Hunt; AMS KS4944, Lakemba   ,

7 January 1948; AMS KS1159   , Lane Cove, 22 April 1930,? Graham; AMS  

KS1146, Lawson, March 1956   , R. Schleicher; AMS KS8920, Lindfield, 14  

April 1982, B. Henstridge; AMS KS4078, McMahons Point, May 1972   , N.

Mayfield; AMS KS6067   , Manly, 3 November 1980; AMS KS10783   ,

Matcham, near Gosford, 27 March 1983, van Derbruggen; AMS KS1162   ,

Minnamurra Falls , 12 May 1964, R. Mascord; AMS KS4022, Mona Vale   , 26

February 1973, T. Govranik; AMS KS4948, Mortdale, 13 February 1975   ;

AMS KS5314, Mosman, 19 June 1980, S. Pfeiffer   ; AMS KS4947, Mount  

Colah, 25 January 1979,M. Gray; AMS KS1155, Mount Irvine , 14 November  

1944, E.L. Troughton; AMS KS 5016, Mount St. Thomas, near Wollongong,

17 June 1956, L. Evans; AMS KS2146, Mount Wilson   , 15 November 1978 –11

December 1978, C. Horseman; AMS KS 4009, Neutral Bay, AMS KS 3189,

Newport, September 1959   , A.J. Wright; AMS KS13560, Northbridge, 30 Figure 7. Collection records for Atrax robustus   (squares) and A   . December 1983, J. Mayer; AMS KS4950, Parramatta   , 25 March 1959, W.G.

yorkmainorum   (circles).

Ashford; AMS KS4951   , Peakhurst, 24 April 1945, H. Inder; AMS KS2712   ,

Cronulla, 13 January 1971; AMS KS4828, Dee Why , May 1932   , Rowe; Diagnosis. CL 9.22–12.30 (male). Differs from other species AMS KS4804, Dundas , January 1975   , M. Denham; AMS KS4865, Dural, by having a relatively spinose palpal tibia (4–11) with dorsal 18 January 1971   , M. Thornley; AMS KS3319, Eastwood , 8 July 1979   , J.

Cullen; AMS KS4829, Elanora , 1 March 1967   , S. Marshall; AMS KS4989, spines present. Differs from A. sutherlandi   by having a more Elizabeth Bay , 9 January 1958   , D. T. Cave   ; AMS KS1830, Emu Plains , 30 elongate embolus (BulbW/EmbL 0.30) ( Fig. 6B View Figure 6 ), and from July 1957   , G.D. Sutherland; AMS KS4770, Enfield , 5 June 1905   ; AMS A. yorkmainorum   by larger body size (CL 9.22–12.30) and KS4546, Epping , 17 February 1980   , J. Brand; AMS KS4990, Five Dock, shallower offset of embolus base from tegulum ( Fig. 6B View Figure 6 )   .

May 1928, R   . Williams; AMS KS4361   , Forestville, 19 August 1971; AMS  

KS8868, Freeman’s Reach, near Windsor, 26 January 1982, M. Gray   ;

AMS KS8377, French’s Forest , 24 October 1981   , R. Scott   ; AMS KS4661, Male ( AMS KS4016, Gordon, New South Wales, 32°38'S Galston , 3 February 1980; AMS KS4963, Garrie Beach , 7 October 1965, 148°39'E, F. Hatton, 10 December 1949). — Size. Carapace GoogleMaps   R. Mascord   ; AMS KS4839, Gosford , 25 September 1964   , E.Worrell; AMS length 10.20, width 8.70. Abdomen length 9.52, width   KS4207, Greenwich, 5 May 1970   , K. Burns; AMS KS4966, Guildford 7.38. — Colour. Basic colour pattern. — Carapace. Longer West , 27 August 1957   , S. R. Kirkwood   ; AMS KS1220, Hazelbrook , 23  

November 1976, G. Weatherspoon; AMS KS1675, Hazelbrook, February than wide. Height 2.86. Frontal width 5.14. Fovea narrow, 1976   ; AMS KS4985, Heathcote , 26 June 1975   , R. Witchard   ; AMS KS4967, procurved. Mid-dorsal cephalic setae reach fovea. Anterior Helensburgh , 11 June 1951   , L. Reed; AMS KS4225, Hornsby , 7 May 1940   ; strial setae numerous. Anterolateral carapace angle with AMS KS1208, Jamieson Valley , 22 June 1953   ,A.W.Gayley; AMS KS4065, small, weak bristles. — Eyes. Central eye region weakly Killara, 8 March 1928   ; AMS KS5078, Kingsgrove , 1952   ; AMS KS4993, raised. Eye group width 1.85. Median ocular quadrangle Kingswood, May 1962   ; AMS KS4410, Kuring-ai Chase National Park , 23  

January 1980, M. Gray; AMS KS1310, Kurrajong , February 1978   ; AMS length 0.70; anterior width 0.76, posterior width 1.13. KS4945, Lakemba, 17 March 1930   ; AMS KS4853, Lane Cove, 15 March Diameters : AME 0.28, ALE 0.58, PLE 0.38   , PME 0.26. 1973; AMS KS4968, Leichhardt, 2 September 1913   , D. Hunter; AMS — Chelicerae. Cheliceral groove narrow, weakly divergent   . KS1834, Linden, 3 September 1950   , K. Baames; AMS KS5031, Lindfield, Groove length 2.92, middle width 0.41. Cheliceral teeth: 18 29 September 1962   , M. & V. Gregg   ; AMS KS4234, McMahons Point , Apr  

1972, J. Suich; AMS KS6025   , Manly, Manly Hospital , 3 November 1980; central, occupying proximal half of groove; 12 prolateral; AMS KS4907   , Matraville South , 20 October 1952, A. Brown; AMS 13   retrolateral. — Labium. Much wider than long, apically KS4238   , Meadowbank , March 1963, R   . H. Hall; AMS KS1829   , Megalong indented. Length 1.08, width 1.68. Labiosternal sigilla Valley, R   . lbow; AMS KS4856   , Middle Harbour , 6 September 1933, broad, entire. Cuspules c. 300, number high, in crescentic Kaufman; AMS KS4896   , Mittagong , 30 December 1975, M. & V   . Gregg ; transverse band. — Sternum. Ovoid, long. Length 5.45, AMS KS4360   , Mona Vale, 9 November 1975, J. Walker; AMS KS1125   ,

Morpeth; AMS KS4204, Mortdale , 31 January 1974   , C. Stewart; AMS width 3.88. Posterior sigilla ovoid, broad. Strong bristles   KS4403, Mosman , 3 March 1932   , Patton; AMS KS3693, Mount Colah , 29 on posterior margin. — Palp. Bulb about as long as tibia. July 1979   , J. Fairlie; AMS KS4189, Mount Fairy , 25 November 1979   ; AMS Tegular region rather small, slightly wider than long. Base   KS1835, Mount Irvine , 14 November 1944   , E. Troughton; AMS KS2960, of embolus weakly offset from tegulum. Embolus shaft Mount Keira, 12 May 1979   , Walsh; AMS KS4832, Mount Kuring-ai , 5  

November 1972; AMS KS4808, Naremburn , 26.ii.1961   , M.Fairburn; AMS long, gently curved, strongly tapered. Distal embolus KS1126, Narara , 20 March 1930   , B. R. Everingham; AMS KS4405, weakly twisted, ejaculatory groove wide. Bulb length Narrabeen , 29 September 1957   , L.B. Trapp; AMS KS4046, Neutral Bay, 3 4.62, width 1.12. Embolus length 3.60, midwidth 0.25. November 1979   ; AMS KS797, Newport, 7 December 1977   ; AMS KS4064, Length of femur 4.35, patella 1.96, tibia 4.71. Width of Normanhurst , 6 April 1969   ,? Dymock; AMS KS4085, Northbridge, 26 tibia 1.80. Spination: femur 7, patella 5, tibia 10 (dorsal July 1975, D. Dickerson; AMS KS3401, Northmead , March 1973, J.  

Deviana; AMS KS4195, North Narrabeen , 11 June 1952, L.J. Lizara   ; AMS spines present). Some distal femoral bristles and spines KS4232, North Sydney , May 1925, Dr S.J.W. Moreau   ; AMS KS4908, sinuous. — Legs. 4123   .

Oatley, 15 February 1963; AMS KS4858   , Palm Beach, l February 1951,

H. R. Swaine   ; AMS KS4909, Parramatta, 21 March 1910   ; AMS KS1131, Leg Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total Peakhurst, 15 November 1969   , D. Fantom; AMS KS1837, Pearl Beach, 1 8.43 4.21 6.36 6.69 3.87 29.56 24.iii.1966   , J. Cooks; AMS KS1930, Pennant Hills, 6 October 1978   , S. 2 7.75 3.86 6.36 6.28 3.89 28.14 el-Issa; AMS KS4045, Penrith, 25 July 1979   , A. Johnson; AMS KS4969, 3 7.14 3.18 5.15 6.03 3.94 25.44 Penshurst   , R. Pollett   ; AMS KS1844, Picton, November 1946   , J.K.

McFarlane; AMS KS4072, Pittwater , 1927, A. Musgrave   ; AMS KS4824, 4 8.32 3.81 6.80 7.41 4.40 30.74 Point Clare   , T.A. Trewheeler   ; AMS KS4910, Potts Point , 5 October 1969   ,

C. Catterall; AMS KS4931   , Punchbowl , 17 July 1947, F: J. Donald; AMS   Tibia I width 1.50. Femora I and II   with dorsal spines. Leg KS4809   , Pymble , November 1971, A. Ritchie; AMS KS1850   , Richmond, I unmodified, tibial and metatarsal spines numerous. Tibia 12 October 1977, Ambulance Station; AMS KS3168   , Roseville, 18 January II   with large, conical, apophysis set just proximal of centre. 1948, H. Chadwick ; AMS KS4964   , Royal National Park , October 1966, R   .

Mascord ; AMS KS4911   , Rushcutters Bay , 24 May 1971, S.J. Penlington; A few ventral tibial spines placed proximally, absent in AMS KS4810   , Ryde , 28 October 1969, J. Garden; AMS KS4084   , St. Ives , distal half (except apical ventral spines). Distal tibia II   March 1967; AMS KS4912   , St. Peters , 2 February 1959, D.J. Gilks; AMS   ventrally concave. Metatarsus II   sinuous, curved proximally, KS5240   , Scotland Island, 29 February 1980, J. Lowry; AMS KS5023   , ventral spines placed upon and distal to a small, subcentral Somersby, J Brown; AMS KS1839   , Springwood , 4 August 1971; AMS  

KS1135, Sydney, 17 November 1969   ; AMS KS2715, Terry Hills, 30 April apophysis. Anterior coxal hairs unmodified. Scopulae 1979   , R. Gleeson   ; AMS KS4891, The Oaks, 25 February 1956   ; AMS legs I– IV: tarsus, weak; distal metatarsus, absent to weak. KS4899, Thirroul, September 1933   , D. King; AMS KS796, Thornleigh, 8 Tarsal claw teeth legs I   , II: superior 13, 11; inferior 2, 2. January 1978   ; AMS KS4844, Tuggerah, September 1927   , H.W. Legge; Trichobothria legs I   , II: tarsus 20, 19; metatarsus 15, 12; AMS KS4376, Turramurra, 1928, H.S. Wales   ; AMS KS13791, Wahroonga, tibia p9 r9, p8 r8. — Leg spination. Leg I; femur 9 (d6 p3), 2 February 1984   ,A.S. Martin; AMS KS4845, Wamberal, 4 December 1972   ,

J.N. Kgour; AMS KS4243, Warrawee , 24 December 1972   ,? Rickets; AMS patella 13 (p2), tibia 51 (p8), metatarsus 29, tarsus 20. Leg   II: KS4063, West Pennant Hills , 15 May 1973   , S. Zucher; AMS KS6069, West femur 12 (d6 p6), patella 6 (p2–3); tibia 18 (p4), metatarsus Ryde , 10 November 1980   ; AMS KS4846, West Wallsend , 30 May 1956   , J. 22(p1), tarsus 23. Leg   III: femur d7 (plus strong bristles), Donne   ; AMS KS4847, Weston , 4 November 1969   , I. Waugh; AMS KS4357, patella 5 (p3 r2), tibia 15 (p2 r3), metatarsus 25, tarsus 25. Willoughby , 17 August 1969   ; AMS KS5151, Winston Hills , 9 September  

1972, J. Deviana; AMS KS1848, Wirrimbirra Sanctuary, 9 July 1969, M.N. Leg IV: femur 0 (long bristles present), patella r1, tibia 18 (p1 Fackender; AMS KS4862,Woolwich, May 1927, H. Switzer; AMS KS4848, r4), metatarsus 20, tarsus 21. — Abdomen. Posterior lateral Woy Woy, 13 July 1933, B. Hynson; AMS KS8295, Yagoona, February spinnerets, lengths: total 4.68; basal segment 1.52; middle 1981; AMS KS1274, Yerranderie, 20 February 1978, H. Kenny. 1.08; apical 2.08. Apical segment width 0.60   .

Female ( AMS KS13470, Gordon, N.S.W., 32°38'S 148°39'E, 3 (p2 r1), tibia 8 (p2 r2), metatarsus 23 (p9 r2), tarsus 17. GoogleMaps  

1 November 1983, C. Horseman). — Size. Carapace length Leg IV; femur 0, patella r1, tibia 6 (p1 r2), metatarsus 22

12.63, width 10.41. Abdomen length 14.82, width 12.07. (p6 r2), tarsus 25. — Abdomen. Posterior lateral spinnerets-

— Colour. Basic colour pattern. — Carapace. Much longer lengths: total 6.20; basal segment 2.40, middle 1.32, apical than wide. Height 2.72, frontal width 8.28. Cephalic length 2.48. Apical segment width 0.77. — Genitalia. Spermathecae

8.50. Fovea narrow, procurved, anterior margin slightly long, slender; gently curved toward midline. Basal separation indented. Mid-dorsal cephalic setae numerous, reach back twice the width of a spermatheca. Length 1.50, width 0.41.

to fovea. Anterior strial setae numerous. Strial and marginal setae numerous, rather short. Anterolateral carapace angle Distribution. Sydney, Central Coast and Illawarra   regions with several short, weak bristles. — Eyes. Central eye region and west to the Blue Mountains (Fig. 7).

slightly raised. Eye group width 2.60. Diameters:AME 0.26,

ALE 0.60, PLE 0.44, PME 0.36 Interdistances: AME–AME Comments. Specimens from the Hunter River/ Newcastle

0.39, AME–ALE 0.27, ALE–PLE 0.27, ALE– PME 0.14, region are typically larger than other individuals (male CL

PME – PME 1.05. Median ocular quadrangle length 0.90, c. 12 mm) and the palpal tibia and embolus may be more

anterior width 0.94, posterior width 1.73. — Chelicerae. elongate.

Groove narrow, margins diverging distally; groove length

3.70, middle width 0.59. Cheliceral teeth: 29 central, Mating position in A. robustus   . Mating was observed for

occupying basal half of groove; 15 prolateral; 14 retrolateral. A. robustus (Gray, 1986)   , a species with well-developed

— Labium. Wider than long, anterior margin weakly apophyses on tibia and metatarsus II. The position adopted

indented. Length 2.18, width 2.64. Cuspules occupying during its mating is almost identical to that recorded for H.

central two thirds of labium. Labiosternal sigilla entire. — formidabilis   ( Fig. 1F View Figure 1 : Walker, in Mascord, 1980; Walker,

Sternum. Ovoid. Length 6.89, width 5.17. Posterior sigilla 1982), another species with large apophyses, the A. robustus  

ovoid: length 1.10, width 0.60. — Palp. Spination: patella male, uses his second legs to clasp the basal parts of the

p1 (bristle-like), tibia 5, tarsus 12. Trichobothria: tibia p 11 female femora II, locking them in the cavity between  

r10, tarsus 22. Tarsal claw with 10 teeth. — Legs. 4123. Legs the tibial and metatarsal apophyses. At the same time he

I, IV subequal. braces his first legs against the chelicerae and palps of the

Leg Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total rearing female, pushing her up and backwards. The main

1 9.50 5.32 7.32 6.40 3.44 31.98 difference in the H. formidabilis   mating was the distal

2 8.45 4.88 6.15 5.79 3.28 28.55 crossing of the bracing first legs ( Fig. 1F View Figure 1 )—this was not

3 7.46 3.94 4.80 5.66 3.69 25.55 seen in the A. robustus   matings. Hickman (1964) described

4 9.00 4.88 6.71 7.18 4.22 31.99 mating in H. infensa   , a species lacking leg II apophyses. The accompanying plate shows the spiders in an almost

Tibia I width 2.30. Metatarsus I proximal width 1.44. Coxae identical position to that observed for A. robustus   (although

I, II with short, anteromedial bristle-like setae. Tarsal claw Hickman’s notes are somewhat contradictory).

teeth legs I, II: superior 11, 11; inferior III, IV. Trichobothria Snazel & Allison (1989) noted the marked similarities legs I, II: tarsus 24, 24; metatarsus 21, 19; tibia p10 r9, p9 between mating in H. formidabilis   and Macrothele   , another

r10. — Leg spination. Leg I: femur p1, patella p1, tibia 3 (p2), genus in which leg II modifications are present or absent.

metatarsus 11, tarsus 15. Leg II: femur p2, patella p2, tibia Coyle (1986) observed similar mating behaviour in Euagrus  

5 (p2), metatarsus 14, tarsus 14. Leg III: femur 0, patella sp., a diplurid genus with tibia II apophyses.

Atrax yorkmainorum   n.sp. Diagnosis. CL 7.39–9.22 (male). Usually smaller then A. 

robustus and differs from it by palp lacking dorsal tibial

Figures 7–10; Tables 3, 34 spines, embolus base more strongly offset from tegulum,

and apical part of embolus set at angle to strongly curved

Etymology. The species is named for Dr Barbara York Main embolic shaft ( Fig. 10B,C View Figure 10 ). Differs from A. sutherlandi   by and Professor Bert Main, in recognition of their remarkable its more elongate, slender and curved embolus. achievements in Arachnology and Ecology.

Male (holotype). — Size. Carapace length 8.42, width

Types. Holotype male: AMS KS1042, Batlow, New South Wales, 35°30'S 7.48. Abdomen length 8.50, width 6.90. — Colour. Basic 148°08'E, H. V. Smith , 16 June 1951 GoogleMaps   . Paratypes ( AMS). New South Wales. colour pattern. — Carapace. Height 2.69. Frontal width Males: AMS KS4104, Bago Forest, nr. Batlow , 35°41'S 148°09'E GoogleMaps   , 5 4.57. Fovea narrow, procurved. Mid-dorsal cephalic setae November 1979, J. Kovacs; AMS KS4607, Batlow-Tumut area , 35°25'S 148°10'E GoogleMaps   , 5 March 1980, N. Robinson; AMS KS4718, Tumbarumba, few, reach fovea. Anterior strial setae present. Anterolateral 35°45'S 148°00'E GoogleMaps   , 25 Mar AMS KS1043, Batlow , 35°30'S 148°08'E GoogleMaps   . 1980; carapace angle with small, weak bristles. — Eyes. Central AMS KS12361, AMS KS1050, Wondalga , 35°23'S 148°07'E GoogleMaps   , 14 October eye region weakly raised. Eye group width 1.66. Median 1948, C.H. Jagoe; Females: AMS KS16451, Batlow , 35°30'S 148°08'E GoogleMaps   , ocular quadrangle length 0.57, anterior width 0.69, posterior 16 June 1951, H. V. Smith; AMS KS5054, Bago Forest , 35°41'S 148°09'E GoogleMaps   ,

width 1.05. Diameters: AME 0.20, ALE 0.36, PLE 0.35,

8 January 1979, J. Kovacs; AMS KS1047, Tumut , 35°18'S 148°13'E GoogleMaps   , 4 May 1977, B. Buckley.Australian Capital Territory. Males: Uriarra Forest , PME 0.19. — Chelicerae. Cheliceral groove narrow, margins Brindabella Range, 35°18'S 148°56'E GoogleMaps   , 9 July 1983, M. R. Gray; AMS subparallel, diverging slightly distally. Groove length 2.48, KS13396, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, 35°28'S 148°54'E GoogleMaps   , 26 October 1983, middle width 0.26. Cheliceral teeth: 16 central, confined W. Osborne. Females: AMS KS3542, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve , 35°28'S   to basal half of groove; 11 prolateral; 12 retrolateral. — 148°54'E, November 1978, P.Ormay; AMS KS928, Gibraltar Falls , 35°29'S 148°56'E GoogleMaps   , 24 October 1971, T. McGregor. Labium. Much wider than long, apically weakly indented   .

Length 1.49, width 1.08. Labiosternal sigilla broad, entire.

Other material examined. New South Wales (males). AMS KS13534, Cuspules c. 193, number moderate, in crescentic transverse Bago Forest, near Batlow , 5 November 1979, J. Kovacs; AMS KS1041, band; frequency moderate. — Sternum. Ovoid. Length 4.43, Batlow, December 1948, C.H. Jagoe; AMS KS1042, Dora Dora National width 3.62. Posterior sternal sigilla ovoid, broad. Strong Park, Jingellic near Albury, 16 January 1979, A.B. Rose ( AMS)   . New South Wales (females): AMS KS1041, Batlow, December 1948, C.B. bristles on posterior margin. — Palp. Tegular area small, Jagoe; AMS KS4608, Batlow-Tumut area , 5 March 1980, N. Robinson; slightly wider than long. Embolus long, slender; shaft tapered AMS KS7566, Cooma, 19 January 1980, R. Mascord; AMS KS13545, and strongly curved. Distal embolus very slender, apical Gundagai, 25 October 1983   . Australian Capital Territory (males). AMS region weakly twisted and set at angle to the embolic axis; KS13397, Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve, 26 October 1983, W. Osborne; AMS ejaculatory groove narrow. Embolus base strongly offset KS13592, Canberra area , 35°17'S 149°13'E, 13 Dec 1983, T. Mitchell GoogleMaps   . Australian Capital Territory (females): AMS KS654, Honeysuckle from tegulum. Bulb length 4.16, width 1.10. Embolus length Creek , 24 February 1977, M. Noble; AMS KS12032, Gudgenby National 3.23, midwidth 0.18. Length of femur 3.48, patella 1.57, Park; AMS KS929, near Piccadilly Circus, 25 January 1972, K. Watson. tibia 4.61. Width of tibia 1.71. Spination: femur 3, patella  

0, tibia 3 (all bristle-like). Distal femoral bristles and spines sinuous. — Legs. 4123. Leg Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total entire or narrowed centrally. — Sternum. Ovoid, moderately 1 6.40 3.40 4.98 4.73 2.69 22.20 wide. Length 4.59, width 3.84. Posterior sigilla moderately 2 5.98 3.26 4.69 4.61 2.61 21.15 short, ovoid: length 0.75, width 0.37. — Palp. Spination: tibia 3 5.30 2.79 4.01 4.59 3.06 19.75 4, tarsus 14. Trichobothria: tibia p6 r7, tarsus 12. Tarsal claw 4 6.19 2.92 5.00 5.44 3.40 22.95 with 7 teeth. — Legs. 4123. Legs I, IV subequal.

Leg Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total

Tibia I width 1.35. Femora I and II with dorsal spines.

1 5.98 3.57 4.56 3.71 2.24 20.06

Leg I unmodified, tibial spines numerous. Tibia II with

2 5.30 3.37 3.88 3.47 2.24 18.26

large, conical apophysis placed centrally. Metatarsus II

3 4.56 2.82 3.15 3.30 2.38 16.21

sinuous, curved proximally with a weak, spined apophysis

4 5.59 3.18 4.28 4.38 2.75 20.18

centrally; ventral spines lacking proximally. Anterior coxal hairs unmodified. Tarsal scopulae legs I–IV: weak. Distal

Tibia I width 1.51. Metatarsus I proximal width 1.02. Coxal

metatarsal scopulae legs I–IV: absent to weak. Tarsal claw

setae unmodified. Tarsal claw teeth legs I, II: superior 9, 9;

teeth leg I, II: superior 14, 13; inferior 0, 2. Trichobothria legs

inferior 2, 2. Trichobothria legs I, II: tarsus 13, 15; metatarsus

I, II: tarsus 15, 15; metatarsus 14, 14; tibia p8 r8, p8 r8. — Leg

12, 11; tibia p9 r8, p8 r7. — Leg spination. Leg I: femur 0,

spination. Leg I: femur 7 (d3 p4) (some bristle-like), patella

patella 0, tibia 2, metatarsus 11, tarsus 10. Leg II: femur

5 (p2), tibia 36 (p2), metatarsus 19, tarsus 10. Leg II: femur

0, patella 0, tibia 2 (p1), metatarsus 12, tarsus 8. Leg III:

10 (d4 p6) (plus several bristle-like), patella 5 (p2), tibia 16

femur 0, patella pd3, tibia 6 (p2 r1), metatarsus 20 (p6 rd2).

(p2), metatarsus 16 (p1), tarsus 10. Leg III: femur 0 (long

Leg IV: femur 0, patella 0, tibia 4, metatarsus 14, tarsus

bristles), patella 5 (p4 r1), tibia 14 (p2 r3), metatarsus 23,

12. — Abdomen. Posterior lateral spinnerets, lengths: total

tarsus 12. Leg IV: femur 0 (long bristles), patella r1, tibia 13

4.20; basal segment 1.73, middle 1.08, apical 1.39. Apical

(p1 r3), metatarsus 20, tarsus 17. Abdomen. Posterior lateral

segment width 0.45. — Genitalia. Spermathecae elongate,

spinnerets, lengths: total 4.41; basal segment 1.63; middle

strongly curved, approximated basally and apically but

1.18; apical 1.60. Apical segment width 0.41.

well separated in middle. Apical region slightly wider than remainder of spermatheca. Length 1.84, width 0.35.

Female (paratype AMS KS16451). — Size. Carapace length

8.57, width 7.14. Abdomen length 10.27, width 7.89. —

Distribution. Southeastern New South Wales and Australian

Colour. Basic colour pattern. — Carapace. Much longer than

Capital Territory (Fig. 7).

wide. Height 3.16; frontal width 5.64. Cephalic length 6.05.

Fovea narrow, procurved. Mid-dorsal cephalic setae few,

alternating large and small, reach back to fovea. Anterior Atrax sutherlandi   n.sp.

strial setae numerous. Anterolateral carapace angle with weak bristles. — Eyes. Eye region slightly raised centrally. Figures 11–14; Tables 4, 34

Eye group width 1.65. Diameters:AME 0.20, ALE 0.45, PLE

Etymology. The species is named for the late Professor

0.35, PME 0.26. Interdistances: AME–AME 0.23, AME–

Struan Sutherland, whose venom research resulted in the

ALE 0.15, ALE–PLE 0.14, PLE–PME 0.07, PME–PME

production of a successful funnel-web spider antivenom.

O.59. Median ocular quadrangle length 0.59, anterior width

0.63, posterior width 1.05. — Chelicerae. Cheliceral groove Types. Holotype male: AMS KS1076, Bermagui , New South Wales, 36°25'S narrow, margins subparallel, weakly divergent distally. 150°04'E, K Walker. Paratypes. New South Wales ( AMS). Males GoogleMaps   : AMS Groove length 2.63, middle width 0.35. Cheliceral teeth: 16   KS7464, Bega , 36°40'S 149°54'E, K.Walker GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS1595, Nadgee Nature central in basal half of groove; 11 prolateral, 12 retrolateral. Reserve   ; AMS KS1074, Bermagui , 36°25'S 150°04'E, K. Walker GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS11748, Bondi State Forest, nr. Bombala , 37°06'S 149°15'E, 14 November GoogleMaps  

— Labium. Wider than long, anterior margin indented.

1980, G. Gowing et al.; AMS KS1075, Bermagui, 36°25'S 150°04'E GoogleMaps   , K.

Length 1.36, width 1.78. Cuspules spread in shallow v-shape Walker. Females: AMS KS5127, Bermagui, 36°25'S 150°04'E, 18 May across anterior two-thirds of labium. Labiosternal sigilla 1973, M. Gray; AMS KS4886, Bockelo Creek, 18 May 1972, M. Gray GoogleMaps   ;

AMS KS5119, Bega, March 1974   , Ambulance Station   ; AMS KS5126, Bega, Autumn 1973   ; AMS KS1086, Bemboka, July 1977   , G. Wishart; AMS KS1074, Bermagui, K. Walker   ; AMS KS3619, Bombala, 17 January 1930   , A.J. Barrett; AMS KS11445, Bondi State Forest , near Bombala, 31 March 1981   , G. Gowing; Brown Mountain , 30 March 1967   , R. J.B. ( ANIC)   ; AMS KS5042, Candelo, 17 May 1973   , M. Gray; AMS KS7299, Cooma, 6 April 1981   , A.N. Wallace; AMS KS1102, Merimbula, 5 June 1964   ; AMS KS1595, Nadgee Nature Reserve   ; AMS KS1088, Narooma, 29 January 1959   , R Martin   ; AMS KS3624, Narooma, 15 June 1971   , J. Cobcroft; AMS KS1083, Nerrigundah, 1 October 1977   , C. Cowall. Victoria (males)   : AMS KS1055, Murrindal, 2 km N. of, 3 June 1973   , L. Windsor; Buchan , 9 January 1964   , Dingey & Penshurst ( MV)   ; AMS KS1087, Cobargo, June 1957   , C.G. Bradford; Cobargo , 5 November 1964 ( MV)   ; Mallacoota , 26 September 1963 ( MV)   ; AMS KS1057, Gelantipy, 6 May 1947   ; AMS KS1091, Mallacoota, May 1957   ; Mallacoota , January 1963   , C. McArthur; AMS KS3397, Mallacoota Inlet, October 1971   , S. Sutherland; AMS KS1055, Murrindal, 3 June 1973   , L. Windsor; AMS KS1095, Noorinbee, 17 June 1957   , N.A. Wakefield; AMS KS1096, Noorinbee, 25 September 1963   , D.S. Broome; AMS KS1108, Wingan, 27 February 1946   .

Diagnosis. CL 7.22–10.20 (male). Differs from other Atrax  

Figure 11. Collection records for Atrax sutherlandi   .

spp. by having a relatively shorter and wider embolus, and a shorter palpal tibia (PalpTibW/ L 0.43) ( Fig. 14A–C View Figure 14 ;

AMS KS11848   , Bondi State Forest, nr. Bombala , 37°06'S 149°15'E, 14 Table 4). November 1980, G. Gowing GoogleMaps   ; AMS KS3618   , Merimbula, 36°53'S 149°54'E, 6 September 1976, H. Harvey. Victoria. Males. K11078 View Materials ( MV), Noorinbee, 37°31'S 149°10'E, Vic., 12 November 1969, A. Neboiss; K11088 View Materials ( MV), Male (holotype). — Size. Carapace length 7.56, width 6.59. Cann River , 37°34'S 149°09'E, 5 March 1964. Females ( AMS) GoogleMaps   : AMS Abdomen length 6.93, width 5.76. — Colour. Basic colour   KS3397   , Mallacoota Inlet , 37°33'S 149°46'E, 9 October 1971, S. Sutherland; pattern. — Carapace. Longer than wide. Height 2.55. Frontal GoogleMaps   AMS KS1092   , Genoa , 37°28'S 149°35'E, 1 November 1964. width 4.12. Fovea narrow, procurved. Mid-dorsal cephalic setae reach fovea, anterior strial setae present. Anterolateral GoogleMaps  

Other material examined. New South Wales (males): AMS KS8467, carapace angle with small, very weak bristles. — Eyes. Bombala , 1981   ; AMS KS5118, Bega , 17 May 1973   , Ambulance Station ; Merimbula, March 1965 ( MV)   ; AMS KS9561, Monga   ; AMS KS5120, Central eye region weakly raised. Eye group width 1.58. Mount Doctor George , near Bega , 17 May 1974   ; AMS KS6072, Mumbulla Median ocular quadrangle length 0.63, anterior width 0.71, State Forest, near Bega , November 1980   , R. Wells   ; AMS KS1085, posterior width 1.03. Diameters: AME 0.19, ALE 0.44, PLE Bemboka , 10 May 1970   , M. Clune; AMS KS14232, Bermagui, 8 April 0.32   , PME 0.25. — Chelicerae. Cheliceral groove narrow, 1984   ; AMS KS11528, Bondi State Forest, near Bombala , 14 November 1980   , G. Gowing et al.; AMS KS1084, Brogo , 4 December 1962   , K. margins subparallel except distally where they diverge. Walker; AMS KS5497, Kioloa State Forest , 4 October 1979   –30 October Groove length 2.27, middle width 0.24. Cheliceral teeth: 1979, C. Horseman; AMS KS5121, Beckelo Creek , 18 May 1973   , M. Gray; 23 central, confined to basal half of groove; 13 prolateral;

13 retrolateral. — Labium. Much wider than long, apically wide. Height 3.74; frontal width 6.39. Cephalic length 7.11. weakly indented. Length 0.99, width 1.49. Labiosternal Fovea narrow, procurved. Mid-dorsal cephalic setal row with sigilla broad, entire. Cuspules c. 218, number moderate, alternating large and small bristles which extend back to the grouped in broad, central band. — Sternum. Ovoid, long. fovea.Anterior strial setae numerous. Anterolateral carapace Length 4.73, width 3.28. Posterior sigilla ovoid. Bristles on angle with weak bristles. — Eyes. Eye region weakly raised. posterior margin strong. — Palp. Tegular area wider than Eye group width 1.99. Diameters:AME 0.21, ALE 0.41, PLE long. Embolus of moderate length, shaft gently curved and 0.45, PME 0.27. Interdistances: AME–AME 0.27, AME– strongly tapered. Distal embolus slender, weakly twisted, ALE 0.20, ALE–PLE 0.20, PLE–P.M.E 0.12, PME–PME ejaculatory groove wide. Embolus base moderately to 0.81. Median ocular quadrangle length 0.78, anterior width strongly offset from tegulum. Bulb length 2.82, width 0.96. 0.78, posterior width 1.34. — Chelicerae. Cheliceral groove Embolus length 2.10, midwidth 0.19. Length of femur 3.32, narrow, margins subparallel, divergent distally. Groove patella 1.47, tibia 3.26. Width of tibia 1.48. Spination: femur length 3.26, middle width 0.47. Cheliceral teeth: 25 central, 3, patella 0, tibia 2. Distal femur with sinuous spines and occupying basal half of groove; 14 prolateral; 14 retrolateral. strong bristles. — Legs. 4123. — Labium. Much wider than long, anterior margin indented. Length 1.60, width 2.28. Cuspules occupy anterior two-thirds

Leg Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total of labium. Labiosternal sigilla entire. — Sternum. Long,

1 5.63 3.16 4.23 4.08 2.41 19.51 ovoid. Length 6.12, width 4.01. Posterior sigilla short, ovoid:

2 5.10 2.98 4.10 4.00 2.43 18.60 length 0.48, width 0.27. — Palp. Spination: tibia 5, tarsus

3 4.75 2.61 3.41 3.92 2.81 17.50 11. Trichobothria: tibia p8 r8, tarsus 18. Tarsal claws with

4 5.28 2.79 4.61 4.80 3.04 20.52 8 teeth. — Legs. 4123.

Tibia I width 1.26. Femora I and II with dorsal spines. Leg Leg Femur Patella Tibia Metatarsus Tarsus Total

I unmodified, patella and tibial ventral spines numerous. 1 7.48 4.15 5.64 4.84 2.72 24.83 Tibia II with large, conical apophysis placed just proximal 2 6.58 3.88 4.73 4.32 2.65 22.11 of centre. Metatarsus II sinuous, strongly curved proximally, 3 5.81 3.16 3.50 4.35 2.92 19.74 with a small, spined, central apophysis. Anterior coxal hairs 4 7.11 3.84 5.03 5.54 4.01 25.53 unmodified. Tarsal scopulae legs I–IV: weak to moderate.

Distal metatarsal scopulae legs I–IV: absent to weak. Tibia I width 1.77. Metatarsus I proximal width 1.13. Tarsal claw teeth legs I, II: superior 13, 13; inferior 3, 2. Tarsal claw teeth legs I, II; superior 10, 11; inferior 3, 2. Trichobothria legs I, II: tarsus 14, 13, metatarsus 14, 14; Trichobothria legs I, II: tarsus 20, 16; metatarsus 20, 13; tibia p9 r9, p9 r8. — Leg spination. Leg I: femur d6, patella tibia p10 r9, p9 r9. — Leg spination. Leg I: femur 0, patella 11 (p2), tibia 39 (p2), metatarsus 24, tarsus 12. Leg II: femur 0, tibia 2, metatarsus 12, tarsus 15. Leg II: femur p1, patella d7, patella 5 (p2), tibia 16 (p3), metatarsus 16 (p1), tarsus 0, tibia 4 (p2), metatarsus 11, tarsus 12. Leg III: femur 0, 13. Leg III: femur 0 (long bristles), patella 6 (p5 r1), tibia patella pd3 r1, tibia 7 (p2 r2), metatarsus 17 (p6 rd2), tarsus 11 (p4 r3), metatarsus 15, tarsus 11. Leg IV: femur 0 (long 17. Leg IV: femur 0, patella 0, tibia 7 (r2), metatarsus 21 bristles), patella r1, tibia 8 (p1 r2), metatarsus 21, tarsus (p4 rd2), tarsus 18 — Abdomen. Posterior lateral spinnerets, 17. — Abdomen. Posterior lateral spinnerets, lengths: total lengths: total 5.55; basal segment 2.04, middle 1.16, apical 3.82, basal segment 1.36; middle 0.98; apical 1.48. Apical 2.35.Apical segment width 0.54. — Genitalia. Spermathecae segment width 0.41. moderately elongate, gently curved, basally approximated. Length 1.66, width 0.52.

Female (paratype AMS KS3397). — Size. Carapace length

10.20, width 8.16. Abdomen length 10.88, width 9.18. — Distribution. Southeastern New South Wales and north- Colour. Basic colour pattern. — Carapace. Much longer than eastern Victoria (Fig. 11).

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

MV

University of Montana Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Atracidae