Lucilia purpurascens ( Walker, 1836 )

Whitworth, Terry, 2014, A revision of the Neotropical species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Zootaxa 3810 (1), pp. 1-76 : 42-45

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3810.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C68A152F-33DD-4E49-900D-213DEE6591D8

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5116148

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/102C87C3-FFC5-FFD5-E882-E87A4903CEAE

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Lucilia purpurascens ( Walker, 1836 )
status

 

16. Lucilia purpurascens ( Walker, 1836)

Figs. 6 View FIGURES 1–6. 1–2 , 12 View FIGURES 7–15. 7–9 , 20 View FIGURES 16–21 , 35–38 View FIGURES 35–38. 35–37 , 55, 56 View FIGURES 55–58 , 79, 80 View FIGURES 73–82 , 111–113 View FIGURES 111–122 , 131 View FIGURES 123–134 , 143 View FIGURES 143–146 , 155 View FIGURES 147–158 , 161 View FIGURE 161 , Tables 1, 2

Musca purpurascens Walker, 1836: 355 . Holotype female (BMNH, examined). Type locality: Brazil, Santa Catarina. See Nomenclature section below.

Lucilia purpurascens: Aubertin 1933: 426 (see Nomenclature section below); Carvalho & Riberio 2000: 170 (name spelled correctly in key but incorrectly as “ purpurescens ” in summary).

Phaenicia purpurescens: Hall 1948: 254 (the species name was misspelled as “ purpurescens ” and most subsequent authors followed this incorrect spelling); James 1970: 11; Baumgartner & Greenberg 1985: 584; Mariluis 1989: 75, larval description.

Lucilia purpurescens: Kosmann et al. 2013: 77 .

Lucilia ocularis Shannon, 1926: 132 . Holotype male (USNM, examined) ( Fig. 20 View FIGURES 16–21 ). Type locality: Costa Rica, San Mateo, Higuito. There are two original spellings for this species, L. ocularis (pp. 130, 131) and L. oculatis (p. 132). The correct original spelling was selected as L. ocularis by James (1970: 11), as the First Reviser (Article 24.2.4 of ICZN 1999).

Lucilia ocularis: Shannon & Del Ponte 1926: 585 .

Lucilia peruviana: Amat et al. 2008: 234 . Most authors using peruviana were referring to L. purpurascens , but given the characters used in the key, it is unclear what species Amat et al. were referring to. Misidentification, not Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 . See further comments on this species name under entry below for Phaenicia peruviana .

Phaenicia peruviana: Mariluis et al. 1994: 29 ; Mariluis 2002: 99; Mariluis & Mulieri 2003: 88. See appendix by Rognes and Whitworth in Whitworth (2012) for an explanation of the status of the name Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830: 455 .

Nomenclature. Aubertin (1933) was the first author to provide a detailed description of both sexes of L. purpurascens and included a figure of the phallus and male genitalia (figs. 30 a, b). Aubertin noted “this is a striking and easily recognizable species”, the male genitalia for this species are distinctive ( Aubertin 1933: fig. 30 b). Hall (1948) provided an even more detailed description and figures of this species (fig. 25 C, D) following Aubertin. Aubertin also stated she examined specimens of Shannon’s (1926) L. ocularis identified by Aldrich and that they match Walker’s type. I have examined the holotype male and a paratype male of Shannon’s L. ocularis and they match the nominal species that Aubertin and Hall described as L. purpurascens . The Walker holotype is intact, but has a heavy layer of dust adhering to the cuticle which could not be cleaned off without risking destruction. It was difficult to be certain about the exact microtomentum patterns on the thorax and abdomen which are important to confirm species identity. Unfortunately, Aubertin’s description does not match the holotype of L. purpurascens . A comparison of females of Aubertin’s ( Fig. 38 View FIGURES 35–38. 35–37 ) concept of L. purpurascens with Walker’s holotype female ( Figs. 35–37 View FIGURES 35–38. 35–37 ) reveals significant differences, as follows: for species described by Aubertin, frons width averaged 0.28 of head width, at narrowest vs. frons 0.25 of head width at narrowest on the holotype; dorsum of thorax with heavy whitish microtomentum ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 7–15. 7–9 ) vs. only the anterior edge of pronotum with whitish microtomentum; T4 mostly polished or only anterior edge with microtomentum vs. most of T4 with microtomentum; gena all dark brown vs. anterior edge of gena orange; upper and lower calypters dark brown with dark brown rims vs. upper and lower calypters light tan, rim of upper calypter brown, rim of lower calypter pale. Other less obvious differences were noted as well. Finally, perhaps the most significant difference noted is the specimen was collected from Santa Catarina, in southeast Brazil. It is not clear if this was from the nearby island with that name or somewhere else in the state of Santa Catarina, but the species matching Aubertin’s description has not been found anywhere near this location (see range information below). Subsequently, all authors have followed Aubertin’s concept of the species, see listings in the synonymy above. Walker’s specimen is a Lucilia , but is not identifiable to species; characters which might reveal this species’ actual identity are obscured. Repeated efforts to confirm this specimen’s identity with certainty have failed. Even with good specimens, a lone female Lucilia without matched males in the Neotropical Region can be difficult to positively identify. Because the species defined by Aubertin is what taxonomists currently consider L. purpurascens to be and the actual identity of the holotype is in serious doubt, I consider it a nomen dubium. I plan to apply to the ICZN to conserve prevailing usage by designating a neotype and to set aside the existing name-bearing type in accordance with ICZN Article 75.5. Thus all photos and descriptions herein are based on L. purpurascens sensu Aubertin (1933) and Hall (1948).

Diagnosis. Dark setae on gena; basicosta brown; both calypters, including rims and discs dark brown; normally stout black to brown setae behind and below postocular row; entire dorsum of thorax with heavy whitish microtomentum; T4–T5 usually both polished. Normally an exceptionally large Lucilia , body colors usually a distinctive bluish-purple.

Description. Male. Frons narrow 0.01(0.01/5) of head width at narrowest; anterior eye facets much enlarged, twice the diameter of the rear facets (0.64mm and 0.32mm, Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1–6. 1–2 ). Fronto-orbital plates slender, silvery color with frontal setae ascending about one-third of way to vertex; parafacial mostly silvery, with lower third to half more or less orange; gena dark silvery with dark setae, postgena also dark silvery, anterior third with dark setae, remainder with pale setae; frontal vitta dark orange, very short, about one-quarter of the way up the frons, fronto-orbital plates meet obliterating upper three-fourths of vitta; antenna with pedicel orange, first flagellomere gray, about one-third broader than width of parafacial; ocellar triangle black, medium ocellus about one-third larger than posterior ocelli, ocellar setae short. Supravibrissal setae extend about halfway up facial ridge. Intrapostocular area bright silvery; one or more irregular rows of stout black to brown setae below and behind postocular row, the remainder of the occiput with pale setae; upper edge of occiput shining black, also a shining black central vertical stripe, remainder of occiput with whitish microtomentum.

Thorax and abdomen purple to bluish-purple dorsum of thorax with heavy whitish microtomentum ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 7–15. 7–9 ). The anterior thoracic spiracles are dark brown and much enlarged, about equal to the size of the humeral callus; proepisternal depression usually with long and pale setae, sometimes tan; rim and disc of upper and lower calypters dark brown. Base of wing, cells and veins darkened, rest of wing hyaline; basicosta brown, tegula black; subcostal sclerite orange with pubescence. Abdomen, T1–3 with whitish tomentum, normally all the T4–5 are polished. Surstylus medium length, curved forward with distal end expanded, cercus medium length and slender ( Figs. 55, 56 View FIGURES 55–58 ).). Phallus, hypandrium, pre- and postgonite, ejaculatory sclerite, and sternites as in 79, 80, 111–113, 131.

Female. Characters similar to male except frons 0.28 (0.27–0.29/4) of head width at narrowest; anterior facet diameter much smaller than males (0.45mm vs. 0.64mm), posterior facets about equal to those in males (0.34mm vs. 0.32mm). Ovipositor and spermathecae as in Figs. 143 View FIGURES 143–146 , 155 View FIGURES 147–158 .

Specimens examined. (94 males, 134 females). Argentina: 1 male, Tucuman, Oct. 19, 1992, G.E. Bohart ( LACM) ; 1 male, Tucuman, Horco Molle , c. 12km w Tucuman, 700m, Malaise trap, March 18–21, 1974, C.R. Vardy ( BMNH) . Bolivia (4 males, 10 females) : 1 male, Cochabamba Chapare, Alto Palmar , 1100m, Sept. 1960, F.H. Walz ( WSUP) ; 2 males, 2 females, Cochabamba, El Limbo, Nov. 1962, 2000m, F.H. Walz ( WSUP) ; 2 females, La Paz, Caranavi, 10km NW rd. to Entel Tower , 15°46'35"S 67°35'48"W, 1400m, April 13, 2001, S.A. Marshall ( UGG) GoogleMaps ; 2 females, La Paz, Coroico , Cerro Echumachi, 16°12'43"S 67°42'49"W, 2550m, April 5, 2001, S.A. Marshall ( UGG) GoogleMaps ; 1 female, La Paz, Sud Yungas, Punta Villa Hotel, Tamampaya , 4300ft., May 19–24, 1989, J.E. Eger ( FSCA) ; 1 female, El Limbo , 17°07'S 65°36'W, 2200m, Nov. 1963, F. Steinbach ( CNC) GoogleMaps ; 1 female, El Chapare, Youngas , Feb. 1–3, 1976, 2200m, L.E. Pena ( CNC) ; 1 male, 1 female, Cbba Chapare, Villa Tunari, Cochabamba Rd. , km358, 1300m, March 23, 1995, Puritt and Wood ( CNC) . Colombia (1 male, 7 females) : 2 females, Magdalena, Cerro San Lorenzo , 2100m, July 9, 1970, B. Malkin ( BMNH) ; 1 female, 15mi S La Union Narino, 2150m, March 4, 1955, E.I. Schlinger, E.S. Ross ( WSUP) ; 1 female, Valle, km19, hwy to Buenaventura , Aug. 12, 1979, Manowell ( FSCA) ; 1male, 2 females, Valle Saladito , Feb. 17, 1970. D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 female, 20km w Silva Cauca, Feb. 22, 1970, 2000m, D.M. Wood ( CNC) . Costa Rica (49 males, 55 females): Alajuela Province . 1 male, Volcan Poas , 1800m, Nov. 15, 1987, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 female, R.F. Grecia, Bosque del Naio, Send. Catarata , 1900–2000m, June 26–29, 2007, R. Gonzales, M. Morgana, E. Navarro ( INBIO) ; 2 females, 20km S Upala , June 3, 1991, F.D. Parker ( LACM) ; Cartago Province. 2 males, 1 female, Pejibaye, Est. Biol. Copal, Sendero Garvula, L _N_196286_ 563684, 1090m, April 8, 2005, D. Briceno ( INBIO) ; 2 females, P.N. Campamento, 1200m, L_N_213371_600782, May 5–9, 2005, D. Briceno, M. Morgan ( INBIO) ; 1 female, La Union , C. Campintera, 1840m, L_N207300_539000, July 22–25, 2008, Malaise trap, Azofeifa, Hernandez, Moraga, Zumbado ( INBIO) . Guanacaste Province. 6 males, 1 female, Est. Cacao , lado so Vol. Cacao PN, 800–1600m, L_S_323300_375700, July 12–17, 1993, F.A. Quesada ( INBIO) ; 2 females, Est. Cacao , SW alde Volcan Cacao, L _S_323300_375700, 1000–1400m, Nov. – Dec., 1989, URCG, R. Blanco, C. Chavez ( INBIO) ; 1 male, Macizo Miravalles, Est. Cabro Muco. , 1100m, L_N-299769_411243, June 20–July 8, 2003, J.D. Gutierrez ( INBIO) . Heredia Province. 1 female, La Selva Biol. Stat., May 18, 1989, R.L. Huber ( LACM) ; Limon Province. 1 female, Tortuguero , Tortuguero NP, L_N_285000_588000, 0–120m, R. Delgado ( INBIO) . Puntarenas Province. 1 female, Monteverde , 1970, H.M. Powell ( UCDC) ; 4 males, Monteverde , Feb. 24–29, 1980, 1500m, G. and M. Wood ( CNC) ; 2 males, 5 females, Monteverde , June 20–24, 1986, W. Hanson, G. Bohart ( LACM) ; 3 males, 3 females, Monteverde , July 18–24, 1987, G. and M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 male, Monteverde , Nov. 20, 1987, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 female, Monteverde , Feb. 18, 1999, 1800m, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 male, Monteverde , July 20, 1991, 1799m, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 5 males, 3 females, Monteverde , July 20–23, 1991, 1500m, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 2 males, 1 female, same data except Feb. 17–20, 1992 ; 1 male, same data except July 25–30, 1997, 1500m ; 1 female, Coton Las Alturas , Nov. 28, 1994, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 4 males, same data except 1400m, Sept. 5, 1991, P. Devries, M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 male, 3 females, Monteverde , 1500m, Feb. 24–29, 1980, G. and M. Wood ( CNC) ; 3 males, E St. Pittier , 1670m, L_S_330900_577400, Jan. 5–18, 1995, E. Navaro ( INBIO) ; 1 male, same data except June 28–July 3, 1995, E. Zumbado ( INBIO) ; 2 males, same data except Aug. 23–Sept. 13, 1995, E. Navaro ; 1 male, same data except Oct. 24–Nov. 1, 1995, M. Moraga ; 1 female, Las Alturas, Cato Brus. , 1500m, L_S_822500_591300, Nov., 1991, M.A. Zumbado ( INBIO) ; 2 females, Buen Amigo, San Luis Monteverde ; L_N_250850_449250, April, 1995, Z. Fuentes ( INBIO) ; 2 males, 1 female, P.I. La Amistad E St. Altamira, Sendero Gigantes del Bosque , L_S_331300_571600, 1300m, Oct. 6–Nov. 1, 2005, R. Gonzales ( INBIO) . San Jose Province. 1 female, Escazu , July 25, 1988, F.D. Parker ( LACM) ; 1 female, San Isidro del Gen. , Jan. 2, 1989, F.D. Parker ( LACM) ; 2 males, 9 females, Monteverde, Hdwts. Rio Guacimal , July 23–27, 1964, C.L. Hogue ( LACM) ; 1 male, Escazu , Feb. 8, 1987, G.E. Bohart ( LACM) ; 3 females, San Jose , Dec. 26, 1987, F.D. Parker ( LACM) ; 1 female, Santa Elena , Send. La Bota, L _S_373400_507300, Ap. 25, 1996, A. Alfaro ( INBIO) ; 1 male, Calle Tornillal, L _N_224500_537350, 1500m, May 11, 1997, F. Alvardo ( INBIO) ; 1 male, Tarrazni , Cerro Cura, L _S_395350_ 450300, 1750m, Feb. 16, 17, 2003, M.A. Zumbado ( INBIO) ; 1 female, Est. Zurqui , antes de Tunel, Sept. – Oct., 1990, G. Maass ( INBIO) ; 1 female, F. Cementerio de la Maquina, PN Chirripio, L _S_378700_512500, 2100–2500m, F. Quesada, M. Segura ( INBIO) ; 1 male, Cascajal de Coronado, Bajo La Rosa , May 3, 1995, Baumann, Houseman ( BYU) ; 4 females [BNNR122–125], San Jose, Tres de Junio , Jan. 16, 2011, T.L. Whitworth ( TW) . Ecuador (9 males, 13 females) : 1 male, 2 females, Napo, 7 km S Bacza , 2000m, Feb. 20–25, 1979, G. and M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 male, Cuenca rd. , Canar, March 4, 1965, L. Pena ( CNC) ; 6 males, 11 females, Tandapi , 40 km SW Quito, 1300–1500m, June 15–21, 1965, Pena ( CNC) ; 1 male [BNNR054], Napo, May 10, 2002, O. Lonsdale ( UGG) . Guatemala (12 males, 36 females) : 3 males, 8 females, Suchitepequez Dept., Tepectuez Refugio del Quetzal , 1600m, July 21, 2011, Camposeco and Monzona ( UVGC) ; 3 females, same data except July 21, 2011 ; 2 males, 3 females, same data except Univ. of Guatemala Res. Stat. , June 10, 2011, F. Carillo ( UVGC) ; 2 females, Zacapa fea Somta Claren , 2270m, July 6, 2011, Monzon and Sutton ( UVGC) ; 2 females, San Marcos Bajoual , 1600m, July 2, 2011, F. Camoseco ( UVGC) ; 2 females, Guatemala, Puerta Parada , 1900m, April 12–19, 2002, J.C. Schuster ( UVGC) ; 1 female, same data except Aug. 12–18, 2002 ; 1 male, same data except Sept. 29–Oct. 6, 2002 ; 1male, same data except Nov. 4–11, 2002 ; 1 female, same data except April 5, 2003 ; 1 female, same data except April 12, 2003 ; 1 male, 1 female, same data except April 26–May 3, 2003 ; 1 female, same data except Aug. 17, 2003 ; 1 female, same data except Oct. 4–12, 2003 ; 1 female, same data except March 22, 2004 ; 1 female, same data except April 24, 2004 ; 1 male, same data except May 15–22, 2004 ; 1 female, same data except Aug. 1–7, 2004 ; 1 male, 1 female, Escuintla, Sabana Grande , March 17, 2010, Edgar Arriaza ( UVGC) ; 1 female, Guatemala, Puerta Parada , Aug. 12–18, 2002, Trampa Malaise, J.C. Schuster ( UVGC) ; 1 female, Guatemala, Vista Hermosa, Zona 15, March 13, 2008, J.R. Galvez ( UVGC) ; 1 female, Guatemala, Mixco , May 5–9, 2010, Castellanos ( UVGC) ; 1 female, Guatemala, Catarina Pinula, San Jose Pinula , 1580m, March 10, 2007, J.C. Schuster ( UVGC) ; 1 male, Guatemala, Puera Parada , March 31, 2007, J. Schuster ( UVGC) ; 1 male, Guatemala, Universidad del Valle , May 19, 2009, R. Montenegro ( UVGC) ; 1 female, Ciudad, Zona 15, Oct. 5, 2002, D. Ramirez ( WSUP) ; 1 female [BNNR053], Zacapa, June 4, 2007, Sutton ( WSUP) .

Mexico (13 males): State of Chiapas . 1 male, 2.5 mi S Tuxtla , 8000–9000ft., Aug. 10, 1962, H.E. Milliron ( CNC) ; 1 male, San Cristobal de Las Casas ; 7087ft, June 18–25, 1969, B.V. Peterson ( CNC) ; 1 male, Yerba Buena Hyw 195, June 24, 1969, B.V. Peterson ( CNC) ; 1 male, 8 mi. W Navenchaue , April 1, 1953, R.C. Bechtel, E.I. Schlinger ( EMEC) ; 1 male, 8.9km E Rayoh , 1500m, Sept. 19, 1991, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 male, 6km SW Ocosingo , Sept. 20, 1991, 1400m, D.M. Wood ( CNC) ; 2 males, 1 km NW San Cristobal , 2200 m, Sept. 23, 1991, D.M. Wood ( CNC) . State of Morelos . 1 male, Tetela del Volcan , Aug. 23, 1984, D.M. Wood ( CNC) . State of Tamaulipas . 3 males, El Canindo nr. Ejido San Jose , 7.5km W Gomez Farias, 1400m, July 19–21, 1994, E. Riley ( TAMU) . State of Veracruz . 1 male, Jalapa , Aug. 1–6, 1961, R. and K. Driesbach ( CNC) . Panama: 1 male, Chiriqui, Cerro Punta , 08°53'N 82°36'W, June 23, 1999, W. Reeves ( KR) GoogleMaps . Peru (1 male, 7 females) : 1 female, Machu Picchu ruins, 2000m, Aug. 13, 1971, C.M. Vardy ( BMNH) ; 1 female, Junin Prov., 11km W San Ramon , June 22, 1980, D. Baumgartner, B. Greenberg ( BG) ; 1 female, same data except 23km W San Ramon , 1869m, July 1, 1980 ; 4 females, same data except 16km W San Ramon , 1433m, June 21, 1980 ; 1 male, Junin Prov., Chanchamayo , 1300m, May 17, 1918, Jose M. Schunke ( BMNH) . Venezuela (2 males, 6 females) : 1 male, 11km N Rancho Grande, Edo. Argua , Feb. 25, 1971, G. and M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 female, Choroni Rd., Edo. Argua , Feb. 26, 1971, 1500m, G. and M. Wood ( CNC) ; 1 female, Avila Mt., Carcas , Aug. 16, 1958, 6000ft., Arnold Menke ( LACM) ; 1 female, T.F. Amaz., Cerro de la Neblina, Camp VII, 0°51'N 65°58'W, 1800m, Jan. 30–Feb. 10, 1985, Malaise trap, P.J. and P.M. Spangler, F.A. Faitoute ( USNM) GoogleMaps ; 1 female, Mira Los Teques , Nov. 16, 1972, G.E. Bohart ( LACM) ; 1 male, 2 females, Merida, Libertador Merida, July 3, 1979, R.W. Brooks et al. ( UCDC) .

Distribution. Argentina, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela ( Figs. 159 View FIGURE 159 , 160 View FIGURE 160 ). Mariluis & Mulieri 2003 listed this species from several locations in northern Argentina (under Phaenicia ).

Discussion. Six specimens were barcoded and five formed a distinct group ( Fig. 161 View FIGURE 161 ). A specimen from Ecuador was separated from the group, but morphologically appeared identical. This is one of the most distinctive species of Lucilia in the Neotropical Region. Several species of Calliphoridae , belonging to Mesembrinella Giglio- Tos and Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm and some Muscidae were encountered that were superficially very similar to this species. Mariluis (1989) described the immature stages of this species and studied their life history (under Phaenicia ).

LACM

Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County

UGG

University of Guam

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

BYU

Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum

UVGC

Collecion de Artropodos

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Calliphoridae

Genus

Lucilia

Loc

Lucilia purpurascens ( Walker, 1836 )

Whitworth, Terry 2014
2014
Loc

Lucilia purpurescens:

Kosmann, C. & Mello, R. P. de & Harterreiten-Souza, E. S. & Pujol-Luz, J. R. 2013: 77
2013
Loc

Lucilia peruviana:

Amat, E. & Velez, M. C. & Wolff, M. 2008: 234
2008
Loc

Phaenicia peruviana:

Mariluis, J. C. & Mulieri, P. R. 2003: 88
Mariluis, J. C. 2002: 99
Mariluis, J. C. & Gonzalez Mora, D. & Peris, S. V. 1994: 29
Robineau-Desvoidy, J. B. 1830: 455
1994
Loc

Lucilia ocularis Shannon, 1926: 132

James, M. T. 1970: 11
1970
Loc

Phaenicia purpurescens: Hall 1948: 254

Mariluis, J. C. 1989: 75
Baumgartner, D. L. & Greenberg, B. 1985: 584
James, M. T. 1970: 11
Hall, D. J. 1948: 254
1948
Loc

Lucilia purpurascens: Aubertin 1933: 426

Aubertin, D. 1933: 426
1933
Loc

Lucilia ocularis: Shannon & Del Ponte 1926: 585

Shannon, R. C. & Del Ponte, E. 1926: 585
1926
Loc

Musca purpurascens

Walker, F. 1836: 355
1836