Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914

Castro, Peter, 2007, A reappraisal of the family Goneplacidae MacLeay, 1838 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura) and revision of the subfamily Goneplacinae, with the description of 10 new genera and 18 new species, Zoosystema 29 (4), pp. 609-774: 640-644

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http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4525564

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Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914
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Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914  

Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914: 143   [Philippine Is]. — Tesch 1918: 154 [in list]. — Estampador 1937: 533 [in list]; 1959: 89 [in list] [Philippine Is]. — Serène 1968: 90 [in list]. — Sakai 1969: 270 [in list], fig. 15c [holotype]. — Serène & Lohavanijaya 1973: 62 [in list], 64 [in key]. — Serène & Vadon 1981: 119, 120, 123, 126 [Philippine Is]. — Guinot 1989: 296 [discussion], figs 25, 34, pl. 8, figs A-D [holotype] [Philippine Is]. — Ho et al. 2004: 659, fig. 6F [ Taiwan].

Carcinoplax verdensis Rathbun, 1914: 143   [Philippine Is]. — Tesch 1918: 154 [in list]. — Estampador 1937: 533 [in list]; 1959: 89 [in list] [Philippine Is]. — Serène 1968: 90 [in list]. — Sakai 1969: 269 [in list], fig. 15d [holotype]. — Serène & Lohavanijaya 1973: 62 [in list], 65 [in key]. — Serène & Vadon 1981: 119, 123, 126 [Philippine Is]. — Guinot 1989: 300 [discussion], fig. 22, pl. 9, figs D-F [holotype] [Philippine Is].

Carcinoplax longipes   – Sakai 1969: 270 [in list]; 1976: 524 [in key], 527, fig. 281 [ Japan]. — Ikeda 1998: 15, 42, 135, pl. 55 [ Japan]. — Takeda et al. 2006: 204 [in list] [ Japan] (not Carcinoplax longipes (Wood-Mason, 1891))   .

Carcinoplax polita Guinot, 1989: 298   , figs 24, 37, pl. 8, figs E-H [Philippine Is].

TYPE MATERIAL. — Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914   : Albatross, stn 5113, ♂ holotype, cl 16.7 mm, cw 23.0 mm ( USNM 46164).

Carcinoplax verdensis Rathbun, 1914   : Albatross, stn 5119, ovig. ♀ holotype, cl 10.5 mm, cw 13.0 mm (USNM 46167).

Carcinoplax polita Guinot, 1989   : ♂ holotype, cl 14.5 mm, cw 20.4 mm, MUSORSTOM 1, stn CP 31 ( MNHN-B 10141); ♀ allotype, cl 12.5 mm, cw 16.9 mm ( MNHN-B 10543)   ; ♂ paratype, cl 9.2 mm, cw 12.2 mm ( MNHN-B 10268)   .

TYPE LOCALITY. — Carcinoplax specularis   : Philippine Islands, southern Luzon, Sombrero I., 13°51.5’N, 120°50.5’E, 291 m.

Carcinoplax verdensis   : Philippine Islands, southern Luzon, Verde Island Passage, 13°45’N, 120°30.5’E, 721 m.

Carcinoplax polita   : Philippine Islands, South China Sea, 187- 195 m.

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Maldives. John Murray Expedition, stn 143, 05°15.8’N, 73°22.8’E- 05°13.7’N, 73°23.6’E, 797 m, 30.III.1934, 2 ovig. ♀♀ ( BMNH 2007.64-65).

Taiwan. TAIWAN 2001, stn CP 73, 24°52.86’N, 122°00.98’E, 220-330 m, 7.V.2001, 1 ♀ ( MMBA). — Stn CP 77, 24°54.2’N, 122°02.5’E, 220-360 m, 7.V.2001, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29821), 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29822). — Stn CP 85, 24°00.55’N, 122°00.55’E, 255-390 m, 9.V.2001, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2001.0134). — Stn CP 91, 24°50.6’N, 122°01.4’E, 400 m, 10.V.2001, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29820). — Stn CP 96, 24°04.2’N, 122°04.2’E, 476-586 m, 18.V.2001, 1 ♂, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 29823). — Stn CP 104, 24°48.9’N, 122°05.3’E, 365-447 m, 19.V.2001, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 29824).

Philippine Islands. South China Sea , MUSORSTOM 1, stn CP 31, 14°00’N, 120°16’E, 187-195 m, 22.III.1976, ♂ holotype of Carcinoplax polita Guinot, 1989   ( MNHN-B 10141) GoogleMaps   ; ♀ allotype of C. polita   ( MNHN-B 10543). — Stn CP 71, 14°09’N, 120°26’E, 174-204 m, 28.III.1976, 1 ♂ paratype of C. polita   ( MNHN-B 10268) GoogleMaps   .

South China Sea, off Luzon, Sombrero I., Albatross, stn 5113, 13°51.5’N, 122°50.5’E, 291-324 m, 17.I.1908, ♂ holotype of C. specularis   ( USNM 46164). — Albatross, stn 5119, 13°45’N, 120°30’E, 291-721 m, 21.I.1908, ovig. ♀ holotype of C. verdensis   ( USNM 46167).

Mindanao, Albatross, stn 5512, 08°16’N, 123°58’E, 814 m, 7.VIII.1909, USNM leg. (ex. USNM 46142, id. as C. longipes   presumably by M. J. Rathbun), 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 11100).

Bohol, Balicasag I., off Panglao I., tangle nets of local fishermen, 200-300 m, XII.2000, 2 ♀♀ ( ZRC 2001.0395 View Materials )   ; 50-500 m, 28.XI.2001, 1 ♂ ( ZRC 2001.0973 View Materials ), 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2001.0528 View Materials ), 5 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 1 ovig. ♀ ( ZRC 2001.0540 View Materials )   ; 200-300 m, VI.2002, 6 ♀♀ ( ZRC 2002.0655 View Materials )   ; 25- 30.VII.2003, 2 ♀♀ ( ZRC 2004.0730 View Materials ), 2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ ( ZRC 2004.0750 View Materials )   ; XII.2003, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29738), I.2004, 2 ♂♂ ( ZRC 2004.0805 View Materials ), 29.V.2004, 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2004.0777 View Materials )   ; 50-500 m, 2.III.2004, 5 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ ( ZRC 2004.0727 View Materials )   .

PANGLAO 2004, stn P1, tangle nets of local fishermen, 09°36’S, 123°45’E, 90-200 m, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2006.0176). — Stn P4, tangle nets of local fishermen, 8.VI.2004, 1 ♂ ( ZRC 2006.0173).

PANGLAO 2005, stn CP 2332, Maribohoc Bay, 09°38.8’N, 123°45.9’E, 396-418 m, 22.V.2005, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2006.0214). — Stn CP 2343, off Pamilican I., 09°27.4’N, 123°49.4’E, 273-356 m, 23.V.2005, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2006.0217). — Stn CP 2358, Bohol / Sulu seas sill, 08°52.1’N, 123°37.1’E, 569-583 m, 26.V.2005, 1 ♂, 2 pre-adult ♂♂, 2 pre-adult ♀♀ ( ZRC 2006.0190). — Stn CP 2359, Bohol / Sulu seas sill, 08°49.9’N, 123°34.9’E, 437-476 m, 26.V.2005, 5 ♂♂, 1 ♂ parasitised by bopyrid, 1 ♂ parasitised by sacculinid, 9 ♀♀, 1 ♀ parasitised by sacculinid ( ZRC 2006.0194). — Stn CP 2405, Maribohoc Bay, 09°39.0’N, 123°46.1’E, 387-453 m, 1.VI.2005, 1 ♂, 1 ♂ parasitised by bopyrid, 1 ♂ parasitised by sacculinid, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2006.0199). — Stn CP 2407, Maribohoc Bay, 09°41.3’N, 123°48.5’E, 256-268 m, 1.VI.2005, 1 ♀ ( ZRC 2006.0207).

Indonesia. Tanimbar Is, KARUBAR, stn CP 59, 08°20’S, 132°11’E, 405- 399 m, 31.X.1991, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29387). — Stn CP 63, 08°00’S, 132°58’E, 215- 214 m, 1.XI.1991, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29380). — Stn CP 69, 08°42’S, 131°53’E, 356-368 m, 2.XI.1991, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29385).

Kai Is, KARUBAR, stn DW 13, 05°26’S, 132°38’E, 417-425 m, 24.X.1991, 1 pre-adult ♂ ( MNHN-B 29819). — Stn DW 28, 05°31’S, 132°54’E, 448-467 m, 26.X.1991, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29390). — Stn DW 29, 05°36’S, 132°56’E, 181-184 m, 26.X.1991, 1 ♀ ( MNHN- B 29392 View Materials ). — Stn CP 35, 06°08’S, 132°45’E, 390-502 m, 27.X.1991, 1 ♀ parasitised by Sacculina   ( MNHN-B 29391).

Solomon Islands. SALOMON 1, stn DW 1747, 09°21.8’S, 159°58.7’E, 364-402 m, 25.IX.2001, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29394). — Stn DW 1748, 09°20.4’S, 159°58.2’E, 509-522 m, 25.IX.2001, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29395). — Stn DW 1768, 08°21.4’S, 160°41.8’E, 194-286 m, 28.IX.2001, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29393). — Stn DW 1808, 09°45.5’S, 160°52.5’E, 611-636 m, 2.X.2001, 1 pre-adult ♀, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29396). — Stn DW 1851, 10°27.6’S, 162°00’E, 297-350 m, 6.X.2001, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29397). — Stn DW 1854, 09°46.4’S, 160°52.9’E, 229-260 m, 7.X.2001, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29400).

SALOMON 2, stn CP 2195, 08°25.5’S, 159°26.4’E, 543- 593 m, 24.X.2004, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 30111). — Stn CP 2212, 07°37.8’S, 157°41.7’E, 400-475 m, 26.X.2004, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 30114). — Stn CP 2213, 07°38.7’S, 157°42.9’E, 495-650 m, 26.X.2004, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30097). — Stn CP 2246, 07°42.6’S, 156°24.6’E, 664- 682 m, 1.X.2004, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 30109). — Stn CP 2262, 07°56.4’S, 156°51.2’E, 460-487 m, 3.X.2004, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30112). — Stn CP 2287, 08°40.8’S, 157°24.6’E, 253-255 m, 6.XI.2004, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 30089). — Stn CP 2288, 08°36.3’S, 157°26.5’E, 509-520 m, 7.XI.2004, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 30095).

Vanuatu. MUSORSTOM 8, stn CP 975, 19°23.60’S, 169°28.93’E, 566- 536 m, 22.IX.1994, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 30138). — Stn CP 992, 18°52.34’S, 168°55.16’E, 775- 748 m, 24.IX.1994, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29429). — Stn CC 996, 18°52.41’S, 168°55.73’E, 764-786 m, 24.IX.1994, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30137). — Stn CP 1027, 17°53.05’S, 168°39.35’E, 550-571 m, 28.IX.1994, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 30136). — Stn CP 1045, 16°54.50’S, 168°20.37’E, 488- 459 m, 30.IX.1994, 3 pre-adult ♀♀, 1 ♀, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 29409). — Stn CP 1049, 16°39.43’S, 168°02.97’E, 469-525 m, 1.X.1994, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29410). — Stn CP 1052, 16°32.37’S, 168°00.29’E, 561- 564 m, 1.X.1994, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29403). — Stn CP 1054, 16°27.95’S, 167°57.44’E, 522-527 m, 1.X.1994, 3 ♂♂, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29401). — Stn CP 1062, 16°27.95’S, 167°57.44’E, 522-527 m, 1.X.1994, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29408). — Stn CP 1114, 14°52.39’S, 167°03.40’E, 647 m, 8.X.1994, 1 ♀ parasitised by Sacculina   ( MNHN-B 29406).

BOA 1, stn CP 2415, 15°43.8’S, 167°03.4’E, 420- 670 m, 5.IX.2005, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30126). — Stn CP 2416, 15°04.8’S, 167°03.4’E, 420-670 m, 5.IX.2005, 5 ♂♂ ( MNHN-B 30127). — Stn CP 2443, 15°08.5’S, 166°54.1’E, 220-277 m, 10.IX.2005, 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN- B 30120 View Materials ). — Stn CP 2444, 15°07.8’S, 166°53.7’E, 250- 331 m, 10.IX.2005, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30091). — Stn CP 2445, 15°08.0’S, 166°53.3’E, 231-285 m, 10.IX.2005, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30121). — Stn CP 2446, 15°06.5’S, 166°52.7’E, 300-360 m, 10.IX.2005, 2 pre-adult ♀♀, 2 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 30122). — Stn CP 2448, 15°06.6’S, 166°50.8’E, 297-387 m, 10.IX.2005, 2 ♂♂, 4 pre-adult ♀♀, 5 ♀♀, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 30117). — Stn CP 2467, 16°45.3’S, 167°59.1’E, 750-850 m, 13.IX.2005, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30133). — Stn CP 2468, 16°30.7’S, 167°55.5’E, 550-565 m, 14.IX.2005, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN- B 30092 View Materials ). — Stn CP 2479, 16°45.0’S, 167°51.8’E, 350-358 m, 15.IX.2005, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30093). — Stn CP 2480, 16°44.3’S, 167°48.7’E, 632-677 m, 15.IX.2005, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 30132).

New Caledonia. MUSORSTOM 4, stn CP 238, 22°13.0’S, 167°14.0’E, 500-510 m, 2.X.1985, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29414). — Stn 242, 22° 05 8’S, 167°10.3’E, 500-550 m, 3.X.1985, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29435).

BIOGEOGAL, stn DW 291, 20°34.47’S, 166°53.33’E, 800 m, 27.IV.1987, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 29469).

SMIB 6, stn DW 212, 19°05.6’S, 163°30.2’E, 220-225 m, 2.III.1990, 3 ♂♂ ( MNHN-B 29818).

BERYX 2, stn CH 09, 24°44.55’S, 170°07.00’E, 790- 825 m, 26.X.1991, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29421).

BERYX 11, stn DW 10, 24°53’S, 168°21’E, 565-600 m, 15.X.1992, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29434). — Stn CP 60, 23°19’S, 168°00’E, 580-600 m, 20.X.1992, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29419).

BATHUS 3, stn DW 827, 23°22’S, 168°01’E, 381-469 m, 29.XI.1993, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29425).

BATHUS 4, stn CP 910, 18°59.32’S, 163°08.47’E, 560- 608 m, 5.VIII.1994, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29417). — Stn CP 911, 18°57.80’S, 163°08.47’E, 566- 558 m, 5.VIII.1994, 2 ♂♂ ( MNHN-B 29420). — Stn CP 918, 18°49.02’S, 163°15.80’E, 613-647 m, 6.VIII.1994, 2 ♂♂ ( MNHN-B 29423).

NORFOLK 2, stn DW 2027, 23°26’S, 167°51’E, 465-650 m, 21.X.2003, 1 ♂ parasitised by Sacculina   ( MNHN-B 29418). — Stn DW 2150, 22°43’S, 167°16’E, 245-300 m, 5.XI.2003, 3 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29767).

Fiji. MUSORSTOM 10, stn DW 1330, 17°09.5’S, 177°56.3’E, 567-699 m, 8.VIII.1998, 3 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29504).

BORDAU 1, stn DW 1393, 16°45’S, 179°59’E, 426- 487 m, 23.II.1999, 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29505). — Stn DW 1395, 16°45’S, 179°59’E, 423-500 m, 23.II.1999, 4 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29502). — Stn CP 1401, 16°35’S, 179°41’E, 600-648 m, 25.II.1999, 1 ♂ ( MNHN- B 29506 View Materials ). — Stn CP 1407, 16°40’S, 179°39’E, 499- 527 m, 25.II.1999, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29507). — Stn DW 1447, 16°45’S, 179°59’E, 420-513 m, 4.III.1999, 6 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29503). — Stn CP 1448, 16°45’S, 179°59’E, 410-500 m, 4.III.1999, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29508). — Stn DW 1451, 16°45’S, 179°59’E, 400-460 m, 4.III.1999, 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29509). — Stn DW 1453, 16°45’S, 179°59’E, 414-510 m, 4.III.1999, 1 pre-adult ♀, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29510). — Stn DW 1463, 18°10’S, 178°44’W, 300-400 m, 6.III.1999, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29511). — Stn DW 1491, 18°50’S, 178°52’W, 777-787 m, 11.III.1999, 1 ♂ ( MNHN-B 29512).

BORDAU 2, stn CP 1568, 21°02’S, 175°19’W, 431 m, 10.VI.2000, 1 ♂, 6 ♀♀, 9 ovig. ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29309).

Tonga. BORDAU 2, stn CP 1530, 21°12’S, 174°58’W, 802-803 m, 3.VI.2000, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29555). — Stn CP 1539, 21°37’S, 175°19’W, 558-586 m, 4.VI.2000, 1 pre-adult ♀, 1 ♀, 1 ovig. ♀ ( MNHN-B 29558). — Stn DW 1553, 20°42’S, 174°54’W, 650- 676 m, 6.VI.2000, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29566). — Stn CP 1556, 20°11’S, 174°45’W, 589-591 m, 7.VI.2000, 1 ♀ ( MNHN-B 29560). — Stn CH 1557, 20°10’S, 174°42’W, 578m, 7.VI.2000, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29563). — Stn CP 1620, 24°18’S, 176°20’W, 572 m, 18.VI.2000, 2 ovig. ♀♀ ( MNHN-B 29559). — Stn CP 1641, 21°09’S, 175°22’W, 395 m, 21.VI.2000, 1 pre-adult ♀ ( MNHN-B 29561).

DISTRIBUTION. — Western Pacific Ocean from Japan (see Sakai 1976, as C. longipes   ) to the Philippine Is, and now from the Indian Ocean ( Maldives), Indonesia (Tanimbar and Kai islands), Solomon Is, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Depth: 174- 850 m. Specimens were also obtained from tangle nets of local fishermen in the Philippines that obtained material from at least 50 m. COLOUR

A photograph of a freshly-collected female specimen from the Solomon Is ( MNHN-B 29394) showed a red carapace and chelipeds and ambulatory legs banded with red. Photographs of freshly-collected material from the Philippine Is (PANGLAO 2005) showed carapaces coloured with various hues of red. A large female from the Philippine Is (cl 24.4 mm, cw 32.2 mm; ZRC 2006.0217), however, had irregular orange-red lines on the carapace and right cheliped. The specimen shown by Ikeda (1998: 135, pl. 55, as C. longipes   ) is similarly red. Hints of the red colour were observed in a few large preserved specimens.

REMARKS

Carcinoplax specularis   was described, but not illustrated, from a large male (cl 16.7 mm, cw 23.0 mm, USNM 46164) by Rathbun (1914). The description is relatively short and ambiguous, and most of the discussion dealt with differences between C. specularis   and C. longipes (Wood-Mason, 1891)   . Sakai (1969: fig. 15c) illustrated the holotype but his drawing is small and not very accurate. Guinot (1989: fig. 25, pl. 8, figs A-D), however, provided clear line drawings and photographs of the holotype. The dorsal margin of the right outer orbital angle of the holotype seems to have been detached after Guinot’s photograph was taken; the extreme right margin of the front is similarly detached but remains attached to the carapace.

Carcinoplax verdensis Rathbun, 1914   was described at the same time as C. specularis   from only a female (cl 10.5 mm, cw 13.0 mm, USNM 46167) much smaller than the holotype of C. specularis   . Rathbun’s description does not include any illustrations and, as in the description of C. specularis   , the short description consists of a comparison with C. longipes   . It is surprising that Rathbun did not compare C. verdensis   with C. specularis   , even if both species were described using specimens collected by the Albatross from localities close to each other in the Philippine Is. Sakai (1969: fig. 15d) and Guinot (1989: fig. 22, pl. 9, figs D-F) illustrated the holotype of C. verdensis   . As in the case of the holotype of C. specularis   , Sakai’s line drawing is small and inaccurate. A third species, C. polita Guinot, 1989   , was described from three small Philippine specimens previously identified as C. specularis   by Serène & Vadon (1981).

Examination of the holotypes of C. specularis   and C. verdensis   shows some clear differences. These differences, as well as similarities in the general shape of the carapace, were outlined by Guinot (1989: 301) when the holotypes were compared by her. The outer orbital angle of the holotype of C. specularis   is prominent, tooth-like (see Guinot 1989: fig. 25, pl. 8, figs A, B) in contrast to almost straight, lacking a tooth or a lobe, in the holotype of C. verdensis   (see Guinot 1989: fig. 22, pl. 9, figs D, E). The anterolateral teeth of C. specularis   are also prominent and anteriorly curved, whereas those of C. verdensis   are shorter and not as prominent. The dorsal surface of the carapace, chelipeds (P1), and the ambulatory legs (P2-P5) of the holotype of C. verdensis   have a short, barely discernible tomentum that is absent in the holotype of C. specularis   . Both holotypes, however, have a short tomentum on the ventral surface of the carapace and abdomen. Other differences not pointed out by Guinot are the presence of a blunt tooth on the dorsal surface of the cheliped merus of the holotype of C. specularis   that is barely discernible in the holotype of C. verdensis   , and visibly thicker ambulatory legs in the holotype of C. specularis   (P5 merus width to length ratio of 0.23) than in the holotype of C. verdensis   (P5 merus width to length ratio of 0.19). Two other characters were also mentioned by Guinot, the extent of the dark coloration of the cheliped fingers and the texture of the cheliped merus (see below).

Carcinoplax polita   was described on account of several characters that were different from those of C. specularis   ( Guinot 1989: 300, figs 24, 37, pl. 8, figs E-H): outer orbital teeth more salient and anterolateral teeth more curved and pointed than in C. specularis   , granules on the hepatic region that are more apparent in C. specularis   , a small spine on the antero-external angle of the cheliped carpus that is absent in C. specularis   , a rounded and glabrous portion on the distal portion of the cheliped carpus in contrast to a flatter and oval surface in C. specularis   , dark fingers in contrast to colourless fingers in C. specularis   , tip of G1 with a shorter and inflated tip in C. specularis   , and distal part of G2 straight rather than curved as in C. specularis   . Guinot (1989: 301) also contrasted C. polita   with C. verdensis   by referring to differences in the shape of the anterolateral teeth, the shiny portion on the cheliped diagnostic of C. polita   , and the coloration of the cheliped fingers.

Confusion between C. specularis   and C. verdensis   already existed before the examination of the respective holotypes by Guinot (1989). Serène & Vadon (1981: 126) reported on the presence of both C. specularis   and C. verdensis   from the South China Sea, but their only specimen of C. verdensis   , a male, was identified as such with “reservations”. The same specimens identified as C. specularis   by Serène & Vadon were the ones used by Guinot in her description of C. polita   .

Although there are differences between the holotypes, particularly those of C. specularis   and C. verdensis   , examination of a large number of specimens (more than 250) from the Maldive Is as well as from the western Pacific Ocean from Taiwan to Tonga showed that these and other potential species-specific differences (morphologies of the abdomen, G1, G2, and vulva) were not constant when applied to a large number of specimens. Specimens sampled ranged from small pre-adults to large adults (largest male cl 24.0 mm, cw 32.0 mm [ ZRC 2001.0973], largest female cl 19.4 mm, cw 23.8 mm [ MNHN- B 29380 View Materials ]). Many specimens, particularly those of a size intermediate between the large holotype of C. specularis   (cl 16.7 mm, cw 23.0 mm) and the smaller holotype of C. verdensis   (cl 10.5 mm, cw 13.0 mm) had outer orbital angles and anterolateral teeth with a variable morphology and intermediate width of the P5 meri. The short tomentum, which is present in the holotype of C. verdensis   but absent in that of C. specularis   , is clearly a variable character. Some specimens had a tomentum while others of the same sex and about the same size lacked it even if collected from the same station. The assumed differences between the three species are due to size and therefore are not species-specific. The three species, C. specularis   , C. verdensis   , and C. polita   , are therefore considered herein as conspecific. Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914   has been chosen as the name of the species since it appears first in Rathbun (1914) and its male holotype best represents the characters of the species. Carcinoplax verdensis Rathbun, 1914   , and C. polita Guinot, 1989   , are therefore junior subjective synonyms of C. specularis   .

There are also close similarities between C. specularis   and C. abyssicola ( Miers, 1886)   , a species reliably known only from the holotype specimen from Fiji (see Remarks for C. abyssicola   above), where C. specularis   has been collected. The taxonomy of C. specularis   may be further complicated if both are shown to be conspecific and C. specularis   becomes a junior synonym of C. abyssicola   .

The G1 (see Guinot 1989: fig. 34A, G1 of holotype) is typical of that of other species of Carcinoplax   , being long, slender, thin, and with a truncated, interiorly rounded, exteriorly pointed tip. The G2 (see Guinot 1989: fig. 34B, G2 of holotype) is slightly shorter than the G1. It has a slightly curved flagellum that ends in a slightly expanded tip with two terminal spinules. Somite 2 of the male abdomen is slightly narrower than somite 3, thoracic sternite 8 not visible. The vulva of the mature females is also typical of Carcinoplax   , being greatly expanded, extending from suture 5/6 to suture 6/7, and covered by a soft membrane.

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

ZRC

Zoological Reference Collection, National University of Singapore

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Decapoda

Family

Goneplacidae

Genus

Carcinoplax

Loc

Carcinoplax specularis Rathbun, 1914

Castro, Peter 2007
2007
Loc

Carcinoplax polita

GUINOT D. 1989: 298
1989
Loc

TAKEDA M. & KOMAI T. & KOMATSU H. & IKEDA H. 2006: 204
IKEDA H. 1998: 15
SAKAI T. 1969: 270
1969
Loc

Carcinoplax specularis

HO P. - H. & NG P. K. L. & CHAN T. - Y. & LEE D. - A. 2004: 659
GUINOT D. 1989: 296
SERENE R. & VADON C. 1981: 119
SERENE R. & LOHAVANIJAYA P. 1973: 62
SAKAI T. 1969: 270
SERENE R. 1968: 90
ESTAMPADOR E. P. 1937: 533
TESCH J. J. 1918: 154
RATHBUN M. J. 1914: 143
1914
Loc

Carcinoplax verdensis

GUINOT D. 1989: 300
SERENE R. & VADON C. 1981: 119
SERENE R. & LOHAVANIJAYA P. 1973: 62
SAKAI T. 1969: 269
SERENE R. 1968: 90
ESTAMPADOR E. P. 1937: 533
TESCH J. J. 1918: 154
RATHBUN M. J. 1914: 143
1914