Chondrocyclus langebergensis, Cole, 2019

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92 : 53-56

publication ID 10.5852/ejt.2019.569

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scientific name

Chondrocyclus langebergensis

sp. nov.

Chondrocyclus langebergensis View in CoL sp. nov.

Figs 5 View Fig , 10O, R View Fig , 25 View Fig

Chondrocyclus convexiusculus – Connolly 1939: 537 View in CoL . — Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91.


Shell small, very depressed, discoidal; periostracum with axial costae producing spiral rows of simple, robust hairs concentrated at and on either side of periphery; operculum duplex, exterior portion very shallowly concave, with thickened ridge on multispiral lamella from which emanates a fairly long solid fringe and a very short fringe below this; radula with three large cusps on second lateral tooth.


Named after the Langeberg mountain range, part of the Cape Fold Mountains.

Type material examined


SOUTH AFRICA – Western Cape • Langeberge foothills, Pat Busch Nature Reserve, Karin Trail , riverine fynbos; 33.7551° S, 19.9947° E; 450 m a.s.l.; 7 Aug. 2014; M. Cole leg.; in leaf-litter beneath bushes; NMSA P View Materials 0642/ T 4159. ( Fig. 10 O, R View Fig ) GoogleMaps


SOUTH AFRICA – Western Cape • 21 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; ELM D17981/ T 98 GoogleMaps 1 specimen; same collection data as for holotype; ELM W 3899 View Materials / T 99 GoogleMaps 14 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; 10 Oct. 2007; D. Herbert and L. Davis leg.; NMSA W 5768 View Materials / T 4120 GoogleMaps 117 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; 3 Mar. 2012; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16920/ T 97 GoogleMaps 40 specimens; Langeberg Mountains, Heidelberg area, Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res. , Bushbuck Trail , Afrotemperate forest ; 33.9819° S, 20.8321° E; 19 Apr. 2012; M. Cole leg.; in leaf litter; ELM D16999/ T 90 GoogleMaps 6 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W 3660 View Materials / T 91 GoogleMaps 1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120284 View Materials GoogleMaps 113 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 3 Mar. 2012; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16918/ T 100 GoogleMaps 7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W 03613/ T 92 GoogleMaps 5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120283 View Materials GoogleMaps 5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMW. Z.2012.065.00011 GoogleMaps 5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH MOL.330500 GoogleMaps 5 specimens; Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res. Melkhoutpad ; 33.9819° S, 20.8321° E; 16 Sep. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16917/ T 93 GoogleMaps 1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; W 3689/ T 94 GoogleMaps 6 specimens; Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res., Redwoods area , Podocarpus forest; 33.9826° S, 20.8296° E; 224 m a.s.l.; 14 Sep. 2003; J. Londt leg.; NMSA W 1043 View Materials / T 4117 GoogleMaps 20 specimens; Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res. ; 33.9959° S, 20.8129° E; 22 Feb. 2005; A. Moussalli and D. Stuart-Fox leg.; NMSA W 5008 View Materials / T 4119 GoogleMaps 176 specimens; Marloth Nature Reserve, Swellendam, Duivelsbos Forest , 33.9934° S, 20.4587° E; 15 Sep. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16919/ T 95 GoogleMaps 31 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; W 03614/ T 96 GoogleMaps 4 specimens; Marloth Nat. Res. , afrotemperate forest; 33.9897° S, 20.4544° E; 23 Feb. 2005; A. Moussalli and D. Stuart-Fox leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA W 5016 View Materials / T 4118 GoogleMaps 6 specimens; Montagu ; 33.7833° S, 20.1167° E; M. Connolly leg.; NMSA 2778 View Materials / T 4116 GoogleMaps .


SHELL ( Fig. 25 View Fig A–C). Small, very depressed, discoidal, adult diameter 3.63–5.76 mm, height 1.42– 2.76 mm, diameter:height 1.79–2.85 (n = 67, measured in four different populations; Table 3 View Table 3 ). Spire almost flat ( Fig. 25A View Fig ), sometimes concave, usually with only the mammillate, tilted protoconch projecting. Embryonic shell ( Fig. 25D View Fig ) approx. 2–2.25 whorls, microscopically malleate, junction between embryonic shell and teleoconch evident with development of widely spaced axial costae on teleoconch.Teleoconch comprising2.25 whorls, very rapidly increasing, convex, suture deeply impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending steeply nearing aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus very wide, exposing all the whorls ( Fig. 25C View Fig ). Periostracum glossy and lacquer-like with lamellate axial costae at regular intervals, 47–63 (n = 14) on last whorl in Grootvadersbosch population but varies between populations ( Table 3 View Table 3 ), which produce six spiral rows of simple, very long and robust hairs around the periphery; intervals between costae with six–eight microscopic axial threads. Shell translucent reddish brown, honey brown or yellowish-white when fresh. Living animal. Variable in colour between populations from creamy white with light brown pigmentation on tentacles to almost black, underside of foot creamy white.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 25F, I View Fig ). Duplex and shallowly concave; multispiral lamella of outer portion with five low whorls, thickened horizontal ridge near base of lamellar blade runs parallel to disc surface, a long fringe of fused bristles and a second very short fringe below it emanate from this ridge; main fringe grows upwards (i.e., parallel to lamellar blade) and then downwards, leaving a deep, wide groove between fringe and blade of lamella; lamellar blade projects above level of fringe and is very thin; fringe of each whorl fused to lamellar blade of next whorl; fringe of outermost whorl overlaps disc slightly and is reflexed over peristome in life although operculum is retractile.

RADULA ( Fig. 25E View Fig ). Rachidian with five cusps, middle one longer than 2 cusps on either side of it; first and second lateral teeth with five cusps (5 th sometimes vestigial), the third cusp from centre the largest.

PENIS ( Fig. 25 View Fig G–H). Shaft more or less cylindrical and slightly flattened dorsoventrally, distal half slightly expanded on left side, numerous annular rugae, distal end smooth but not bulbous, intromittent organ short.

Distribution and habitat

Western Cape, evidently endemic to Langeberg mountain range in Cape Fold Mountain belt, southfacing slopes and on northern side of range in Montagu area ( Fig. 5 View Fig ).

Diverse vegetation types: patches of Western Cape Afrotemperate Forest ( von Maltitz et al. 2003) and riverine fynbos, in leaf litter.


In terms of its hairy periostracum Chondrocyclus langebergensis sp. nov. resembles Afrocyclus isipingoensis gen. et comb. nov., but the molecular analyses placed C. langebergensis sp. nov. and C. kevincolei sp. nov. in a well-supported monophyletic clade, termed the Overberg clade, within the Chondrocyclus s.s. radiation ( Cole et al. 2019; Fig. 1 View Fig ). The major morphological feature distinguishing this clade from A. isipingoensis gen. et comb. nov. is that the second lateral tooth of the radula has three large cusps ( Fig. 25E View Fig ) as opposed to two in A. isipinoensis comb. nov. ( Fig. 27E View Fig ). Differences between C. langebergensis sp. nov. and C. kevincolei sp. nov. are discussed under the latter species.

The Overberg clade and the other taxon in the southwestern Cape, C. convexiusculus , have not been recorded sympatrically although they occur in close proximity inland in the upper Breede River valley and near the coast ( Fig. 5 View Fig ). Other taxa also contain distinct clades in either the Hottentots-Holland Mountains or the Overberg which do not occur in the other region (e.g., Gouws et al. 2010; Herbert & Moussalli 2010; McDonald et al. 2012; Daniels et al. 2013) and the Breede River valley is considered an important barrier to gene flow ( Weimarck 1941; Linder 2003; McDonald & Daniels 2012).


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Botanische Staatssammlung M�nchen


KwaZulu-Natal Museum


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


East London Museum


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien


Universit�t Z�rich


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis


University of the Witwatersrand


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum














Chondrocyclus langebergensis

Cole, Mary L. 2019

Chondrocyclus convexiusculus – Connolly 1939: 537

Herbert D. & Kilburn D. 2004: 91
Connolly M. 1939: 537
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