Ctenoplus sanguinolentus (Candèze)

Fuller, E. & Platia, G., 2006, A revision of the click beetle genus Ctenoplus Candèze, 1863 (Coleoptera: Elateridae, Synaptina), Zootaxa 1217 (1), pp. 1-76: 26-32

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http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1217.1.1

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Ctenoplus sanguinolentus (Candèze)


Ctenoplus sanguinolentus (Candèze)  

Figures 17 View FIGURES 15–30 , 50 View FIGURES 50–57 , 90 View FIGURES 89–97 , 107 View FIGURE 107

Silesis sanguinolentus Candèze, 1880: 5   ; three specimens, sex not stated; type locality: [Sumatra] "district of Rawas ", May 1878.

Ctenoplus sanguinolentus, Candèze, 1889: 57   , 1891: 209; Schwarz, 1907: 295; Schenkling, 1927: 490.


Small yellowish brown and black Ctenoplus   with notched elytral apices. This species has an identical colour pattern to C. sanguinolentoides   n.sp., but can be distinguished by the shape of the elytra. In C. sanguinolentus   , the apex of each elytron is notched with the sutural and lateral margins of the notch produced into small teeth (as in C. javanensis   , Fig. 60 View FIGURES 60–63 ), whereas in C. sanguinolentoides   , the apex of each elytron is produced into a single tooth ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 60–63 ). See C. sanguinolentoides   for further comparison.


Head, labrum, mandibles and apical 1/3 of elytra black; thorax, abdomen, appendages and basal 2/3 of elytra yellowish brown; setae whitish yellow. Length: 7.5 mm; width: 2.0 mm.

Head. Punctures almost contiguous, circular, shallow; setae as long as longest setae on antenna, erect. Antenna ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15–30 ) not reaching apex of pronotal hind angle by 1–2 lengths of antennomere 11, setae conspicuous, setae of anterodistal angle shorter and denser.

Prothorax. Pronotum: subquadrate; posteromesal groove very shallow, indistinct; sides slightly converging anteriorly, hind angles slightly divergent; apex of hind angles obliquely truncate in dorsal aspect; lateral and anterior pronotal punctures about same size as frontal punctures, separated by slightly less than own diameter laterally, punctures smaller on disk, separated by up to 2X own diameter; setae as on head but slightly more appressed; punctures moderately deep, simple; setae directed posteriorly on lateral margins, mesally on disk. Hypomeron: posterior 1/5 glabrous; posterolateral angles not greatly produced beyond posterior margin; punctures separated by about own diameter; setae about 1/2 length of pronotal setae, fine, inconspicuous. Prosternum as in C. javanensis   ; prosternal spine ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 50–57 ): ventrolateral carinae meeting at ventral apex.

Mesothorax. Scutellum convex, midline subcarinate, anterior margin slightly emarginate, posterior margin rounded; punctures small, simple, lateral punctures subequal in size to interval punctures of elytra, decreasing in size towards midline, separated by ca. 2X own diameter. Mesepisternum punctate. Elytra: apex as in C. javanensis   , c.f. Fig. 60 View FIGURES 60–63 .

Metathorax. Metasternum densely, almost contiguously punctate, punctures variable in size, simple, largest punctures larger than those of mesepimeron and about same size as abdominal punctures; punctures laterad lateral submarginal groove much finer than those mesad groove; setae as in hypomeron; carina posterad mesocoxa 2–4X as long as basal width.

Legs. Profemur with black microspines; tarsomere 4 with small lobe.

Abdomen. Terga relatively heavily sclerotized, but translucent; spiracles enclosed on terga 2–6. Dorsal surface of ventrite 5 with Y­shaped submarginal carina like C. javanensis   ; ventral surface of ventrites as in C. javanensis   except densely punctate: punctures almost contiguous throughout, those on centerline not visible; apex of ventrite 5 truncate and ragged like C. javanensis   . Female genitalia, Fig. 90 View FIGURES 89–97 ; bursa elongate (spermatophore present); bursal plates attenuated posteriorly almost to level of posterior margin of band of spines; plates subsymmetrical; band of free spines extending to anterior end of base of tubular extension; bursa unspined around insertion of spermatheca; tubular extension: relatively short, irregularly coiled, with 2 bands of dense free spines in proximal 1/2, spines about as long as free spines of bursa but slightly thicker, distal 1/2 with sparse free stout spines bearing stout bases in distal 1/4 and without spines in proximal 1/4; sac­like spermatheca at base; spermathecal gland with subreniform reservoir.

Male unknown.

Type material

Candèze (1880) described this species based on three specimens collected on Sumatra. Four specimens of C. sanguinolentus   were received from ISNB. Only the fourth specimen, bearing the label data "Rawas", "5/78", is part of the type series. This specimen, a female, is here designed lectotype. It bears the following labels: [the original label with data as above on grey paper with a double lined border now glued to a yellow ISNB curatorial label]/ " Silesis sanguinolentus, Cnd.   " handwritten/ " Ctenoplus sanguinolentus Cd   [handwritten] dét. E. Candeze ". The whereabouts of the other two specimens studied by Candèze are unknown   .

Material examined and range

2♀. [ INDONESIA:] lectotype [ ISNB]   ; 1♀, E. SUMATRA. Riau Prov., Bukit Tigapuluh N.P., 0°50’S 102°25’E, 18– 15.1.2000, leg. J. Bezdek [ CCW]. This species has been recorded only from eastern and central Sumatra ( Fig. 107 View FIGURE 107 ) GoogleMaps   .


Female genitalia are difficult to distinguish from those of C. javanensis   . In C. sanguinolentus   , the tubular extension bears long dense proximal bands of spines and a short sparse distal band of spines; in the specimens available, these two bands of spines are disjunct. In C. javanensis   , only the proximal dense bands are present; the spines at the distal end of these proximal bands are stouter with larger bases than the spines nearer the base of the duct. In C. sanguinolentus   , the spines nearer the distal end of the proximal bands are as stout as those nearer the base of the extension and lack pronounced bases.

Ctenoplus sanguinolentoides   n. sp.

Figures 18 View FIGURES 15–30 , 33 View FIGURES 31–43 , 51 View FIGURES 50–57 , 61 View FIGURES 60–63 , 68 View FIGURES 66–85 , 91 View FIGURES 89–97 , 107 View FIGURE 107 , 116 View FIGURES 113–116

Ctenoplus sanguinolentus   (in part), Candèze 1894: 502. Diagnosis

Medium­sized yellowish­brown and black Ctenoplus   ( Fig. 116 View FIGURES 113–116 ) with apex of elytron produced to a subacute point. C. sanguinolentoides   is similar to C. sanguinolentus (Cand.)   , but can be distinguished by the form of the apex of the elytra and prosternal spine, the length of the antennae and the length of the tubular extension. In C. sanguinolentoides   , the apex of each elytron is produced into a single tooth ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 60–63 ), the dorsal tooth of the prosternal spine is relatively long ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 50–57 ), the antennae extend to the apex of the pronotal hind angles in both sexes, and the tubular extension is relatively long (about three times length of bursa copulatrix, Fig. 91 View FIGURES 89–97 ). In C. sanguinolentus   , the apex of each elytron is notched (as in C. javanensis   , c.f. Fig. 60 View FIGURES 60–63 ), the dorsal tooth of the prosternal spine is relatively shorter ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 50–57 ), the antennae do not reach the apex of the pronotal hind angles in the female (male unknown), and the tubular extension is shorter (about twice length of bursa copulatrix, Fig. 90 View FIGURES 89–97 ).


As in C. sanguinolentus   , except as noted.

Metasternum and abdominal ventrites black; apical black patch of elytra varying in size from 1/4–1/3 length of elytron. Length: 8.0–10.0 mm; width: 2.0– 2.5 mm.

Head. Antennae ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15–30 ) reaching slightly posterad apex of pronotal hind angles, antennomeres relatively longer; male antennomeres 4–11 with fine, moderately long, erect setae along anterior margin.

Prothorax. Pronotum, Fig. 33 View FIGURES 31–43 : carina of hind angles extending farther anteriorly than carina of sublateral longitudinal incision; lateral margin not arched dorsally (difference between C. sanguinolentus   and C. sanguinolentoides   subtle). Prosternal punctures very small, separated by at least 3X own diameter, setae as on hypomeron, directed anteriorly on anterior lobe, posteriorly elsewhere; prosternal spine, Fig. 51 View FIGURES 50–57 .

Mesothorax. Mesosternum raised above level of mesocoxae in lateral aspect, margin angled anteriorly. Mesepisternum: posteromesal angle glabrous. Elytra: apex entire and produced into point ( Fig. 61 View FIGURES 60–63 ).

Metathorax. Metasternum: median sulcus extending almost to mesosternum; metasternal punctures becoming smaller, finer and simple towards midline.

Legs. Tarsomere 4 with lobe visible or not; claws with 4–5 subapical tines.

Abdomen. Terga more heavily sclerotized than C. sanguinolentus   and much more opaque; spiracles enclosed on terga 3–6; pigmented portion of apex of tergum 7 produced at midline. Ventrites densely punctured, punctures almost contiguous; punctures at anterolateral angle of ventrite 1 larger and shallower than others. Male genitalia, Fig. 68 View FIGURES 66–85 ; parameres not enclosing median lobe ventrally; articulation between basal piece and parameres conspicuous, heavily sclerotized; parameres with 2–3 dorsal setae well separated from apex and 1 ventral subapical seta near apex. Female genitalia, Fig. 91 View FIGURES 89–97 ; tubular extension: at least 3X length of bursa; in situ coiled irregularly dorsad and laterad bursa; dorsal row of dense basal spines much wider than ventral row; apical row of stout spines with bases wider than spine; dense basal spines about as long and thick as free spines of bursa; sac­like spermatheca present.

Material examined and range

4♂, 7♀. INDONESIA: Holotype male   , 2 paratype females, “ Sumatra, Pangherang­ Pisang, X.90–III. 91, E. Modigliani ” [ ISNB]. Paratypes   : 2♂, 1♀, “N. Sumatra, Brastagi, Mt. Sibayak , 1300m, 7– 15.8.1992, leg. Barries & Cate ” [ CCW, ERFC]   ; 1♂, “ Sumatra, Utara, Berastagi [sic], Sikulikap , 2.6.94, leg. Barries & Weiss ” [ CCW]   ; 2♀?, “ Sumatra, Utara, Berastagi [sic], 1500m, 14.5.94, leg. Barries & Weiss ” [ CPG]   ; 1♀, “ Sumatra, 28 km SW Pematang Siantar, road to Prapat , 18.4.1993, 1100–1200 m, leg. E.W. Diehl ” [ CCW]   ; 1♀, “INDONESIA. Sumatra, Umg. Prabat, LF, 10.III.1995, leg. U. Buchsbaum ” [ CSV]. All known specimens were collected in the vicinity of Lake Toba in western Sumatra ( Fig. 107 View FIGURE 107 )   .


The species epithet is derived from ‘sanguinolent­’ + ‘­oides’ and refers to its resemblance to C. sanguinolentus   .

Natural history

Specimens with precise data are were collected from 10 March to 2 June and 7–15 August, at elevations from 1100–1500m.


Some specimens identified by Candèze (1894) as C. sanguinolentus   are here described as C. sanguinolentoides   . Additional specimens cited by Candèze (op. cit.) may be in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Genoa.


Casper College














Ctenoplus sanguinolentus (Candèze)

Fuller, E. & Platia, G. 2006

Ctenoplus sanguinolentus

Candeze, E. 1894: 502

Ctenoplus sanguinolentus, Candèze, 1889: 57

Schenkling, S. 1927: 490
Schwarz, O. 1907: 295
Candeze, E. 1891: 209
Candeze, E. 1889: 57

Silesis sanguinolentus Candèze, 1880: 5

Candeze, E. 1880: 5